SS6H1a.b.
SS6H2a.
Latin America
Standard:

SS6H1: b. Explain the impact of the
Columbian Exchange on Latin
America and Europe in terms of the
decline of the indigenous population,
agricultural change, and the
introduction of the horse.
Before 1492
Two very
different
ecosystems
Two sets of
culturally
diverse
peoples
http://www.history.com/topics/aztecs/videos#th
e-aztecs
Two different
disease pools
Two sets of
flora and fauna
“...all the trees were as different
from ours as day from night, and
so the fruits, the herbage, the
rocks, and all things.”
-- Christopher Columbus
Two biological ecosystems interchanged
to create a new world ecology.
According to historian
Alfred Crosby, the
exchange of plants,
animals and
pathogens between
the two hemispheres
was biologically “the
most spectacular
thing that has ever
happened to humans,"
and he coined the
phenomenon the
Columbian Exchange.
An Exchange of Pathogens
The smallpox virus
• In Mexico alone, the native population fell from roughly 30
million in 1519 to only 3 million in 1568.
The greatest impact of the
Columbian Exchange was the
exchange of different food crops.
Sweet
Potatos
Cassava
Potatos
The Exchange of Plants and Animals
Originally from the Western Hemisphere

Potato

Maize (corn)

Manioc (cassava, tapioca)

Sweet potato

Tomato

Cacao (chocolate)

Squash

Chili peppers

Pumpkin

Papaya

Guava

Tobacco

Avocado

Pineapple

Beans (most varieties, including
phaseolus vulgaris)




Peanuts
Certain cottons
Rubber
Turkeys
Originally from the Eastern Hemisphere

Sugar

Olive oil

Various grains (Wheat, rice, rye,
barley, oats)

Grapes

Coffee

Horses

Cattle

Pigs

Goats

Sheep

Chickens

Various fruit trees (pear, apple,
peach, orange, lemon, pomegranate,
fig, banana)

Chick peas

Melons

Radishes

A wide variety of weeds and grasses

Cauliflower

Cabbage
The Columbian
Exchange
Imagine Italian food
without tomatoes,
Mexican food with no
rice and bean dish, the
Irish without potatoes,
chocolate without
sugar.
Standard:
SS6H1: a. The student will describe the
encounter (an unexpected or casual
meeting with someone or something)
and consequences of the conflict
between the Spanish and the Aztecs
and Incas AND the roles of Cortez,
Montezuma, Pizarro and Atahualpa.
Introduction to the Aztecs

http://app.discoveryeducation.com/search?Ntt
=aztec#selItemsPerPage=60&intCurrentPage=
0&No=0&N=18342%252B4294949099&Ne=
4294965172&Ntt=aztec&Ns=&Nr=&browseF
ilter=&indexVersion=&Ntk=All&Ntx=mode%
252Bmatchallpartial
Hernan Cortes


Spanish conquistador- In
1519, the Governor of
Spain hired Cortes to
lead an expedition into
Mexico.
He took 600 men, 16
horses, and 14 cannons
with him into Mexico.


Cortes was concerned
that some of his men
would be frightened by
the Aztec.
To make sure that no one
tried to escape back to
home, Cortes had all the
ships destroyed.

Success or Death were
their only options
Cortes Meets the Aztecs

http://app.discoveryeducation.com/search?Nt
t=aztec#selItemsPerPage=60&intCurrentPag
e=0&No=0&N=18342%252B4294949099&
Ne=4294965172&Ntt=aztec&Ns=&Nr=&bro
wseFilter=&indexVersion=&Ntk=All&Ntx=
mode%252Bmatchallpartial
Cortes in Mexico



Cortes trained his men for several months
He made friends with nearby Indians who did not
like the Aztec
He began to hear more rumors that there were
Indians, the Aztecs, who lived further inland that
had a lot of gold.
By the time he marched on the Aztec
capital city of Tenochtitlan, he had
over 1,500 fighters. Over 1,000 were
native people who wanted to fight
the Aztec.




The ruler of the Aztec at this time
was Montezuma II.
Under his rule, the Aztecs
controlled the area around their
capital city of Tenochtitlan,
now Mexico City.
Their borders stretched from the
Gulf of Mexico to the Pacific
Ocean.
They controlled lands as far
south as present-day Guatemala.
Cortes meets the Aztecs
Cortez used an interpreter who had once been
an Aztec slave and spoke their language.
Cortes and the Aztecs


The Aztecs had also heard
rumors – how these men were
light skinned and had strange
animals and weapons.
Montezuma II thought that
Cortes was the god,
Quetzalcoatl, who was fair
skinned and had promised to
return one day. So he gave
him gold and allowed him to
enter the great city of
Tenochtitlan.
Cortes seizes the Emperor



While they were there, the Spanish tried to convert the
Aztecs to Christianity because they were so offended by
their religion.
Even though they were greatly outnumbered, Cortes
had horses and better weapons and armor. He captured
Montezuma II and tried to rule through him. Cortes
believed that he could control the Aztec by keeping their
leader hostage.
They seized the Aztec gold and destroyed their temples.


A fight had broken out between Cortes’ men and the
Aztec while Cortes was away.
When Cortes returned, battles had to be fought to win
back Tenochtitlan.


In 1521, Cortes led a military victory over the Aztec
From this time forward, the Spanish sent more troops
and settlers to Mexico.
“Invisible Warrior”

Another reason the Spanish were so
successful in defeating the Aztecs: the
invisible warrior. The Spanish brought with
them diseases that the Aztecs did not have
immunity for: smallpox and influenza were
two of the deadliest.
End of the Aztec Empire



Montezuma was killed in 1520. Most believe he
was killed by his own people when he tried to
stop a rebellion.
In 1521, the Spanish blocked traffic to and from
the city and then burned Tenochtitlan to the
ground and later built a new city, Mexico City,
on the same site.
Cortes became very wealthy and famous. In 1540
he returned to Spain .
Let’s
Summarize
Conflict # 1: Aztec Empire v. Spain
Time Period
Location
Leaders
Result of
Conflict
How did this
change things?
1519-1521
Southern Mexican Plateau
(Near modern Mexico City)
Aztec Ruler
Spanish Conquistador
Montezuma II
Hernan Cortes
-The Spanish are victorious
-They have superior weapons & use the neighbors of the
Aztecs as allies
-Montezuma II is Killed
The Spanish claimed Mexico as a part of their Empire & used it’s
resources to gain wealth
The people of the region developed Spanish Culture traits
(Language-Spanish & Religion- Catholic)
Spain ruled the area for the next 300 years.
Exit Ticket
How did Hernan Cortes impact
Latin America?
Warm-Up
Share your response from yesterday’s exit
ticket.
Watch video clip:
http://www.history.com/topics/aztecs/videos#theaztecs
(1:20)
Standard:
SS6H1: a. The student will describe the
encounter (an unexpected or casual
meeting with someone or something)
and consequences of the conflict
between the Spanish and the Aztecs
and Incas AND the roles of Cortez,
Montezuma, Pizarro and Atahualpa.
Francisco Pizarro



Pizarro was born in Spain in
1475.
He was a pig farmer as a boy.
As a young man he joined a
ship traveling for the New
World.



In 1502, at the age of 27, he landed on the
island of Hispaniola.
He learned a lot about exploration and
conquering the native people.
He traveled with Vasco Nunez de Balboa
on his famous exploration
of Central America in
which Europeans first
sighted the Pacific Ocean.




In 1523, Pizarro led a voyage to explore the
west coast of South America, south of Panama.
He came across some Indian traders who told
of a rich country to the south.
He learned that these people were the Inca and
that they lived in the
area of what is now Peru.
Over the next few years,
Pizarro went back to Spain
to get permission to invade
and conquer the Incas.


The Spanish king gave
Pizarro permission to take
the Inca land and claim it
as part of Spain.
He made Pizarro viceroy
(governor) over the lands
stretching six hundred
miles south from Panama.


The king also gave Pizarro three ships, about two
hundred men, and three dozen horses to make his
plan work.
Pizarro began his mission in 1531
Introduction to the Incas
http://app.discoveryeducation.com/search?Ntt=in
cas


Atahualpa was the last
ruler of the Inca empire
He had just gained
control of the empire
from his brother when
Pizarro showed up.
Inca land stretched
2,000 miles along the
Pacific Coast of South
America





Atahulapa was considered to almost be a God.
Each day, he was given new clothes to wear,
never wearing the same clothes more than once.
Even the walls of his palace were gold and silver.
He wore gold jewelry and ate from gold plates
and cups.
He was carried by servants from place to place
on a special chair.
How did the Spanish
win?
Let’s watch and see…
http://app.discoveryeducation.com/se
arch?Ntt=incas
(4:39)
Sneak Attack!!



Pizarro arranged a meeting
between him and Atahualpa
in 1531.
The two did not trust each
other.
Pizarro had men hiding in
buildings around the Incan
town. He was up to no good.
WHAT DO YOU THINK THE
SPANIARDS HAD HIDDEN WITH
THEM THAT HELPED THEM WIN?
Remember the Colombian Exchange:

The Spanish had four main advantages:
Guns
Cannons
Horses
But worst of all the invisible weapon: Diseases
What do you think this did to the population ?
How could this have been an advantage to the Spaniards?
Sneak Attack
Atahualpa arrived with
thousands of men.
 But………

Sneak Attack
Atahualpa walked
into a trap.

When Atahualpa
came out, the Spanish
began shooting their
cannons and guns,
which were unknown
to the Inca.

The Inca were
scared of them and
terrified of the horses
the Spanish rode .
This gave the Spanish
the advantage.

Not Playing Fair






Once the Spanish took Atahualpa captive the Incas
had no leader and they could not fight well.
They thought Atahualpa was a god and could not
believe that he was defeated.
Pizarro demanded gold for his return.
The Inca brought 24 tons of gold and silver in exchange for
the life of Atahualpa
The gold and silver were melted into bars, and most were
sent back to Spain for the king
However, Atahualpa was not released
Not Playing Fair



Atahualpa was executed on
August 29, 1533 by Pizarro
and his men.
Atahualpa’s death ended the
empire of the Inca.
Even though some warriors
still fought, the empire was
gone because it had no
recognizable leader



The Spanish
settlements in Peru
began to grow
Gold and silver
continued to be taken
from the Inca and
shipped back to Spain
Pizarro grew wealthy


He founded the city of Lima and built a palace there
Some of the other Spanish leaders were jealous of
Pizarro’s wealth


•
They tried to take over his palace in 1541
Pizarro was killed in the attack
For nearly 300 years, the Spanish ruled the lands
once held by the Inca
End of the Incan Empire


After Atahualpa’s
death, the Spanish
continued to
conquer the Incan
Empire.
The use of better
weapons, armor,
horses, and disease
again allowed the
Spanish to have an
easy victory.
Conflict # 2:
Time Period
Location
Leaders
Inca Empire vs. Spain
1531-1533
Andes Mts./Pacific Coast of South America
Parts of: Peru, Ecuador, Bolivia, Chile, & Argentina
Inca Ruler
Atahualpa
Result of Conflict
How did this
change things?
Spanish Conquistador
Francisco Pizarro
The Spanish are victorious
They have superior weapons; deceive Inca leadership
Atahualpa is killed
The Spanish claimed Western S. America as a part of their Empire
& used it’s resources to gain wealth
The people of the region developed Spanish Culture traits
(Language-Spanish & Religion- Catholic)
Spain ruled the are for the next 300 years.
SS6H2 The student will explain the
development of Latin America and the
Caribbean from European colonies to
independent nations.
a. Describe the influence of African slavery
on the development of the Americas.
Slavery in Latin America
•
•
•
Shortage of labor in Americas led
to beginning of Atlantic slave
trade.
Farmers and plantation owners
first used Native Americans,
however European diseases and
warfare killed millions of Native
Americans.
Workers were still needed on
sugar, tobacco, and other types of
plantations which brought about
the Africa slave trade in the
Americas.
Slavery in Latin America
http://app.discoveryeducation.co
m/search?Ntt=triangle+of+trade
Slavery in Latin America

Between the 1500s
and the 1800s millions
of Africans were
captured, shipped
across the Atlantic
Ocean, and sold as
slaves in the Americas.
10 to 20 Million Enslaved

Brazil


Spanish Empire


2 - 5 million
Caribbean


4 - 10 million
3 – 6 million
North America

.5 – 1 million
Triangular Trade
Triangular trade is a
historical term
indicating trade among
three ports or regions,
in the shape of a
triangle.
(Europe, Africa, and the
Americas)

Triangular Trade



First leg of triangle, ships
carrying European goods to
Africa to be exchanged for
slaves.
Second leg, Middle
Passage, brought Africans
to Americas to be sold.
Third leg carried American
products to Europe.
Triangular Trade Route
Europe
The Americas
Manufactured
goods
(beads, cloth,
guns)
Cotton, sugar, tobacco,
molasses, rum
Africa
slaves
Let’s Review
1. Which of the following events occurred as a result of
European exploration of the Americas in the 1400s and the
1500s?
A. the discovery and use of the Northwest Passage to Asia
B. the invention of the astrolabe, which improved navigation.
C. the destruction of the Aztec and Incan civilizations
D. the discovery that only the Atlantic Ocean separated Asia
from Europe
1. Which of the following events occurred as a result of
European exploration of the Americas in the 1400s and the
1500s?
A. the discovery and use of the Northwest Passage to Asia
B. the invention of the astrolabe, which improved navigation.
C. the destruction of the Aztec and Incan civilizations
D. the discovery that only the Atlantic Ocean separated Asia
from Europe
2. In the 1500s, the Incan civilization was
conquered by Spanish soldiers led by
A. Ferdinand Magellan.
B. Francisco Pizarro.
C. Montezuma.
D. Vasco da Gama.
2. In the 1500s, the Incan civilization was
conquered by Spanish soldiers led by
A. Ferdinand Magellan.
B. Francisco Pizarro.
C. Montezuma.
D. Vasco da Gama.
3. In the 1500s the Aztec Empire in Central
America was conquered by Spanish soldiers
led by
A. James Cook.
B. Montezuma.
C. Hernando Cortés.
D. Christopher Columbus.
3. In the 1500s the Aztec Empire in Central
America was conquered by Spanish
soldiers led by
A. James Cook.
B. Montezuma.
C. Hernando Cortés.
D. Christopher Columbus.
4. Part of the Columbian Exchange between Europe
and the Americas included the
A. movement of many indigenous Americans to
Europe.
B. movement of goods on shipping routes across the
Pacific.
C. introduction of new crops to Europe and the
Americas.
D. introduction of mass production and factory
buildings to the Americas.
4. Part of the Columbian Exchange between Europe
and the Americas included the
A. movement of many indigenous Americans to
Europe.
B. movement of goods on shipping routes across the
Pacific.
C. introduction of new crops to Europe and the
Americas.
D. introduction of mass production and factory
buildings to the Americas.
5. Cortes and Pizarro were able to conquer the Aztecs and the
Incas because
A. the Native Central Americans were peaceful and refused to
fight the Spanish soldiers.
A. B. the Aztec navy was quickly defeated by the superior
Spanish Armada.
C. the Aztecs and Incas were at war with each other, making
them weaker.
D. European diseases killed many Native Central Americans
who might have fought the Spanish.
5. Cortes and Pizarro were able to conquer the Aztecs and the
Incas because
A. the Native Central Americans were peaceful and refused to
fight the Spanish soldiers.
A. B. the Aztec navy was quickly defeated by the superior
Spanish Armada.
C. the Aztecs and Incas were at war with each other, making
them weaker.
D. European diseases killed many Native Central
Americans who might have fought the Spanish.
6. One impact of the African Slave Trade included
A. further blending of ethnic groups in Latin
America
B. more opportunities for Africans to own land
C. less shipping between continents.
D. Africans brought their French and English
languages to Latin America.
6. One impact of the African Slave Trade included
A. further blending of ethnic groups in Latin
America
B. more opportunities for Africans to own land
C. less shipping between continents.
D. Africans brought their French and English
languages to Latin America.
7. The African slave trade grew because European
nations wanted the captured Africans
A. to work in the new factories.
B. to replace the labor of the serfs.
C. to work on the plantations in their colonies.
D. to increase the number of soldiers in their armies.
7. The African slave trade grew because European
nations wanted the captured Africans
A. to work in the new factories.
B. to replace the labor of the serfs.
C. to work on the plantations in their colonies.
D. to increase the number of soldiers in their armies.
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The European Invasion