HUKUM PIDANA DI BELANDA
Guest lecture
20 December 2012
Fokke Fernhout
Associate Professor, Faculty of Law, Maastricht, Netherlands
HISTORY
• Before 1805
• 1805-1814
• 1 Dec 1813
• 1838
• 1881 (!)
• 1886
Every state of the federation
had its own criminal law
(torture, medieval punishments)
French occupation; Code Pénal;
Code de Procédure Pénal
Kingdom of the Netherlands;
plan to make new codes
Code of Criminal Procedure
Adoption of Criminal Code (KUHP)
Criminal Code enters into force
DEVELOPMENTS IN DUTCH-INDIES
• Early colonial times
• 1854
• 1867
• 1873
• 1918
Medieval Dutch law, Roman law,
adat law
Plan to make new criminal code
Wetboek van Strafrecht voor
Europeanen (KUHP buat orang
Eropa)
KUHP buat orang “inlander”
Wetboek van Strafrecht voor
Nederlandsch-Indië (translation of
Dutch Criminal Code)
DIFFERENCES
• Pasal 10: hukuman mati by hanging (considered to be
necessary for colonial suppression)
• Colonial institutions, local authorities (residents, regents)
• Indonesian elements (buffaloe, desa, child marriage)
• Kejahatan ringan (pencurian/penggelapan ringan dsb)
• Different (higher!) punishments for same criminal offences
DEVELOPMENTS IN INDONESIA
• 8 March 1942
•
•
•
•
Japanese decide to keep Dutch Criminal
Code (di bahasa Belanda!) and to ban
the use of Dutch (!)
1942-1945
Japanese changes to criminal law
18 August 1945 Pasal 2 Aturan Peralihan UUD 1945:
existing law will stay in force (di
bahasa asli)
UU 1/1946 (Undang-undang tentang peraturan hukum
pidana)
a) KUHP back to text in force on 8 March
1942
b) many textual changes (di bahasa
Belanda!)
After 1946
many textual changes, but di bahasa
Indonesia
REMARKS
• Changing a Criminal Code after an occupation takes a lot of
time (Netherlands 73 years, Indonesia until now 67 years)
• Indonesia is the only country in the world where:
- the Criminal Code is written in two different languages
alternating in the same sentence
- almost no lawyer or court can actually read the Criminal
Code
- no official translation of an inherited Criminal Code has
been introdduced (Mahkamah Agung and Mahkamah
Konstitusi use different texts)
COURTS DEALING WITH CRIMINAL CASES
1838
Hoge Raad (Mahkamah Agung)


Gerechtshof (Pengadilan Tinggi)



Arrondissementsrechtbank (Pengadilan Negeri)

Kantonrechter (Hakim damai)
COURTS DEALING WITH CRIMINAL CASES
1838
Hoge Raad (kasasi, 5 judges)


Gerechtshof (banding, 3 judges)



Arrondissementsrechtbank (TP, banding, 1/3)

Kantonrechter (TP, 1 judge)
COURTS DEALING WITH CRIMINAL CASES
2002
Hoge Raad (3/5 judges)

Gerechtshof (1/3 judges) [more serious cases]

Rechtbank (PN, 1/3 judges)
(sectors for civil, criminal, administrative and tax cases)
European Convention
► European Convention on Human Rights and Fundamental
Freedoms (ECHR)
► 1950
► Treaty of Rome
► Council of Europe (not European Union)
► All European countries (from dwarfstate Andorra to giant
state Russian Republic) except Belarus and Kosovo (total:
47)
► Originally: formulation and confirmation of values already
common to all European countries
Instruments of enforcement
► European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR)
- seated in Straatsburg (symbolic)
- one judge for each country
- committees (3), chambers (7), Grand Chamber (17)
- English and French as official languages
► Right of individual complaint (plus State complaints)
- citizens, organizations, groups
- exhaustion of local remedies
[bypass for dualist national systems]
► Decisions (supranational)
-
inadmissible
violation
no violation
awarding of damages
INTERNATIONAL SUPERVISION
► Art. 5 ECHR:
- par. 1: definition of lawful detention
- par. 2: right to be informed immediately of charges and
reason of arrest
- par. 3/4: habeas corpus: right to be heard by a court
when arrested or detained
► Art. 6 ECHR:
- par. 1: right to a fair trial before a court within a
reasonable time;
- par. 2: presumption of innocence;
- par. 3: right of a fair defense, including the right to
question witnesses
► Art. 7 ECHR: principle of legality
ACTORS IN CRIMINAL CASES
PUBLIC
PROSECUTOR
ACTORS IN CRIMINAL CASES
COURT
POLICE
PUBLIC
PROSECUTOR
PUBLIC/
VICTIM
SUSPECT
DEFENSE
STEPS IN CRIMINAL PROCEDURE
Report of a crime/finding of police
Investigation

Police transaction if allowed (end of case)
Otherwise

File to Public Prosecutor

Case filed
for lack of evidence

Prosecution
PROSECUTION

Prosecution by decision
(fine, community service only)

SUSPECT
AGREES
Yes: case ends
No:

Prosecution by
indictment
INDICTMENT
► Three functions:
► 1) Convocation (court, place and date of trial)
► 2) Charge (dakwaan)
- place and time
- exact description of facts (cermat, jelas, lengkap)
- legal provisions that are relevant to qualify the facts
► 3) Information of rights
- right to a lawyer (sometimes free legal aid)
- right to request to call witnesses and experts
► Separation of powers: dakwaan is the basis for the court
COURT TRIAL
 Judges, court recorder, lawyer, victim, court bailiff, press, public
prosecutor
JUDGMENT
►
►
►
►
►
►
►
►
1) Indictment void
2) Court lacks jurisdiction
3) Public Prosecutor inadmissible
4) Staying of proceedings because of mental illness of
suspect
5) Acquittal (putusan bebas, no proof for dakwaan)
6) Putusan lepas (discharge) because there is no criminal
offence to be associated with the dakwaan (2 reasons:
dakwaan with insufficient facts and alasan pembenar)
7) Putusan lepas (discharge) because the offender cannot
be held responsible [alasan pemaaf]
8) Punishment
GENERAL PRINCIPLES
► Principle of legality in procedural law
- court is bound by every rule in the Code of Criminal
Procedure
► Principle of legality in substantive law
- no retroactivity
- no analogy
- lex certa
► Presumption of innocence
► Fair trial
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