cAIR10 7-10 April 2010 Graz, Austria Welcome! Richard Parncutt Martina Koegeler Old news: Skin color and poverty One billion people are hungry. They are mostly black. A child dies due to hunger or poverty every 5 s. International Conference on Financing for Development Monterrey, Mexico, 2002 • world’s 22 richest countries • pledge: 0.7% of national~ income in ODA (official developmental assistance) ~$200 billion/year (cf. Iraq war: ~$100 bn/year) ~could eliminate extreme poverty (Sachs, 2005) Average current level of ODA ~0.33% USA~ 0.22% Official Developmental Assistance in 2006 as % of gross national income – by country Sweden USA UN target: 0.7% Official Developmental Assistance Why is only Sweden paying 1% GNI? Is Sweden special? Better education? Less sexism and racism? Skin color, culture, violence Genocides and politicides 1955-2001 Sudan, South Vietnam, India, Punjab China, Iraq, Algeria, Rwanda, Congo-K, Burundi, Indonesia, China, Guatemala, Pakistan, Uganda, Philippines, Pakistan, Chile, Mexico, Angola, Cambodia, Indonesia, Argentina, Ethiopia, Congo-K, Afghanistan, Burma, El. Salvador, Uganda, Syria, Iran, Sudan, Iraq, Somalia, Bosnia, Burundi, Rwanda, Serbia Barbara Harff (2003). No lessons learned from the holocaust? Assessing risks of genocide and political mass murder since 1955, American Political Science Review, 97, 57-73. Skin color and child soldiers Skin color and life expectancy AIDS Area of country on map is proportional to number of AIDS deaths per year Female genital mutilation (FGM) Infant mortality deaths per 1000 live births Death penalty in the USA more likely if killer black or victim white Drug dealers in Austria 2000-2007: Austrian media reports suggest • most drug dealers are black • most blacks are drug dealers 2006 national police report on drugs: No. of arrests of suspected drug dealers • 61% Austrian • 8% Nigerian (~15% black) The media did not publish this. There was no apology. No-one knows. Skin color and literacy dark blue = under 50% Global warming more serious in the tropics Are the following racist acts? • • • • • • • • Not paying 0.7% GNP for ODA Instead financing the Iraq war Using “War on terror” as a distraction Ignoring unfair trade, tax oases Not signing Kyoto Not promoting condoms to prevent HIV Not addressing indigenous health issues Not rejecting far-right politics European xenophobia Far-right parties have significant support in most EU countries Interculturality in current European news • Italy – Lega Nord triumphs in regional elections • Russia: – Islamic suicide bombers in Moscow underground • France, Belgium – When is Burka/Niqab ok? • Switzerland – no new minarettes • Turkey – promotes Turkish-language schools in Germany – convinces US to avoid term “genocide” – threatens to expel 100,000 Armenians guest workers Interculturality in current world news • USA – success of first black president • Israel – settlements in East Jerusalem • Iran – G8 threaten sanctions • China – conflict with Google Graz today • NGOs • Research – human rights – legal advice – language – employment – women’s issues – ikndividual minorities – SE Europe – history, literature – religion – sociology, – psychology – cultural studies – anthropology – philosophy Intercultural history of Graz the Austro-Hungarian empire • 16th -18th C.: Turkish wars “normal” xenophobia • 1867-1918 Monarchy – about 20 official languages☺ • From 1870 German-nationalism • 1939: Annexation by Nazi Germany popular support for Nazis unclear • 1945: Austria = “victim of Nazism” less denazification than in Germany Intercultural history of Graz postwar • • • • 1955: state treaty, neutral republic 1960s: guest workers from SE Europe 1990s: immigration from E & SE Europe 2000: Austrian government coalition with far-right “freedom party”; EU sanctions • 2001: Human rights city Accepting difference Interaction between cultures Awareness of your own … …and other cultures Equal rights and dignity Tolerance for ambiguities Main aims of cAIR Short term: • synergize practice and research please emphasize this synergy in all presentations! Long term: • promote intercultural communication • reduce racism difficult to monitor cAIR: Communities of practice Equal opportunity as a prerequisite for constructive collaboration • Equal rights and obligations – practitioners and researchers – practitioners/researchers in different areas – languages, religions, skin colors • Analysis, exposure and deconstruction of implicit theories of self-superiority Welcome to cAIR10! Submissions by country Welcome to cAIR10! submissions by topic Promising: • Visible symptoms – health – minorities, refugees – towns, cities • Awareness raising – arts – education – language Not enough? • Big forces – global politics – business, economics – mass media • Cultural detail – religion – ways of thinking Progress is possible! Historical examples • • • • • • • • French revolution American independence Abolishment of slavery Education and voting for women Defeat of dictatorships International declaration of human rights International criminal court Internet and transparency Elimination of extreme poverty and racism? Martin Luther King African American civil rights movement, 1963 I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin but by the content of their character. Wangari Maathai Nobel Peace Prize 2004 for contribution to sustainable development, democracy and peace We can work together for a better world with men and women of goodwill, those who radiate the intrinsic goodness of humankind. To do so effectively, the world needs a global ethic with values which give meaning to life experiences and, more than religious institutions and dogmas, sustain the non-material dimension of humanity. Mankind's universal values of love, compassion, solidarity, caring and tolerance should form the basis for this global ethic which should permeate culture, politics, trade, religion and philosophy.