University of Washington EMBA Program
Regional 20
Marketing Management
“Marketing Research”
Instructor: Elizabeth Stearns
With Survey review from Professor Dan Turner
Marketing Research Agenda
• Description and Overview
• Choosing to do Marketing Research
• Survey & Questionnaire Design
• Conjoint Analysis
• Advertising Research
Marketing Research
• A disciplined approach to the
development and provision of information
relevant to marketing decision-making.
• Research should be focused on
addressing questions where different
answers would alter the decision a rational
manager makes
What is the first thing that comes
to mind…
Fit the research to the problem!
Open
Blind
Prefer Pepsi
51%
Prefer Coke
44%
Equal/Can’t Say
5%
Understand your what your
customers value.
Open
Blind
Prefer Pepsi
51%
Prefer Coke
44%
Equal/Can’t Say
5%
Two Layers of Decision Problems
• Management
Decision Problem
– What should the
decision maker do?
Should the price of the brand be
increased?
Should we change the advertising
campaign?
• Marketing Research
Problem
– What information is needed
and how can it be obtained?
What is the price elasticity of
demand? What is the anticipated
impact on sales and profits of the
price change?
How effective is the
current campaign in
generating awareness?
Should Research be Conducted?
Time
Constraints
Is there
sufficient
time
available
before a
managerial
decision
must
be made?
N
Availability
of Data
Y
Is the
information
already on
hand
inadequate
for
Y
making the
decision?
N
Decision
Importance
Is the
decision
of
considerable
strategic or
Y
tactical
importance?
N
Value vs.
Costs
Does the
value of
the research
information
exceed the
cost of
Y
conducting
research?
N
Marketing Research Should Not be
Conducted
Conduct
Marketing
Research
Backward Market Research
• Start the process where it usually ends and then
work backward
– Determine how the research will be implemented
– Determine what the final report should contain and how
it should look
– Begin with an end in mind
• Close collaboration between the researcher and the
organizational decision maker is the single most
important factor in obtaining a desirable outcome
Marketing Research
• Qualitative: Exploratory/Developmental
– Help frame the problem
• Provide insight and ideas
• Generate testable hypotheses
• Choose variables for inclusion in a data set
• Add richness to interpretation of relationships that are
uncovered through quantitative analysis
• Quantitative: Descriptive/Evaluative
– Detect & describe relationships between variables in data
– Sophisticated quantitative analysis cannot compensate for
framing the problem inappropriately and, hence, examining
the wrong set of data. Nor can it insure the correct
interpretation of a relationship that is uncovered.
• Causal: Experimental
Choosing Research Designs
Research
Design
EXPLORATORY (Qualitative)
* Identifies motivations
underlying behavior
* Yields initial hunches &
insights for future research
DESCRIPTIVE (Quantitative)
* Describes consumer behavior
Who, when, where, how much
* Verifies insights with
numerical data for action
CAUSAL (Experimental)
*Identify consumer response
to marketing strategies
* Formally establishes
cause and effect relationship
Data Collection
Examples
• Focus Groups
• Ethnographies
• Depth Interviews
• Projective Techniques
Sample
Marketing
Application
Opportunity
Analysis
Issue
Identification
• Observational Studies
Target Profile
• Surveys (one time)
Identification
• Consumer Panels(longetudinal)
•A & U Studies
Demand
Estimation
• Lab Experiments
Strategy
Formulation
• Field Experiments
• Quasi-Experiments
Strategy
Evaluation
Sources of Marketing Data
PRIMARY DATA
SOURCES
External Sources
Internal Sources
• Market research firms
• Advertising agencies
• In-House marketing
research department
SECONDARY DATA
SOURCES
External Sources
Internal Sources
• Government agencies
• Accounting data
• Competitors
• Sales reports
• Trade associations
• Factory shipments
• Business publications
• Syndicated sources
– Store audits
– UPC scanner data
– Advtg. exposure data
– Single source data
– Specialized syndicated
products/expert systems
Ethnography
Survey Basics
• Background: Surveys as part of the
marketing research efforts
• Managing the Survey Effort
• Item Development
• Questionnaire Organization
• Critical Reviews & Pretests
• Additional Resources
Background—Surveys as Part of the
Marketing Research Effort
• Form of primary data collection for descriptive
research
• Can be either cross-sectional
(snapshot/photograph) or longitudinal (movie)
– Easier to obtain representativeness with cross-section
but more difficult to detect changes over time
• Surveys administered via interview (personal,
phone) or “writing” (paper & pencil, web/email)
Key Questions in Survey Research
• What managerial decision is to be made?
• What information will best help us make the decision?
Begin with an end in mind!
• What survey questions/items can get us that information from
respondents?
• How should those questions/items be phrased?
• Who should our respondents be?
• How are we going to contact respondents?
• How many should we get?
• What will we revise based upon the pretest?
• How do we analyze and draw inferences from the data?
Managing the Survey Effort : Survey Mode
• Primary considerations are effectiveness, speed, monetary cost
– Personal interview/intercept
• Negatives—Expensive, respondent/interviewer biases
• Positive—Flexibility
– Telephone
• Negatives—Requires very simple items, representativeness issues
• Positive—Quick
– Paper & pencil/Mail
• Negative—Requires simple items
• Positive—Respondent privacy/anonymity
– Email/web
• Negative—Sampling frame bias, requires simple items
• Positives—Quick, cheap
Managing the Survey Effort : Sampling
• Probability sampling—Every element has a known (or
knowable) non-zero probability of being included in the
sample
• Non-probability sampling—Sampling without random
selection
• Increasing sample size reduces random sampling error but
does nothing to reduce biases
– To reduce sampling error you have to be rich, and to
reduce sample bias you have to be smart
Managing the Survey Effort:
Total Survey Error
• Sampling error—Unless you measure the whole
population (a census) your sample estimate will
not likely equal the exact population value
– “Margin of error” noted with survey results is
typically an estimate of the sampling error
• Nonsampling error
– Nonresponse bias—Certain members of the
original sample do not provide responses
– Measurement error—Instruments used to gather
observations produce systematic error
Managing the Survey Effort :
Controlling Nonresponse Bias
• Two basic determinants of who responds to surveys and
who does not
– Availability
• Choose data collection method that is best suited to the respondents
– Motivation
• Some element is exogenous, e.g., BCC survey vs. canned soup survey
for UW MBA students
• Controllable factors
– Minimize cost of responding
– Maximize the rewards
– Establish trust that rewards will be delivered
Managing the Survey Effort :
Controlling Nonresponse Bias
• Reward respondents
–
–
–
–
Show positive regard and give verbal appreciation
Support respondent values
Offer tangible rewards (including possibly sharing results/insights)
Write an interesting questionnaire
• Reduce costs to respondents
–
–
–
–
–
Make the task appear brief
Reduce physical and mental effort requirements
Minimize the possibility for embarrassment
Eliminate direct and indirect monetary costs
Follow-up with nonrespondents in a second survey wave
• Establish trust
– Provide a token of appreciation in advance
– Borrow legitimacy by establishing ties to a trusted organization
Managing the Survey Effort :
Measurement Error
• Reliability—Stability, consistency, or reproducibility of a
measure
• Validity—Measurement of the construct or concept intended
• Examples
– “Short” ruler to measure distance
– GMAT to measure business school acumen
• Insights regarding measurement error
– The greater the degree of structure the lower the magnitude of
measurement error
– The greater the self-presentation elicited by the question the
greater the risk of measurement error
Item Selection:
Laws of Questionnaire Design
• Information Test: Don’t ask a question unless truthful
answers to it will provide useful information in making the
decision at hand.
– How (specifically) will I use the data from this question?
• If the answer is no more precise than “I’ll analyze it” you
probably don’t need that question.
• If there is more than one way to get a particular piece of
information, pick the items for which respondents are more
likely to both…
• know the answer
• be willing to tell you the answer
AND
Item Design: Types of Items
•
•
•
•
•
•
Closed-ended questions with categories
Semantic differential
Likert scale
Object ranking
Constant sum scale/Point Allocation
Open-ended
– Numeric
– Textual
Item Design: Types of Items
• Closed-ended questions with categories
What marathon training programs did you consider
before choosing Team in Training?
___ Joints in Motion
___ Team Diabetes
___ Official Asics Training
___ Always Running
___ Chuckit
___ Team Danskin
___ Other ________________ (please specify)
• Make sure categories are mutually exclusive and
collectively exhaustive
Item Design: Closed-ended Purchase
Intent Scale
If a set of three ant traps sold for
approximately $1.00 and was available in
stores where you normally shop, would you:
___ Definitely buy the traps
___ Probably buy
___ Probably not buy
___ Definitely not buy
Item Design: Types of Items
• Semantic Differential
–
–
–
–
Most popular way in marketing research to obtain attitude
toward an object
Very useful for rating several alternatives on a given set of
attributes
Anchored at each end by an adjective
• Often bipolar (Sweet-Sour)
• Sometimes monopolar (Sweet-Not Sweet)
Respondent marks the point which best describes the object(s)
Old
New
Item Design: Semantic Differential Scale
Lexus IS300 and BMW 3 Series
Unattractive
Appearance
--- --- --- --- --- --- ---
Attractive
Appearance
Noisy
--- --- --- --- --- --- ---
Quiet
Reliable
--- --- --- --- --- --- ---
Unreliable
Built well
--- --- --- --- --- --- ---
Built poorly
Good value for
money
--- --- --- --- --- --- ---
Poor value for the
the money
Item Design: Likert Scale
Strongly
Disagree
Strongly
Agree
They might make my feet feel hot
1
2
3
4
5
I am satisfied with what I am using
1
2
3
4
5
My problem is not serious enough
1
2
3
4
5
Too much trouble to cut them to fit
1
2
3
4
5
Price is too expensive
1
2
3
4
5
Might make my shoes too tight
1
2
3
4
5
I’m embarrassed to buy them
1
2
3
4
5
Item Design:
Constant Sum Scale/Point Allocation
Below are ten characteristics of women’s tennis sportswear.
Please allocate 100 points among the characteristics such
that the allocation represents the importance of each
characteristic to you. The more points that you assign to a
characteristic, the more important it is. If the
characteristic is totally unimportant, you should no
allocate any points to it. When you’ve finished, please
double check to make sure that your total adds to 100.
• Disadvantage: High level of respondent effort
• Advantage: Ratio level measurement
Item Design: Point Allocation Example
Characteristics of Tennis Sportswear
Number of
Points
Is comfortable to wear
_______
Is durable
_______
Has the endorsement of a famous athlete
_______
Is made by well-known brand or sports manufacturers
_______
Is made in the U.S.A
_______
Has up-to-date styling
_______
Is flattering to the body
_______
Gives freedom to the body
_______
Is a good value for the money
_______
Authentic, like the pros wear
_______
_______
100 Points
Item Design: Key Issues Checklist
• Can the research objective be fulfilled without asking
this question?
– There is a cost to each item.
• Do respondents have the information and motivation to
answer each item?
– Do not ask what respondents cannot or will not divulge.
• Are the questions clear and unequivocal? Will the words
be universally and uniformly understood?
– For example, “How many members are there in your family?”
• Does the question use a double negative?
– “Are there no circumstances under which you would not use a
stain removal detergent enhancer?”
Item Design: Key Issues Checklist
• Are the questions leading/loaded?
– Do you think the US should allow public speeches
against democracy?
– Do you think the US should forbid public speeches
against democracy?
• 44% of respondents replied “No” to the first question
• while 28% of respondents in a similar sample said “Yes”
to the second question
Item Design: Key Issues Checklist
• Are the questions double-barreled?
– Do you believe McDonald’s offers fast and courteous service?
• Are responses mutually exclusive and collectively
exhaustive?
• Are the questions too complex?
– Of the total number of miles you have driven during the past
month, approximately what percentage was for driving to and
from work?
• Are the question implications implicit or explicit?
– Are you in favor of UW Business School providing every
student with a laptop?
• …even though it will mean a substantial increase in tuition?
Questionnaire Organization
• Introduction: Basic who, what, when, where, why, how
We are a group of UW Executive Business School students working on a
school-related project. We are conducting a marketing research survey
to determine interest in a new child safety product. Your attitudes and
opinions will be valuable in designing a child safety product that is
best suited to satisfying market needs. We are not selling anything,
and you will not be solicited later. Your responses will be used for
research purposes only, and the input you provide will be both
completely anonymous and confidential. We anticipate that this
survey will take you less than 5 minutes to complete.
THANKS IN ADVANCE FOR YOUR PARTICIPATION
Questionnaire Organization
• Body—Theories of Organization
– Typically begin with one or two interesting but nontaxing/non-invasive “warm-up” questions
– In general order items in terms of descending usefulness
or importance to you
– Group questions that have similar content or similar form
(e.g., Likert scale items) together
– Leave potentially objectionable and sensitive items to the
end of the survey
– Thank respondents for participating
Questionnaire Organization
• Body: Typical Item Sequence
– Screeners/qualifying questions
“Have you been skiing in the past 12 months?”
– Warm-ups
“What brand of skis do you own?”
– Beginning body/transitions
“What features do you look for in skis?”
– Middle—more complicated/difficult questions
“Please rate the importance of the following ski attributes in
your ski purchase decisions.”
– End—classifications, demographics, and sensitive items
“What is the highest level of education you have obtained?”
Critical Reviews and Pretests
• Always pretest among a small group of people
similar to those future respondents of the actual
survey
– Get qualitative feedback on troublesome questions,
ambiguities, etc. after the pretest group completes the
survey
If you don’t have the resources to pilot test your
survey then don’t do the study.
• For each item, ask “Is this question really
necessary or merely interesting?”
• Keep it short and simple
Conjoint Analysis
• Technique to understand how consumers make trade-offs
among attributes or characteristics of products or services
which deliver the desired benefit.
• To help management understand the implications of such
trade-offs for design of product offerings
• Conjoint Analysis also provides a measure of how
important the attributes are to the customer
• Conjoint Analysis is now quite widely used by marketing
research companies, consulting companies, etc.
How Does It Work?
Suppose I want to know what factors are important to you in
your evaluation of cars.
You can think of a car as a bundle of features or attributes e.g. size
- small, mid-size, full size; fwd/rwd; mpg - 20, 25, 35; engine - 4
cl, 6 cl; American/Japanese/European; many dealers/few dealers;
$15k/20k/25k; low interest financing or cash back, etc.
Now how do you go about buying a car - you have an approximate
budget, you want certain features, you would pay more for a fwd
than a rwd, more for an automatic than manual, etc. Assume
there is no optimum car or if there is one it is out of your budget.
Some of the attributes listed above are not directly comparable.
You like the prestige of a German car (say) but you may have to
put up with the inconvenience of longer down-time if the car has
to be serviced. You like fuel efficiency but you don't like the
cramped feeling of a small car. And so on.
HowDoes It Work?
If you could assign a $ value to every attribute - how much
more would you pay for a bigger engine, for prestige, for
fuel efficiency, for size, etc. -then you could compute the
equivalent $ value of the cars in your set and make a
choice.
However, in many cases this is not possible. You may make
some mental computations and come up with an overall
value or utility preference for the cars in your set. This
overall value is presumably based on component values
assigned to the attributes.
How Does It Work?
It is much easier for the consumer to provide overall
preferences than the component utilities or values.
Conjoint analysis takes these overall preferences and the
attribute descriptions and decomposes the overall
preferences into utilities for the attributes.
The utilities of different attributes are comparable. These
utility values provide the trade-offs among the attributes.
From these values we can construct an importance measure
for each attribute.
Managerial Uses of Conjoint
• After determining the contribution of each
attribute, the researcher could
– Define the object with the optimum
combination of features
– Predict market shares among objects with
different sets of features
– Isolate groups of consumers who place
differing importance on features
– Identify market potential for product concepts
not yet available
Commercial Applications
• Commercial applications are across the board:
– Consumer durables
• Automobiles, refrigerators, car stereos, condominiums
– Consumer non-durables
• Bar soaps, hair shampoos, disposable diapers, clear gravy (!)
– Industrial Products
• Copy machines, forklift trucks, computer software, aircraft
– Services
• Car rental, credit cards, hotels, mass transit
Steps in Conjoint Analysis
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
Develop the set of attributes
Select the levels of each attribute
Develop the set of stimuli to be used
Obtain an evaluation (rating or ranking) of the stimuli
from consumers
Estimate the utility values for each level of each attribute
Compute importance weights for each attribute
Evaluate the trade-offs among attributes and which
combination of features is most preferred
Affiliate results across consumers
Conduct market simulation
Desirable Problem Situations for Conjoint
• Product must be realistically decomposable
into basic attributes.
• Product choice tends to be a reasoned
decision.
• Factorial combinations of basic attribute
levels are reasonable (i.e., some
combinations are not unreasonable).
Example: Carpet Cleaner
Attributes
Package Design
Brand Name
Price
Good Housekeeping Seal
Money-back Guarantee
Levels
A, B, C
K2R, Glory, Bissell
$1.19, $1.39, $1.59
Yes, No
Yes, No
Total number of possible product combinations = 108
A subset of 18 product combinations is selected for use such
that attributes are uncorrelated (orthogonal).
•Which 18? Commercial software available to pick subset.
•Why 18? To allow sufficient degrees of freedom to estimate
the model for each individual respondent.
Experiment Design
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
P ack ag e
D esig n
B rand
N am e
P rice
$
Good
H o u sek eep ing
S eal?
A
A
A
B
B
B
C
C
C
A
A
A
B
B
B
C
C
C
K2R
G lo ry
B issell
K2R
G lo ry
B issell
K2R
G lo ry
B issell
K2R
G lo ry
B issell
K2R
G lo ry
B issell
K2R
G lo ry
B issell
1 .1 9
1 .3 9
1 .5 9
1 .3 9
1 .5 9
1 .1 9
1 .5 9
1 .1 9
1 .3 9
1 .5 9
1 .1 9
1 .3 9
1 .1 9
1 .3 9
1 .5 9
1 .3 9
1 .5 9
1 .1 9
No
No
Y es
Y es
No
No
No
Y es
No
Y es
No
No
No
Y es
No
No
No
Y es
M o ney
B ack
G u arantee
R esp o nd ent’s
evalu atio n
(rank )
No
Y es
No
Y es
No
No
Y es
No
No
No
Y es
No
No
No
Y es
No
No
Y es
13
11
17
2
14
3
12
7
9
18
8
15
4
6
5
10
16
1
Conjoint Analysis
Brand name
|
Glory Bissell
|
|
$1.39 $1.59
Good Housekeeping Seal?
1.0-----|
|
0
No
Yes
Money-Back
Guarantee?
1.0-----|
|
0 No
Yes
Utility
|
Utility
©2000 Prentice Hall
1.0 -----|
0 $1.19
Utility
Utility
1.0 -----0 K2R|
Retail Price
Desirable Problem Situations for Conjoint
• Product can be realistically described,
verbally or pictorially.
• Desirable new product alternatives can be
synthesized from basic attributes.
Conjoint Analysis Review
• Tuesday, October 8, at 6:30
• To prepare:
– HBR Article “Conjoint Analysis, A Manager’s
Guide
– Exercise, “Initech” (on the website)
Advertising Research
Three areas that should be addressed in the assessment of
advertising effectiveness:
I.
the target (prospect)
II.
An understanding of the appropriate
media and vehicles within media type for
gaining the optimal reach and frequency
within each target (prospect) group.
Advertising Research
III. An effective and actionable measurement
system designed to assess:
A) The quality of a particular advertisement (a.k.a. copy test)
B) Baseline awareness levels and “lift” attributed to an
advertisement or campaign,
C) Media vehicles and weight of each,
D) “Wear-in” and “wear-out” of an ad or campaign
E) Predicted and actual sales responses to advertising
The Target or Prospect
• Challenge: Can the marketing department get to know the
prospect so well that we are able to introduce him/her to the
creative staff as though we were introducing a close friend?
– The point is to give the creative staff an understanding of
the prospect that will enable them to create an ad or
campaign with a message that uses the prospects’
language and speaks to situations and needs of that
group.
The Target or Prospect Media Choices
• Media choices for the advertisement or campaign
will be based on the media habits of the target
audience and prospects and the content of the
communication.
– The best choices are those media most often
used by the prospect group
The Target or Prospect Media Choices
• Media habits are best determined through syndicated data
such as Simmons Market Research Bureau.
– The clearer the prospect profile is, the easier it will be to
determine media habits.
• Once the appropriate vehicles are chosen, a plan optimizing
reach and frequency in light of the media budget and
marketing strategy should be developed.
Copy Testing
• Important elements for evaluation include:
– Reception of the advertisement by the prospect
group,
• Did they see or hear the ad at all?
– Comprehension of the advertisement and,
• Did they understand the message? Was it
compelling?
– A behavioral response (i.e. purchase).
• Will it motivate a purchase?
Copy Testing
• Developmental Tool
– Copy testing at an early stage in the
development of a specific advertisement or
campaign can assist in the improvement and/or
redirection of copy and creative execution.
• Developmental copy tests usually rely on
qualitative research among the specified
prospects for an ad or campaign. The stimuli are
usually in rough or pre-finished form.
Developmental Copy Testing Methods
• Most developmental copy testing methods are
qualitative in nature and rely on forced exposure
techniques. The methods most commonly
employed include:
– Focus Groups
– One-on-One Interviews (IDI’s)
– Cluster Interviews-small groups (n=+/-3)
– Ethnographies
Developmental Copy Testing Methods
• The goal of developmental copy testing methods is
to evaluate:
– Narrative playback (story line, action)
– Message playback (attributes and benefits)
– Brand name playback
– Commercial or print ad comments (evaluative)
– Product comments (evaluative)
– Other diagnostic information as needed
Copy Testing
• Evaluative Tool
– As an evaluative tool, copy testing allows
comparisons among alternative ads, normative
comparisons (depending on the firm
conducting the research), and go/no go
decisions.
Copy Testing
– Evaluative copy testing usually has a quantitative
component and results in some form of scoring
(depending on the method chosen). Again, the
appropriate sample for the test will be drawn from
among the specified prospects for an ad or
campaign. The stimuli are usually in finished
form.
Evaluative Copy Testing Methods
• Most evaluative copy testing methods are
quantitative in nature and rely either on natural or
forced exposure techniques.
• The goals for evaluative copy testing are:
– To measure recall of the advertisement and
message following a defined period of time
and/or,
– Persuasive nature of the copy/creative execution
– Other diagnostic information as needed
Evaluative Copy Testing Methods - Print
• Methods most commonly used for print
advertising include:
– Normal Exposure in Newspaper or Magazine
– Simulated Normal Exposure-e.g.: dummy book
or paper, “tipped” into magazine
– Forced Exposure-e.g.: central location
Evaluative Copy Testing Methods - Broadcast
• The methods most commonly employed for
broadcast advertising include:
– Normal On-Air Exposure
– Simulated Normal Exposure-e.g.: theater, cable
– Forced Exposure-e.g.: central location
Evaluative Copy Testing Methods
Broadcast and Print Pros and Cons
Pros
• Natural Exposure
– Natural environment
– Natural exposure
– Can assess attention getting through clutter
– Allows measures of recall and persuasion
Evaluative Copy Testing Methods
Broadcast and Print Pros and Cons
Pros
• Simulated Natural Exposure
– Near natural environment and exposure
conditions
– Less expensive than natural exposure
– More control than natural exposure
– Allows measures of recall and persuasion
Evaluative Copy Testing Methods
Broadcast and Print Pros and Cons
Pros
• Forced Exposure
– Excellent diagnostics
– Suitable for testing rough ideas or executions
– Ample opportunity to probe
Evaluative Copy Testing Methods
Broadcast and Print Pros and Cons
Cons
• Natural Exposure
– Uncontrolled environment
– Security can be a problem
– Personal interviewing can be expensive
(sampling costs)
– Pragmatic issues-schedules, costs
– May not be able to collect extensive
diagnostics
Evaluative Copy Testing Methods
Broadcast and Print Pros and Cons
Cons
• Simulated Natural Exposure
– The environment is not natural
– Respondents may be sensitized to advertising
– May not account for multiple exposure effects
– May not be able to collect extensive
diagnostics
Evaluative Copy Testing Methods
Broadcast and Print Pros and Cons
Cons
• Forced Exposure
– No measure of attention getting ability
– No measure of recall
– No accurate measurement of persuasion
– Artificial environment and exposure conditions
– Consumer becomes critic
– Assumes single exposure for brand preference
change
– Sensitized respondents
Copy Testing - Other Issues
• Anticipated “wear-in” and “wear-out” of the advertising is
an issue to consider in the evaluation process. Some ads,
depending on their nature and attention-getting ability do
not have an immediate effect on recall or persuasion. There
may be a period of time, the cumulative effect of multiple
exposures, that is required before the ad becomes salient in
the marketplace.
– How long and what is the slope of the initial awareness
curve?
Copy Testing - Other Issues
• Similarly, ads “wear-out” at differential rates,
depending on the nature and saliency of each
execution.
– How long and what is the slope of the decay of
the effectiveness of the advertising both on
awareness and sales?
Predicted and actual sales responses to advertising
(Bruce Faaland’s favorite slide!)
• Sales measures as a function of media spending,
weight, base awareness and purchase rates, copy
effectiveness, decay of advertising effect over time.
• Relies on continuous tracking data in conjunction
with data re: media weights, schedules, and copy
evaluation.
Decay Effect
Base
Media Flight
Copy Testing-Other Methods
• In recent years a variety of nontraditional
methods of measuring responses to advertising
have been developed.
Copy Testing-Other Methods
• Most of these methods are forced exposure methods
and are developmental in nature. These include
such techniques as:
– Eye tracking measurement-Behavioral measure of
attention given to the elements of an
advertisement/print and broadcast
– Galvanic skin response-Behavioral measure of
reaction to broadcast advertising-measures
changes much the same way a lie detector does.
Problem-is a change an indication of a positive or
negative emotional reaction?
Copy Testing-Other Methods
– Voice response (e.g.: VOPAN)-Behavioral
measure of changes in voice inflection when
talking about an advertisement.
– Keypad or joystick second by second conscious
reactions to advertising-Respondent responds to
each element of the broadcast advertisement by
moving a joystick or typing on a keypad to
indicate the direction and degree of emotion s/he
experiences continuously during exposure to the
ad.
Additional Resources
• Marketing Research Textbooks
– “Marketing Research: Methodological Foundations”—
Churchill
– “Marketing Research: An Applied Orientation”—Malhotra
• Business Press
– “Survey Questions: Handcrafting the Standardized
Questionnaire”—Converse & Presser
– “Mail and Internet Surveys: The Tailored Design
Method”—Dillman
– “The Survey Research Handbook”—Alreck & Settle
• Harvard Business School Publishing Notes
(www.harvardbusinessonline.hbsp.harvard.edu)
– “Questionnaire Design and Development” (9-590-015)
– “Market Research” (9-592-034)”
Thank you!
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