Action Research Defined: Investigations conducted by and for the people taking the action, on their own action to inform their future actions. Compact for Continuous Improvement Teaching and Learning Critical Study “What informs our decisions” TWO TYPES OF ACTION RESEARCH • DESCRIPTIVE STUDIES (understanding what is) • QUASI-EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES (testing theories) FOUR STAGE PROCESS Clarify Your Vision/Targets Articulate Your Theory(s) Implement Your Theory Reflect on Results A Leadership Mantra • What specifically do you hope to accomplish? • Specifically, how do you plan to accomplish this? Why? • How will you monitor your progress? • How will you report what you’ve learned? Stage #1 Clarify Your Vision/Targets What improvements in student or school performance would you like see? Professional Learning Communities: • Successful schools will have learning rather than teaching as a focus. Teachers will work together to analyze student work and consider best practice. • Instructional decisions will be based on data, emphasizing formative as well as summative data. Professional Learning Communities: • Collaborative conversations will be a part of the regular school day for teachers. • There will be a focus on results and staff will hold themselves accountable. • Professional learning teams will function successfully on a variety of levels leading to improved student achievement. Professional Learning Communities: • SMART goals will be understood and used meaningfully. • Action research or principal/teacher inquiry will inform practice. • Students who are experiencing difficulty will be supported. Learning is for all students. Professional Learning Communities: • Students will do better on a variety of assessments. They will feel more confident about literacy and numeracy and develop a stronger love of learning. An Achievement Target Targets as Dependant Variables: Generating Rating scales The purpose of the target (when doing quasi-experimental research): By stipulating a dependent variable (your achievement target), you are saying: “If my intervention has a positive effect on the target, it will validate my hypothesis.” Two Types of Variables: • Dependent variables: What we want to see changed • Independent variables What we will be doing Targets /Dependent Variables For each target you are investigating you will need: • To locate a valid/reliable assessment, or • Develop your own quality assessments Criteria for Building a Rating Scale • Basic: This is the minimum level of performance that could be considered a demonstration of this skill. • Developing: This is a good level of performance. I would be pleased if all my kids were here. • Fluent: This a truly remarkable demonstration of proficiency. R a ti ng S c a le IM P R O V ING “I N F ER E N TIA L CO M P RE H E N S ION ” BA S IC (1) DE V ELO P IN G (2) (3) F LUENT (4) (5) A fter read ing a g rad e- A fter read ing a g rad e A fter read ing a g rad e A fter read ing a g rad e A fter read ing a g rad e lev el app rop ri ate essay, level app rop ri ate essay level app rop ri ate essay level app rop ri ate essay level app rop ri ate essay the stu dent c an the stu dent c an the stu dent c an the stu dent c an the stu dent c an accu ra tel y r estate the accura tel y r etell t he accu ra tel y r etell and accu ra tel y r etell and accu ra tel y r etell and m ain idea. au th or ’s t hesis. suppo rt t he au th or ’s suppo rt t he au th or ’s su ppo rt t he au th or ’s thesis w ith m ult ip le thesis w ith m ult ip le thesis w ith m ult ip le details f ro m th e te xt. details f ro m th e te xt details f ro m th e te xt, an d ca n draw logi cal can d raw log ica l infe rence s abo ut t he infe rence s abo ut t he au th or ’s po int of v iew . au th or ’s po int of v iew an d t he stud ent ca n per sua siv ely su p po rt tho se infer ences b y refer en cing th e languag e an d vo cabu lary us ed b y the au th or. R a ting Sca le W orksheet BA S IC 1 D E VE L OP ING 2 3 4 F LUENT 5 Developing and Using a Theory of Action Stage #2 Articulate Your Theory(s) What actions do you think would/could produce the desired results? V is ua l D ep ict ion o f R el a ti on sh ip o f V isi on /T ar g ets a nd Th eo ry C u rr e n t Sit u ati on (A ) N ow Wh ere y ou a n d y our stud en t s a re no w V is ua l D ep ict ion o f R el a ti on sh ip o f V isi on /T ar g ets a nd Th eo ry C u rr e n t Sit u ati on (A ) N ow V isio n /O ut co m e s (C ) En d o f P r oce ss Wh ere y ou a n d y our stud en t s a re no w Th e "P rom i sed L a n d" V is ua l D ep ict ion o f R el a ti on sh ip o f V isi on /T ar g ets a nd Th eo ry C u rr e n t Sit u ati on (A ) Int end ed A cti on( s) (B) V ision/ O ut co m es (C ) En d o f P r oce ss N ow Wh ere y ou a n d y our stud en t s a re no w You r Th eoret i cal P erspect ive Th e "P rom i sed L a n d" V is ua l D ep ict ion o f R el a ti on sh ip o f V isi on /T ar g ets a nd Th eo ry C u rr e n t Sit u ati on (A ) Int end ed A cti on( s) (B) V ision/ O ut co m es (C ) En d o f P r oce ss N ow Wh ere y ou a n d y our stud en t s a re no w You r Th eoret i cal P erspect ive Th e "P rom i sed L a n d" Surfacing the Critical Independent Variables: The Priority Pie Identifying the Variables PRIORITY PIE List the most significant factors under our control that we will need to attend to if we are to succeed with/on this achievement target: Factor: __________ __________ __________ Identifying the Variables PRIORITY PIE List the most significant factors under our control that we will need to attend to if we are to succeed with/on this achievement target: Factor: __________ __________ __________ __________ Percent: _____ _____ _____ _____ Total: 100% P ri ori ty Pi e T he D evelopm en t of E di t i n g P rofici enc y 25% Word Processing 5% 15% Vocabulary Motivation Comfort/criticism 15% voice 15% 25% Usage rules (fi gu re 5.4 ) B ui ld ing M ot iva ted Le a rn ers 25% 15% Belonging Affiliation High Academic SelfImage 15% Internal Locus of Control Being Needed Valued 15% Optimistim 30% W e b elie ve th at th ere ar e fi ve fa ct or s wh ic h con tr ib u te t o s tu d ent resil ien cy an d en han ce m oti va tio n . Th e m os t cr itic al o f th ese b eing a n int erna l l oc u s o f c on tro l ( 30% ). P oss essin g a str ong a cad emi c self-im age, fe eli ng a s en se o f affil ia ti on a n d b el ong ing a t s ch ool a n d fe eli ng n ee d ed a re eq u al ly im po rt an t f act or s ( 15 % ea ch ). F in al ly, w e b el ieve tha t ho ld ing a n op timi sti c v ie w o f t h e f u tu re i s th e seco n d m ost pow erfu l fa ct or (25% ) The Graphic Reconstruction: Your Implementation Roadmap Columbus’ Hypothesis If I sail due west from Europe, for about 4,000 miles, then I should land on the East Coast of Asia. If I am correct, the ocean route will prove to be more efficient (than the overland route) for importing goods from East Asia. V is ua l D ep ict ion o f R el a ti on sh ip o f V isi on /T ar g ets a nd Th eo ry C u rr e n t Sit u ati on (A ) Int end ed A cti on( s) (B) V ision/ O ut co m es (C ) En d o f P r oce ss N ow Wh ere y ou a n d y our stud en t s a re no w You r Th eoret i cal P erspect ive Th e "P rom i sed L a n d" The Graphic Reconstruction: Your Road Map for Implementation • This will be a visual outline of the route you believe you should take. • If followed you truly believe it will take you to the desired destination. • It clearly reflects your understanding of the order of activities and events which will need to occur if you are ultimately to achieve success. (figure 5.3) E nhanc i n g Pro b lem Solvi n g Ca p ac it y Attends one meetin g of each work group b iweekly Weekly Team Plannin g Meetings Post Team Meeting Agendas Creates a Schedule for Shared Team Planning Princ ipal Facu lty Intranet Discussion Place Organ ized Aro u nd School Goals Posts Schoo l-wide performance data Posts Monthl y Reports re: Status on School Goals Creates Monthly Late -start Schedule Skill ful Proble m Solvers Practice Proble m Solving Skills Generate Topics for Monthl y Proble m -Sol ving Meetings Monthly Proble m - Solvin g Faculty Meet ings Workshop on Problem Solving Techniques Drawing out your theory…. 1) Brainstorm on a separate post-it note, every factor, variable, issue, phenomena or force that you feel influences performance in this area and/or ought/could/might come into play as you endeavor to improve performance. 2) Arrange the post-its in a manner which will illustrate a clear, direct and detailed route to the desired destination. Your road map should illustrate: 1) What problems exist 2) What needs to be done 3) In what manner it needs to be done 4) What combination of things need to occur, and 5) In what sequence they ought to occur Purposes of the Graphic Reconstruction • It clarifies and provides you with direction for the implementation of your “theory of action.” • When shared with your students, it helps make the the mysteries of the instructional process more understandable and coherent. Purposes of the Graphic Reconstruction, con’t • If it works satisfactorily, others will be able to “walk your walk” • If it doesn’t work as planned, you can retrace your steps to determine when and where things went wrong. 3 Generic (ACR) Research Questions: • What did you actually do (action)? • What improvement(s) in performance occurred on your targets (change)? • How and in what way did your actions influence the noted changes in performance (relationships)? Stage #3 Implementation/Data Collection How will you know if your actions are producing the desired results? DATA COLLECTION PLAN R ES EA R C H QU ES TION What did we actually do? What improvement occurred on our targets? How did our actions influence these changes? D A TA S OU R C E # 1 D A TA S OU R C E # 2 D A TA S OU R C E # 3 Some Sources of Data • EXISTING SOURCES --Student work (portfolios) --Documentary evidence (archival data) • TOOLS FOR CAPTURING EVERYDAY LIFE --Diaries, logs, journals --Tapes (audio/video) --Photographs --Shadowing --Observation checkists • TOOLS FOR QUESTIONING --Interviews --Surveys --Tests --Focus groups Trend Analysis: Analyzing Historical Data (8.2 ) 2.5 2 1.5 1 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 Fatalities per 100 Million VMT (fi gue 8.3 ) 2.5 2 1.5 1 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 Fatalities per 100 Million VMT 80 60 40 20 0 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 Seat Belt Use Rate (%) 96 97 98 Trend Analysis P E R F O R M A N C E TIME/ACTIONS (fi gu re 7.8 ) N ame _______________________ _ D ate: ________________ F eedbac k R epor t Sca le # 1 To day 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 W h y? Sca le # 2 To day 1 2 W h y? (fi gu re 7.9 ) N ame _______________________ D ate: ________________ _ N ame____________________ F eedbac k S u m mar y F eedbac k S u m mar y Sca le # 1 Sca le # 2 10 10 9 9 R 8 R 8 A 7 A 7 T 6 T 6 I 5 I 5 N 4 N 4 G 3 G 3 S 2 S 2 1 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 D ate E xp la in? _ D ate:_____________ 2 3 4 5 D ate E xp la in? 6 7 8 9 Conducting Rate of Growth Assessments (fi gu re 3.7 ) R a te of G rowth E x pect a t io ns R ea d y fo r C oll ege M at h * R eady fo r A P Ca lc u lus Z ero m a th S k il ls 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Gr ade 9 10 11 12 (fi gu re 3.6 ) Qu ic k Time ™ an d a TIFF (Unc o mpre s s e d) d ec om pre s s or are nee ded to s ee t his pic tu re. Creating and Using Mileposts • Identify expected proficiency at the end of the term • Build a task analysis containing every sub-skill between the entry performance of your weakest student and the expected proficiency. • On the task analysis indicate the “expected entry level of performance.” • Divide the number of months in the term by the number of sub-skills between the expected entry and exit levels. • Gaining skills at this rate is the expected “rate of progress.” End of School Year week #36 week #28 week #32 week #20 week #24 week #12 week #16 week #4 week #8 Start of School Year Ra t e of P r ogre ss T ra c k in g S h e e t S tud e nt : ___________________ Sub je c t: _______________________________ S k ill /ELR Sept O ct N ov Dec D a te : Jan Feb M ar A pr M ay Jun e S h ad e in a c olu m n sta rt ing f ro m l e ft t o r ight w h e n e v e r p r ofi c ie n c y is d e mon s tr at e d on a re qui re d sk i ll Stage #4 Reflect on Results In what ways did your “theory of action” prove correct and/or how should it be modified, in light of your findings? Graphic Reconstruction Revisit your original graphic reconstruction, asking: • Is this still an accurate picture of reality as we currently understand it? • Are there any factors, variables, or significant issues which we should add, delete or modify? Problems with Columbus’ Theory • Miscalculation of distance by Marco Polo • Not knowing about Western Hemisphere (fi gu re 9.1 ) Comp a ri son of M a ps 1 4 8 9 t o 1627 SAMPLE SCHOOL POLICY Given adequate funding, it is our desire to approve all reasonable proposals for program initiatives. Site-council approval will be based upon the presentation of credible data on effectiveness. If data is unavailable, approval will be based upon the presentation of a defensible theory accompanied by a workable data collection plan.