Socioemotional Development
in Middle & Late Childhood
Psychology of Development 307
TR 2:20-3:35p.m. Room 108
Guest Lecturer: Eswen Fava
2/26/08
10/3/2015
1
Cochlear Implant Follow-Up
• http://www.utdallas.ed
u/~loizou/cimplants/c
demos.htm
10/3/2015
2
Today we will cover…
Cognitive Theories of Middle childhood
Cognitive Skills
Intelligence Testing & Theories
Language Development
SocioEmotional Development
Development of Self
Gender Differences
Relationships
10/3/2015
& Morals
3
Cognitive Theories of Middle Childhood
•
•
•
•
Piaget
Vygotsky
Neo-Piagetians
Information Processing
10/3/2015
4
Theories of Middle Childhood Development
Piaget
Vygotsky
“Stage”
Concrete
stage
No real
stage
Biggest
change/
Method of
change
Concrete
operations
Social
interaxn
Other
important
skills
Conservation
tasks,
seriation,
transitivity
Language,
behavior
10/3/2015
Neo-Piaget Info
Processing
Partial
Middle
agreement childhood
w Piaget
Use of
Sustain &
attention,
control
memory,
attention
strategies
for info
processing
Memory,
thinking,
metacognition
5
Cognitive Skills
•
•
•
•
Memory
Creative Thinking
Metacognition
Intelligence
• (Scales, Skills, Measures and Application)
10/3/2015
6
Memory
• After age 7, STM does not show as
much increase as it did in the preschool
period
• Long-term memory
• Strategies
– Mental imagery
– Elaboration
10/3/2015
7
Thinking
• Guilford (1967) distinguished between
convergent thinking & divergent thinking,
– Other forms:
• Critical thinking & Creative thinking
– How to Foster Creative Thinking?
– Brainstorming
10/3/2015
8
Metacognition
• Deanna Kuhn (1999) believes schools
should pay more attention to helping students
develop awareness of what they (and others)
know
– schools should do more to develop
metacognition
• studies have focused on metamemory
10/3/2015
9
Theories of Intelligence
Person
Name of Theory
Sternberg’s
Triarchic theory of
intelligence
Gardner
N/A
10/3/2015
How Captures
Intelligence?
Analytical,
Creative,
Practical
verbal
mathematical
spatial
bodilykinesthetic
musical
interpersonal
intrapersonal
Naturalist10
Language Development
• Reading and Writing
• Bilingualism
10/3/2015
11
Language Development
• New skills that make it possible to learn to
read and write:
– increased use of language to talk about
things that are not physically present
– learning what a word is
– learning how to recognize and talk about
sounds
• They also learn the alphabetic principle -(Berko Gleason, 2003)
10/3/2015
12
Vocabulary, Grammar, and
Metalinguistic Awareness
• Changes occur in the way children’s mental
vocabulary is organized
• Metalinguistic awareness
– Allows children “to think about their
language, understand what words are, and
even define them”
10/3/2015
13
Approaches to Teaching
Reading
• Whole-language approach
• Phonics approach
• Research suggests that children
can benefit from both approaches
10/3/2015
14
Bilingualism and Second
Language Learning
• Learning a second language is more readily
accomplished by children than adolescents or
adults
• Bilingualism
– Subtractive bilingualism -- going from being
monolingual in their home language to
bilingual in that language and in English, only
to end up monolingual as speakers of English
10/3/2015
15
Socioemotional Development
in Middle and Late Childhood
•Development of Self & Morals
•Gender Differences
•Relationships: Parent-Child
•Peer (Friendships, Bullying,SES)
•Theories of …
10/3/2015
16
The Self
• Self-esteem
– Self-esteem reflects perceptions that do not always
match reality
– How to increase?
• Self-concept
– Children self-evaluate in many domains of their lives
(academic, athletic, appearance)
• Self-Efficacy:
– Level of can influence choice of activities
• Self-Regulation
– Linked to dev advances in brain’s prefrontal cortex
10/3/2015
17
Another Take on The Self
Erikson’s 4th Stage:
• Industry
– When children are encouraged in their efforts,
their sense of industry increases
• Inferiority
10/3/2015
18
Developmental Changes in Emotion
• Increased understanding that more than
one emotion can be experienced in a
particular situation
• Increased awareness of the events
leading to emotional reactions
• Ability to suppress /conceal -ve emotional
reactions
• The use of self-initiated strategies for
redirecting feelings
• A capacity for genuine empathy
10/3/2015
19
Moral Development & Reasoning
• According to Piaget, older children:
– consider the intentions of the individual
– believe that rules are subject to change
– are aware that punishment does not
always follow wrongdoing
• Based on Piaget, Kohlberg proposed 6
universal stages of moral development
– Preconventional Reasoning
– Conventional Reasoning
– Post-Conventional Reasoning
10/3/2015
20
Level 1
Level 2
Level 3:
Preconvential
Conventional Level Postconventional
(Full Internalization)
(No Internalization)
(Intermediate
Internalization)
Stage 1:
Stage 3:
Stage 5:
Heteronomous Morality
Mutual Interpersonal
Expectations,
Relationships, &
Interpersonal
Conformity
Social Contract/Utility &
Individual Rights
Stage 2:
Stage 4:
Stage 6:
Individualism, Purpose
& Exchange
Social System Morality
Universal Ethical
Principles
10/3/2015
21
Kohlberg’s Critics
• Key criticisms involve
– link between moral thought & moral behavior
– roles of culture & family in moral development
– significance of concern for others
– misses/misconstrues some moral concepts in
particular cultures
• Gender & Care Perspective (Carol Gilligan)
• Prosocial Behavior (behavioral emphasis)
10/3/2015
22
Gender Stereotypes,
Similarities & Differences
• Gender stereotypes
• Bear in mind
– the differences are averages
– even when differences are reported, considerable
gender overlap
– the differences may be due primarily to biological
and/or sociocultural factors
10/3/2015
23
Gender Differences in
Physical Development
Researchers have found some differences in the brains of
males and females
Males
Females
grow to be 10% taller
longer life expectancy
twice the risk of coronary
disease
less likely to develop
physical or mental disorders
hormones promote the
growth of long bones;
female hormones stop such
growth at puberty
10/3/2015
24
Gender Differences in:
Cognitive Development
• Cognitive differences between females &
males have been exaggerated
– Eg: Males have better math and visuospatial skills
whereas females have better verbal abilities
– Later studies showed verbal differences
between females and males had virtually
disappeared, but that math and
visuospatial differences still existed
(Maccoby & Jacklin,1974) (Maccoby, 1987) (Hyde, 2005, 2007)
10/3/2015
25
Gender Differences in:
Socioemotional Development
Males
more physically
aggressive than girls
more likely to hide
negative emotions
Females
tend to be more
verbally aggressive
less likely to express
disappointment that
might hurt others’
feelings
• No definitive findings on relational aggression -behaviors such as spreading malicious rumors
or ignoring someone when angry
10/3/2015
26
Gender Differences in
Prosocial Behavior
Issue
Gender Difference
Prosocial & Empathetic
(self-view)
Engage in prosocial behavior
(childhood & adolescence)
Kind & considerate behavior
Males<Females
sharing
10/3/2015
Males<Females
Males<Females
Small difference
27
Gender-Role Classification
in Context
• Androgyny
– The importance of considering gender in context is
very apparent when examining what is culturally
prescribed behavior for females and males in different
countries around the world
10/3/2015
28
Dev Changes in Parent-Child
Relationships
• In middle and late childhood years, parents
spend considerably less time with children
• Parents continue to be important
• Parents support and stimulate academic
achievement
• Children receive less physical discipline than
they did as preschoolers
• Children in grade school use more selfregulation
(Huston & Ripke, 2006)
10/3/2015
29
Parents as Managers
• Parents can play important roles
– managers of children’s opportunities
– monitors of children’s behavior
– social initiators and arrangers
• Family management practices are positively
related to students’ grades and selfresponsibility, and negatively to schoolrelated problems
(Parke & Buriel, 2006) (Taylor, 1996)
10/3/2015
30
Stepfamilies
• About 1/2 of all children whose parents
divorce will have a stepparent
• Children often have better relationships
with their custodial parents
• 3 common types of stepfamily
structure are
– stepfather
• mother typically had custody of the
children and remarried
– stepmother
• father usually had custody and
remarried
– blended or complex
• In a blended or complex stepfamily,
both parents bring children from
previous marriages to live in the newly
formed stepfamily
10/3/2015
31
Latchkey Kids & Alternatives
• Latchkey children
– largely unsupervised for 2-4h or more per day
– experiences vary enormously
– parental monitoring & authoritative parenting help the
child cope more effectively
• Afterschool Care:
– Practitioners and policymakers recommend:
• warm and supportive staff
• flexible and relaxed schedule
• multiple activities
• opportunities for positive interactions with staff and peers
(Galambos & Maggs, 1989; Steinberg, 1986)
10/3/2015
32
Developmental Changes in
Peer Relations
• Reciprocity becomes especially
important in peer interchanges
• Amount of time spent in social
interaction with peers increases
• Size of their peer group increases
• Peer interaction is less closely
supervised by adults
• Until age 12, same-sex peer groups
are preferred
10/3/2015
33
Peer Status
• Sociometric status: Popular children, Average children,
Neglected children , Rejected children, Controversial children
Popular children
Neglected children
Rejected children
•give out reinforcements
•listen carefully
•maintain open lines of
communication with peers
•are happy & control their
negative emotions
•show enthusiasm &
concern for others
•are self-confident without
being conceited
•low rates of interaction
with their peers
•often described as shy
by peers
•often have more
serious adjustment
problems than those
who are neglected
•Some but not all
rejected children are
aggressive
10/3/2015
34
Bullying
• Victims of bullies had :
–
–
–
–
–
higher incidence of headaches
more abdominal pain
sleeping problems and feeling tiredness
more depression
reported more loneliness and difficulty in making friends
• Potential Targets?
– Anxious and socially withdrawn children (because they are nonthreatening and unlikely to retaliate)
– Aggressive children ( because their behavior is irritating to
bullies)
• Those who did the bullying were more likely to have a
poor academic record and to smoke and drink alcohol
10/3/2015
35
Reducing Bullying
• Teachers & schools can employ several strategies
– Get older peers to serve as monitors
– Develop & post school-wide rules and sanctions against bullying
– Incorporate anti-bullying program message into other community
activities
– Identify bullies and victims early
– Use social skills training to improve bullies’ behavior
• Help them to attract attention from their peers in +ve
ways & hold that attention:
• Role-playing/ discussing hypothetical situations involving
-ve encounters with peers
10/3/2015
36
Social Cognition
• Social cognition
• 5 steps in processing info about the social world
–
–
–
–
–
decode social cues
interpret
search for a response
select an optimal response
Enact
• Children’s friendships can serve 6 functions
–
–
–
–
–
–
companionship
stimulation
physical support
ego support
social comparison
affection and intimacy
• Intimacy in friendships
10/3/2015
37
Learner-centered approach
Direct instruction approach
•Emphasizes individuals actively
constructing their knowledge &
understanding with guidance from
the teacher
•encouraged to explore their world,
discover knowledge, reflect, and
think critically
• careful monitoring and
meaningful guidance from the
teacher
•Important goal: maximizing
student learning
Constructivists argue that direct
instruction turns children into
passive learners and does not
challenge them to think critically or
creatively
10/3/2015
Direct instructions say that
constructivists do not give enough
attention to the content of a
discipline and instruction is too
relativistic and vague
38
•structured, teacher-centered
approach (teacher direction &
control)
•high expectations for progress
•max time spent by students on
academic tasks
•efforts by teacher to keep -ve
affect to a minimum
Descargar

Developmental Psychology Revision