Sheltered Instruction
Presented By:
Adapted from TESC Region 10 by Dr. Edward
Ude, BISD
Dr. Edward Ude
Secondary ESL
Specialist
Department of
Curriculum
Brownsville I.S.D.
956.982.3031
[email protected]
1
SESSION OBJECTIVES
1. Identify and/or review basic second
language acquisition concepts.
2. Analyze and understand the 8
components of SHELTERED
INSTRUCTION.
3. Apply strategies and techniques to teach
language and content to ELLs.
Adapted from TESC Region 10 by Dr.
Edward Ude, BISD
2
T.E.A. GUIDELINES

Commissioner’s Rules Concerning
Limited English Proficient Students
Ch.89.1210 (a)
The district shall modify the instruction,
pacing and materials to ensure that Limited
English Proficient (LEP) students have a full
opportunity to master the essential knowledge
and skills of the required curriculum.
Adapted from TESC Region 10 by Dr. Edward
Ude, BISD
3
ENGLISH AS A SECOND LANGUAGE

Chapter 89.1201 (c)
Enable LEP students to become
competent in comprehension,
speaking, reading and composition of
the English language through the
integrated use of second language
methods.
Adapted from TESC Region 10 by Dr.
Edward Ude, BISD
4
“WHAT DO I NEED TO KNOW
TO EFFECTIVELY TEACH
ELLs?”
1. Basic understanding of language
acquisition
2. Knowledge of language levels
3. How to make content “more
comprehensible” using Sheltered
Instruction methods, strategies and
techniques
Adapted from TESC Region 10 by Dr.
Edward Ude, BISD
5
Sociological Factors Affecting Second
Language Acquisition, aka SLA
Sociologically, successful exchange of ideas
is good communication, the following
phenomena affect SLA:
 Cultural Saturation- proximity to home
land
 Cultural Strata and/or economic status
 Melanin Level-The receiving dominant
culture may harbor prejudice upon skin
color therefore causing poor assimilation
Adapted from TESC Region 10 by Dr. Edward
Ude, BISD
6
Academic/Cognitive factors
affecting Second Language
Acquisition








Motivation
First language development (L1)
Access to second language (L2) use
Age
Personality/affective domain
Peers and role models *****
Cognitive ability and L1 development
Quality of instruction
7
Adapted from TESC Region 10 by Dr. Edward
Ude, BISD
Acquiring the L2 or learning
the L2; how should it be?





Acquisition
Similar to L1
“picking up” the L2
Subconscious
Implicit knowledge
Formal teaching
does not help





Learning
Formal knowledge,
L2
Knowing about L2
Conscious
Explicit knowledge
Formal teaching
helps
8
Adapted from TESC Region 10 by Dr. Edward Ude, BISD
Inferences About L1 Acquisition
Children naturally want to
communicate
The innate need to
communicate provides natural
motivation to learn L1
Parents and young talk about
what they are doing at the
time.
Children begin acquiring L1 by
talking in the “here and now”
of their interests
A child understands parent’s
language even with the child’s
limited use of L1
Children understand much
more than they can say. Adults
simplify L1
People adjust their L1 when
speaking to young children
It helps kids learn L1 when
language is clear, appropriate
and has clues
People love and encourage
their children to talk
Language acquisition requires
encouragement and affective
support
All kids acquire incredible
language use naturally
Language use is innate
9
Key Differences Between L1 and
L2 Acquisition





First Language
Learned at home
Learned by young kids
Learned to
communicate with
loved oned
Largely an
unconscious process
No time pressure
Second Language





Adapted from TESC Region 10 by Dr. Edward
Ude, BISD
10
Stages of Language Acquisition
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Pre-Production
Early Production
Speech Emergence
Intermediate Fluency
Advanced Fluency
Adapted from TESC Region 10 by Dr. Edward Ude, BISD
11
Second Language Acquisition
BICS(1-2 years)
Basic Interpersonal
Communication SkillsSocial Language
• Face to Face
• Embedded with
situational context
• Acquired form environ.
Adapted from TESC Region 10 by Dr. Edward Ude, BISD
CALP (5-7 years) Cognitive
Academic Language
Proficiency
• Associated with
education
• Abstract language
required for work
• Complex – conceptual
• Includes analysis,
synthesis and evaluation
12
What Teachers Need to Know
About Second Language Learning (cont.)
•
Basic Interpersonal Communication
Skills
BICS
Adapted from TESC Region 10 by Dr. Edward Ude,
BISD
•
Cognitive Academic Language
Proficiency
CALP
13
What Teachers Need to Know
About Second Language Learning (cont.)
Cognitively Undemanding
Developing survival vocabulary
Engaging in telephone conversations
Following demonstrated
directions
Reading and writing for personal
purposes: notes, lists, sketches, etc.
Context Embedded
(Concrete)
Context Reduced
(Abstract)
Participating in hands-on science
and mathematics activities
Understanding academic presentations
without visuals or demonstrations: lectures
Making maps, models, charts, and
graphs
Solving math word problems without
illustrations
Solving math computational
problems
Taking standardized achievement tests
Cognitively Demanding
14
Adapted from TESC Region 10 by Dr. Edward Ude,
BISD
A STUDENT’S REAL LIFE EXPERIENCES MAKE UP HIS/HER
VERSION OF REALITY AND THAT VERISON OF REALITY
GOVERNS WHAT HIS/HER PRIORITIES IN LIFE WILL BE.
LANGUAGE LEARNERS, MINORITES, IMMIGRANTS, AT-RISK
STUDENTS ARE ALL SUBJECT TO THIS PHENOMENON.
Suggested Readings:
The Culture of Poverty by Edward Banfield
Anglos And Mexicans In The Making Of Texas,
1836-1986 by Dr. David Montejano
Adapted from TESC Region 10 by Dr. Edward Ude, BISD
15
Affective Filter
Students must have a risk-free
environment
Needs and emotional states will
affect whether or not input will be
comprehensible
Research is clear. Relationships are a
crucial element of student
achievement
16
Adapted from TESC Region 10 by Dr. Edward Ude, BISD
Characteristics of Sheltered
Instruction
Warm, affective environment
High levels of student interaction,
including small-group and cooperative
learning
Student-centered
More hands-on tasks
Careful, Comprehensive Comprehensible
Input
Planning, including selecting key concepts
from core curriculum
17
Adapted from TESC Region 10 by Dr. Edward Ude, BISD
Characteristics of Sheltered
Instruction (cont.)
Well-planned lessons
Time-on-task
Use of student background
knowledge and experience
Variety of delivery modes
Grade-level content
Checks for understanding
Use of higher-order thinking
skills
Explicitly-stated lesson
objectives
18
Adapted from TESC Region 10 by Dr. Edward Ude, BISD
Resources and Techniques for
Sheltered Instruction
Modeling
Hands-on
activities
Real world
Commerciallymade pictures
Teacher-made
pictures
Overhead
projector
Demonstrations
Multimedia
Timelines
Graphs
Bulletin boards
Maps
Globes
Computers
19
Adapted from TESC Region 10 by Dr. Edward Ude, BISD
What is Sheltered Instruction





Program or Approach
English is the primary language of
instruction
Strategies help ELL students access the
curriculum
Classes may be all ELL or heterogeneous
Fluent English speakers serve as models
Adapted from TESC Region 10 by Dr. Edward Ude, BISD
20
Sheltered Instruction and ESL
Comparisons
ESL
The goals focus on
English
development.
ESL methods are
used.
The teacher is
endorsed in ESL.
Adapted from TESC Region 10 by Dr. Edward Ude, BISD
Sheltered Instruction
Both focus on
content area
terminology.
Both emphasize a
need to teach
metacognitive
strategies.
Both focus on grade
level TEKS.
The goals focus on
subject mastery.
Sheltered instruction
strategies are used.
Instruction follows the
mainstream scope and
sequence.
The teacher is
certified in the
content area and
has ESL training.
21
Sheltered Inst.
Components
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Preparation
Building Background
Comprehensible Input
Strategies
Interaction
Practice/Application
Lesson Delivery
Review and Assessment
Adapted from TESC Region 10 by Dr. Edward Ude, BISD
22
1 Preparation
SIOP Component 1,





TEKS-Concept
Content objectives
Language objectives
Skills objectives
Supplemental
materials Curriculum
adaptations
Meaningful activities
Adapted from TESC Region 10 by Dr. Edward Ude, BISD
23
Language Objectives Should Be Observable










SWBAT
SWBAT
SWBAT
SWBAT
SWBAT
SWBAT
SWBAT
SWBAT
SWBAT
SWBAT
make predictions
use prior language
describe
represent expository text visually
make and explain
read story problems
sequence
identify
share his/her opinion
write, provide detail, and meaning
Adapted from TESC Region 10 by Dr. Edward Ude, BISD
24
Adaptation of Content
Increase use of………………
 Graphic organizers
 Native language texts
 Framed sentences or outlines
 Taped texts
 Marginal notes
 Modified texts/reading materials
Adapted from TESC Region 10 by Dr. Edward Ude, BISD
25
Group Activity: Preparation

In groups, plan a
content objective, a
language objective,
and a skill objective
Adapted from TESC Region 10 by Dr. Edward Ude, BISD
26
SIOP COMPONENT 2
BUILDING BACKGROUND
Adapted from TESC Region 10 by Dr. Edward Ude, BISD
27
English Language Learners Diverse
Backgrounds (ELL/LEP/ESL/ESOL)
 Newly
arrived with adequate
schooling. (less than 5 years)
 Newly
arrived with limited
formal schooling. Less that 5
years)
 Long
term English learner.
7+years in the U.S.
Adapted from TESC Region 10 by Dr. Edward Ude, BISD
28
Accessing prior knowledge in second
language learners.
Critical component in the planning of
instruction
 All new information needs to be linked to
student’s relevant prior knowledge
 The learning should be made explicit so
that students understand that they are
building on knowledge frameworks
acquired through prior schooling and life
experiences

Adapted from TESC Region 10 by Dr. Edward Ude, BISD
29
Assessing Prior Knowledge
Questioning
Charts
KWL
Student
Journals
Lesson Connections
Adapted from TESC Region 10 by Dr. Edward Ude, BISD
30
Background Knowledge
1.



The fact is learning depends on…
Skill of the teacher
Interest of the student
Complexity of the content
With this, research supports that what
students already know abut the content
is one of the strongest indicators of how
well they will learn new information
relative to the content.
Adapted from TESC Region 10 by Dr. Edward Ude, BISD
31
Background knowledge…continued
Types of knowledge
 Academic
 Background knowledge built on traditional
schooling in core subjects
 Non-academic
 Background knowledge built on survival
experiences, i.e. real life
The goal is to enhance academic
background knowledge by utilizing what
the student brings from home
Adapted from TESC Region 10 by Dr. Edward Ude, BISD
32
Building Background-Content
Read alouds
 Presenting the information explicitlyconcept definition maps
 Generate & plan discussions about the
topic
 Using pictures
 Videos
 Guest speakers
 Field trips

Adapted from TESC Region 10 by Dr. Edward Ude, BISD
33
Concept Map….vocabulary
words
vocabulary
sentences
Adapted from TESC Region 10 by Dr. Edward Ude, BISD
syllables
34
Academic Vocabulary is KEY to
Achievement!
To understand words and learn new words
Students must be actively involved and immersed with
challenging vocabulary
Breaking vocabulary words apart using:
 Prefixes
 Suffixes
 Latin/Greek Roots
 Inflections
 Parts of speech
Concept-based WORD WALLS, word sorts, and personal
dictionaries should be utilized.
REMEMBER, ENGLISH IS NOT ALWAYS PHONETICAL!
Adapted from TESC Region 10 by Dr. Edward Ude, BISD
35
SIOP Component 3
Comprehensible Input
•
•
•
•
•
•
Speech appropriate for student’s proficiency
Slower rate
Careful enunciation
Simple Sentence Structures
Clear explanation of academic tasks
Include: modeling, visuals, hands-on activities,
demonstrations, gestures, body language.
Adapted from TESC Region 10 by Dr. Edward Ude, BISD
36
Strategies for Comprehensible
Input
• Cloze activities
• Mix and match words
Simplifying Teacher Talk:
• Speaking slowly
• Include pauses
• Repeat vocabulary words / key words
• Avoid slang and idioms (newcomers)
Adapted from TESC Region 10 by Dr. Edward Ude,
BISD
37
SIOP Component 4
Strategies
38
Adapted from TESC Region 10 by Dr. Edward Ude, BISD
Scaffolding
Scaffolding is a means
by which students
receive support in
various forms from their
teachers in an effort to
promote skills and
understanding,
eventually resulting in
student independence
through the careful
reduction of support as
students make progress.
39
Adapted from TESC Region 10 by Dr. Edward Ude,
BISD
Verbal Scaffolding
According to Echevarria, Vogt, and Short (2000), teachers use
verbal scaffolding to prompt, guide, and support English language
learners by using a variety of questioning techniques that promote
higher levels of thinking as students develop their language skills.
Apply
Practice
Model
Teach
40
Adapted from TESC Region 10 by Dr. Edward Ude, BISD
Procedural Scaffolding
Procedural scaffolding refers to the use of grouping
configurations that provide different levels of support to
students as they gain greater levels of language proficiency and
skills.
Independent
Work
Whole
Class
Small
Group
Paired/
Partner
41
Adapted from TESC Region 10 by Dr. Edward Ude, BISD
Three Types of English
Language Learners
Formal Schooling
Limited-Formal
Schooling
Long-Term
42
Adapted from TESC Region 10 by Dr. Edward
Ude, BISD
Needs of English Language
Learners
Effective teachers
Affective support
Cognitive support
Linguistic support
Focused instruction
Modified texts
Modified and
differentiated instruction
Opportunities to
demonstrate mastery of
knowledge and skills
43
Effective Teachers
Ability to differentiate
instruction
Ability to
multi-task
Ability to use
appropriate
questioning techniques
Ability to
maintain an
appropriate
sense of timing
and pacing
Ability to engage all students in meaningful learning
44
Affective Support
The greatest motivation for any
student to learn a second language is
the desire to live in fellowship with
those individuals that speak that
language.
Anxiety-free
learning
situation
Valued
native
language
and
culture
Advocacy
for rights
Opportunities
for success
45
Cognitive Support
TEKS in
English and
the content
areas
Higher-level
thinking skills
Comprehensible
input
Learning
strategies
46
Linguistic Support
Research-based
instruction
Meaningful interactions
with more proficient
English speakers
Instruction designed for
level of proficiency
47
Focused Instruction Based on Content,
Language, and Metacognitive Objectives
Language
Metacognitive
2
3
1
Content
48
Modified Texts Appropriate for Language
Proficiency and Reading Level
Teachers can modify texts to make
content more comprehensible for
their students by:
– Using graphics
– Using outlines
– Rewriting the text
– Using audio recordings
– Providing demonstrations
– Using alternate books or materials
49
Modified and Differentiated Assignments
Based on Language Proficiency
Teachers can modify assignments so
that a distinction can be made
between the student’s content
knowledge and language proficiency
by:
- Simplifying the objectives
– Asking the students to draw or use pictures
– Using oral discussions in pairs or small groups
– Modifying the length and difficulty of the
assignments
50
SIOP Component 5
INTERACTION
51
Grouping for Differentiated Instruction
Based on Student Needs
Individualized
Support
Cooperative
Groups
TeacherDirected
SmallGroup
Instruction
Pairing
Students
for Peer
Assistance
52
Small-Group Instruction

Enables the teacher to monitor student progress
(knowledge and skills)
 Enables the teacher to provide immediate
feedback
 Enables the teacher to collect data by which
instructional decisions and plans can be made
 Enables the teacher to provide data-driven
differentiated instruction
53
STRATEGIES FOR INTERACTION
 Use
a variety of grouping configurations
 Clear instructional conversations
 Use Native Language (L1) when
advantageous
 Positive interdependence of groups
 Individual accountability (NO Slackers)
 Monitor and Evaluate team work
 Monitor interpersonal skills in groups
Adapted from TESC Region 10 by Dr. Edward Ude, BISD
54
SIOP Component 6
Practice/Application




Hands-on materials and/or manipulatives
Apply content and language knowledge
Activities that integrate all language skills
Select purposeful and meaningful activities
Adapted from TESC Region 10 by Dr. Edward Ude, BISD
55
SIOP Component 7
Lesson Delivery




Content objectives covered-well planned lessons
Language objectives covered- clear explanation
of academic tasks and instruction
Students engaged 90% of time-Strong
classroom management skills
Appropriate pacing of lesson-opportunities to
apply information in meaningful ways
Adapted from TESC Region 10 by Dr. Edward Ude, BISD
56
A Shift In Teaching And Learning
Increase:
 Experimental,
inductive , hands-on
 Active learning in the
classroom
 Diverse roles for
teachers
Adapted from TESC Region 10 by Dr. Edward Ude, BISD
Decrease:
 Only whole-class,
teacher directed
instruction
 Teachers thinly
covering large
amounts of material
in every subject area
57
SIOP Component 8:
Assessment
Comprehensive review of key
vocabulary.
Comprehensive review of key content
concept
Regular feedback to students on their
input
Assessment of student
comprehension and learning of all
lesson objectives
58
Adapted from TESC Region 10 by Dr. Edward Ude, BISD
FOLLOW UP
SET UP A TIMELINE
Grade levels- Team up with partner
to support each other on the
implementation of selected SIOP
components
Campus- Form Teams to support
each other on the implementation
of the SIOP components across the
content areas
Adapted from TESC Region 10 by Dr. Edward Ude,
BISD
59
Opportunities to Demonstrate Mastery of
Knowledge and Skills
English language learners need to have ample
opportunities to demonstrate mastery of knowledge
and skills through alternative assessments because
Alternative assessments use authentic classroom tasks to
collect information about student achievement
Alternative assessments enable a teacher to examine a
student’s performance from multiple perspectives
Alternative assessments are process as well as product
oriented
Alternative assessments enable the teacher to use data
collected to make instructional decisions and plans
Alternative assessments can be developed by teachers in
collaboration to assess a wide range of knowledge and skills
60
Collaboration
ESL and content area
teachers benefit from
collaborative efforts to
design and implement
effective lesson
strategies for English
language learners.
Teachers in the
collaborative effort
must be comfortable
with giving and
receiving constructive
criticism.
61
Curriculum Considerations
Time should be set aside for
teachers to review their
curriculum (TEKS),
textbooks, materials, and
district guides to determine
priority content objectives for
each grade level or course.
(Gonzales, 1994)
Once objectives are
identified, the teachers can
then develop scaffolding
strategies to enhance student
understanding.
62
Co-Teaching Model
Content Area
ESL
63
Keeping the End in Mind
64
Wrap Up !
• What are the 8 Components of
SIOP?
• What are the two types of
objectives to lesson planning?
• What is comprehensible input?
• What is the benefit of having
ELL students integrated into
content areas?
65
References
• Making Content Comprehensible for English
Learners-The SIOP Model by J. Echevarria, M. Vogt,
and D. Short, Person Allyn and Bacon
• The Natural Approach-Language Acquisition In the
Classroom by Steven D. Krashen and Tracy D.
Terrell, Alemany Press
• Promoting Academic Success for ESL Student-
Understanding Second Language Acquisition for
School by Virginia P. Collier, Bastos book Co.
• Chamot, A. U. & O’Malley, J.M. (1994)
• Texas Education Service Center Region 10
66
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