Summary Slide

Bibliographic Referencing
An Introduction
Bibliographic Referencing
An Introduction
By J. Papin-Ramcharan (Librarian)
Engineering and Physical Sciences Division
The Main Library,
The University of the West Indies
Contents
What is citing
 Why cite?
 When to cite
 How to cite
 Samples

What is citing

To "cite" is to point to evidence,
authority or proof.

When we use the term cite we refer
to the way that you note the source
of your information.
Why cite?

Acknowledging ALL your sources is
important:
– to prove that your work has a
substantial, factual basis
– to show the research you've done to
reach your conclusions
– to allow your readers to identify and
retrieve the references for their own use
– to avoid charges of plagiarism
When to cite

Whenever you directly copy the words of
another author (quoting) e.g.
A popular textbook defines engineering ethics
as:
“the study of the moral issues and decisions
confronting individuals and organizations
involved in engineering” (Smith 1996).
When to cite
•
Or put their ideas into your own words
(paraphrasing)
e.g.
Yet in practice, many working engineers are engaged in
activities that exceed the narrowly technical: engineers
help negotiate contracts, manage organizations and
report to regulators (Latour 1996).
When to cite
•
Or use a figure or diagram that you
did not create e.g.
Figure 1: Sources and Pathways of Contaminants
When to cite
•
Quoting directly
•
Paraphrasing
•
Using Data from other sources e.g.
diagrams, graphs, maps, tables etc.
•
You must acknowledge your sources.
Styles for Referencing

There are different styles for doing your
references . These include:
– Chicago
– Harvard
– Vancouver
– Styles recommended by journals and professional
associations, e.g.
o Modern Language Association (MLA),
o American Psychological Association (APA) or
o Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE).
Categories of Sources

Printed sources

Electronic sources
Some Printed Sources








Books
Journal articles
Conference Papers
Standards
Patents
Reports
Government Publications
Unpublished material
Elements in Citing (Printed)

You need to make note of the following
information about every printed source you use.
Not every detail will be applicable in every case:
– author(s)'s or editor(s)'s full names; or the
group/body/organization responsible
– title of article or chapter
– name of the journal, periodical or book
– edition (if applicable)
Elements in Citing (Printed) cont’d

You need to make note of the following
information about every printed source you use.
Not every detail will be applicable in every case:
— publisher's
name (if applicable)
— place of publication (for book)
— year of publication
— volume number (for journal)
— issue number (for journal)
— page numbers
Elements in Citing (Electronic)

name of the author or editor

title of the page

title of the site (go to the site's homepage)

date the page was last updated, or the copyright date

the full internet address (URL) of the page (i.e.
http://etc.)

the date that you accessed the page

any other details that might help someone else find
the part of the page that you used
How to Cite

A citation/reference is made by
putting together all the details
needed to find a piece of information,
in a specified order and with a
specific syntax or punctuation
details.

Different details are needed for
different formats of information.
Citing Book Sources (Chicago Style)

Author's Surname , Author's first name or
initial . Year of publication . Title of the Book
(in italics or underlined) . Edition [if not first].
Place of Publication : Publisher's name.
Citing Book Sources - Examples
One author
Maas, Stephen. 1998. The RF and
microwave circuit design
cookbook. Boston:Artech House.
CORRESPONDING IN-TEXT CITATION:
(Maas 1998)
Citing Book Sources - Examples
In the Body of Your Report:
Diodes have wide bandwidths and sufficiently low internal noise
to operate at low power levels. This input power must be small
enough that the diodes are good square-law power detectors
and are not envelope or multi-term detectors (Maas 1998).
At the End of The Report:
BIBLIOGRAPHY
Bidanda, B., and R.Billo. 1995. On the Use of Students for Developing
Engineering Laboratories. Journal of Engineering Education 84(2) : 205–213.
Grayson, L.P. 1993. The Making of an Engineer. New York, N.Y.: John
Wiley and Sons.
Maas, Stephen. 1998. The RF and microwave circuit design cookbook. Boston:Artech House.
Citing Book Sources - Examples
Two authors
Coleman,W.C., and W. G. Jones. 1998.
Experimentation and uncertainty
analysis for engineers. 2d. ed. New York
: John Wiley.
CORRESPONDING IN-TEXT CITATION:
(Coleman and Jones 1998)
Citing Book Sources - Examples
THREE AUTHORS
Popper , S. W. ; C. S. Wagner; and E. V.
Larson. 1998. New forces at work:Industry
views critical technologies. California :
RAND
CORRESPONDING IN-TEXT CITATION:
(Popper, Wagner, and Larson 1998)
Citing Book Sources - Examples
MORE THAN THREE AUTHORS
Kimball, R., L. Reeves, M. Ross, and W.
Thornthwaithe.1998. The data warehouse
lifecycle toolkit . New York : John Wiley.
CORRESPONDING IN-TEXT CITATION:
(Kimball et al. 1998)
Citing Book Sources - Examples
CORPORATE AUTHORSHIP
Norlight Telecommunications. 1999. External
assessment. .Technical Report. Milwaukee:
Norlight Telecommunications
CORRESPONDING IN-TEXT CITATION:
(Norlight Telecommunications 1999)
Citing Book Sources - Examples

EDITOR ,COMPILER OR TRANSLATOR RATHER THAN AUTHOR:
In the reference list, the abbreviation
ed. or eds.
comp. or comps.
trans.
Follows the name and is preceded by a comma.
Clarke ,Andrew G., ed.1998. Industrial air pollution monitoring,
London:Chapman and Hall
(Clarke 1998)
Citing Book Sources - Examples

EDITOR, COMPILER OR TRANSLATOR WITH AN AUTHOR
Luck Erich, and Martin Jager.1997.Antimicrobial
food additives: Characteristics, uses, effects.
2d. ed. Translated by S. F. Laichena. Berlin:
Springer-Verlag.
CORRESPONDING IN-TEXT CITATION:
(Luck and Jager 1997)
Citing Journal Sources
Title of the article
Kayansayan, N. 1993. Thermal characteristics of fin-and-tube
heat exchanger cooled by natural convection. Experimental
Thermal and Fluid Science 7(3) : 177-188
Journal Name
Issue
Volume
CORRESPONDING IN-TEXT CITATION:
(Kayansayan 1993)
Page
CONFERENCE PAPERS IN
PUBLISHED PROCEEDINGS
Nebgen, Pamela J., and Richard C. Warner. 1985. Computer
aided design of hydrologic and sediment control systems.
In ASEE Annual Conference Proceedings: Computer Aided
Engineering 16-20 June, 1985. Edited by Lawrence P.
Grayson, 272-279. Atlanta: American Society for
Engineering Education.
CORRESPONDING IN-TEXT CITATION:
(Nebgen and Warner 1985)
Standards
British Standards Institution (BSI) .1991.
Specification for metal Cutting Bandsaw Blades.
BS 3877.
CORRESPONDING IN-TEXT CITATION:
(BSI 1991)
Patents
Sugisawa,K ,Y. Matsumura, and K. Taga.1986.
Decompression oil-frying method for food
products. U.S. Patent 4,585.660.
CORRESPONDING IN-TEXT CITATION:
(Sugisawa, Matsumura, and Taga 1986)
Reports
San Fernando/Princes Town highway improvements
continuation of Solomon Hochoy Highway
(St. Joseph village to New Cipero Road) : final
report - design . A report prepared by Trinidad
Engineering and Research (1978) Ltd. 1980. Port
of Spain, Trinidad : Ministry of
Transport and
Works.
CORRESPONDING IN-TEXT CITATION:
(San Fernando/Princes Town highway 1980)
Government Publications
Trinidad and Tobago. Ministry of Petroleum and
Mines, Geological Section.1966. Analyses of
Trinidad and Tobago rocks, minerals and
ores. Compiled by K.M.W. Marshall. Port of
Spain,Trinidad : Geological Section, Min. of
Petroleum & Mines.
CORRESPONDING IN-TEXT CITATION:
(Min. Petrol. and Mines 1966)
Unpublished Material
Charles ,Raymond, F. 1989. The equilibrium
strength of Trinidad clay subgrades.
M.Phil. Thesis. Dept. of Civil
Engineering, University of the West
Indies, St. Augustine,Trinidad and
Tobago.
CORRESPONDING IN-TEXT CITATION:
(Charles 1989)
Electronic Sources
Bide, Mark. 1998. In search of the unicorn:
the Digital Object Identifier from a user
perspective [online]. [cited 9 June
1998]. Available from:
http://www.bic.org.uk/bic/unicorn2.pdf
Oxford English Dictionary Computer File:
On Compact Disc. 2nd ed. [CD-ROM].
Oxford: Oxford UP, 1992.
Electronic Sources
Dunbar, Brian. 1996. The 16 Most Frequently
Asked Questions about NASA. In The
NASA Homepage [online]. [cited 14
August 1996]. Available from:
http://www.nasa.gov/hqpao/Top10.html
A Sample Reference List
REFERENCES
Meyer, M.D. 1992. Public transportation in the 21st century. In Public
transportation. 2nd ed. Edited by G. E. Gray, and L. A.
Hoel. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Rau, J.G. ,and D. C. Wooten. 1980. Environmental impact analysis
handbook. New York :McGraw-Hill.
Richardson, A. J. 1990. Traffic planning and modeling: a twenty year
perspective. Australian Road Research 20(1): 9-21.
Young, W. 1990. The interaction between data and a parking model
hierarchy . Proc. 15th Aust. Road Research Board Conference.
Australia: Road Research Board.
Referencing within the text - Samples
.
Numerous studies on the utilization of plant proteins as a partial or
complete replacement for fish meal in diets have been conducted using
various freshwater and marine fishes (Lovell 1987;Tacon et al. 1983;
Murai et al. 1989a ; Cowey et al. 1974). However, very little is known
about the feasibility of using soybean meal as a dietary protein source
in practical feeds for yellowtail Seriola quinqueradiata (Takii et al. 1989).
.
The question we address here is how technological change occurs
when it is the overall system that needs to be changed. In particular,
how can we begin and sustain a technological transition away from
hydrocarbon based technologies? (Street and Miles 1996)
.
Taking all these elements and their possible variations into account
is often far too complex and tedious for determining efficient gas
development patterns with simple back of the envelope calculations. In
their survey of these elements, Julius and Mashayeki (1996) present a
detailed analysis of these different interactions.
Variations
Some of the "preferred" methods of bibliographic referencing
from the recommended Chicago Manual of Style (15th .Edition)
have been illustrated above. Although referencing using the
Chicago Style should be evident by just a glance at your
document, it might be worthy to quote directly from the Chicago
Manual of Style on the matter of allowed variations:
So long as a documentary style is clear, effective and
consistently followed, variations and combinations of the
basic styles outlined in the Chicago Manual of Style may be
considered acceptable alternatives.
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Bibliographic Referencing - University of the West Indies