The Theory of Constraints
Fundamental Exam Review
TOC Thinking Processes Segment
James R. Holt, Ph.D., PE
Professor
[email protected]
http://www.engrmgt.wsu.edu/
Engineering & Technology
© Washington State University-2010
1
Management
TOCICO Segmented Fundamentals Exam
Fundamentals Certificate
Multiple Choice Exam
(Identify, Exploit, Subordinate, Elevate, Go to Step 1)
Fundamentals
Certificate of
TOC Philosophy
Fundamentals
Certificate of
TOC Thinking
Processes
•Inherent Potential
•Inherent
Simplicity
•Inherent Win-Win
•Five Focusing
Steps
•Three Questions
•Conflict
Cloud
•Negative
Branch
•Ambitious
Target
Fundamentals
Fundamentals
Certificate of
Certificate of
TOC Applications
TOC Finance &
Measures
•DBR
•Project
Management
•T, I, OE
•PQ Type
Problem
•Replenishment
© Washington State University-2010
2
Topics in TOC Thinking Process
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Cause and Effect
Evaporating Cloud
Surfacing Assumptions
Invalidating Assumptions
Negative Branch Reservation
Overcoming Obstacles (PRT)
Categories of Legitimate Reservation
Layers of Resistance
© Washington State University-2010
3
TOC Thinking Process Elements
• Two types of Logic (in Natural Language)
Sufficiency Logic
 If …, Then … .
 In order to …, There must be … .Necessary Logic
 Logical Causality Tools used to Answer the three
questions:
• What to Change?
• What to Change to?
• How to Cause the Change?
 TOC is a Systemic Thinking Process.
• There are a set of rules to guide and check validity.
• Could be called “Visual Thinking”.
© Washington State University-2010
4
Everyone Can Think
• Goal:
Minimize: Y
subject to:
(X-1)^2+(Y-8)^2<=24
(X-3)^2+(Y-8)^2<=14
(X-5)^2+(Y-8)^2<=2
(X-7)^2+(Y-8)^2<=22
(X-9)^2+(Y-8)^2<=26
Y->
Lower the Ball yet
keep it attached.
© Washington State University-2010
X->
5
The Real World
My View of
my World
© Washington State University-2010
6
Thinking Time
• We all think! It’s what we do!
• Our minds are like CPUs. They keep on running
and running and running …
• We feel uncomfortable if we don’t have thoughts in
our head.
 That’s why junk TV still survives.
• We feel uncomfortable if we start thinking the
wrong thoughts
 That’s why there are magazines in Doctor’s
offices!
© Washington State University-2010
7
Thinking Experiment
• Get out a pencil and paper.
• Wait for the starting signal.
• Then, Work really hard at not thinking for One
Minute!
GO!
© Washington State University-2010
8
QUICK!
• Write down every thought you had in the last
minute!
• Jot down a word to catch the thought you had
• Capture as many as possible.
© Washington State University-2010
9
How Many Thoughts did you
have in 1 Minute?
In the production world, we would
call recurring thoughts RE-WORK!
Probable #
How many of those
thoughts have you
had before? 40%,
60%, 80%?
0
3
6
9
12
15
18
Number of thoughts
© Washington State University-2010
10
Improving our Mental Throughput
• We need to increase our mental effectiveness
• We need to tie together the stray pieces so we
don’t have to deal with individual thoughts
• We need to get the whole picture, solve it, and
move on.
© Washington State University-2010
11
What is this?
© Washington State University-2010
12
Jonathan’s Family
© Washington State University-2010
13
Thinking Process Tools
• The Basic Set of Thinking Process Tools Include:
 Current Reality Tree
 Evaporating Cloud
All of these tools
 Future Reality Tree
 Negative Branch Reservation are Scrutinized by
the
 Pre-Requisite Tree
Categories of
 Transition Tree
Legitimate
• Derivatives Tools:
Reservation.
 Three Cloud Approach
 Chronic Conflict
Thinking Process elements included
in the Fundamentals Exam
 Layers of Resistance
© Washington State University-2010
14
For Fun…!
• In order to understand the function and power of
the Thinking Process Tools…
• Let’s examine a Thinking Process Example.
 One that is fairly well known by most people
 One that is not well solved by most people
Marital Strife
© Washington State University-2010
15
First the Approach: The Thinking
Process
What to Change?
UDEs
UDEs
UDEs
Find the cause of
the UnDesirable
Effects - UDEs.
Change (Remove)
the Core Problem.
UDEs
UDEs
UDEs
UDEs
UDEs
Core
Problem
© Washington State University-2010
Arrows are Logical
Connections are
Tail  Head:
“If …, Then … .”
16
Find What’s Blocking the Solution
What to Change To?
Necessary
Condition
Goal
Prerequisite
Arrows are Logical
Connections are
Head  Tail:
“In Order to …,
Must have ….”
Injection that invalidates
the assumption
Necessary
Condition
Prerequisite
Assumptions that
explain the necessary
Thinking Process elements included connection.
in the Fundamentals Exam
© Washington State University-2010
17
Achieving the Solution
How to Cause the
Change?
DE
DE
DE
DE
DE
Key
Action
DE
DE
DE
Key
Action
Key
Action
© Washington State University-2010
18
Marital Strife
UnDesirable Effects
Lack of
Affection
Lack of
Trust
Infidelity
Unequal Workload
Little
Support
One Carries
Excessive Load
Frequent
Disagreements
Lack of
Compassion
Difference of
Opinion
© Washington State University-2010
19
Story - Trust
1. My spouse doesn’t come home when I expect him (her).
This is happening more and more. The stories seem to be
weaker and weaker. I want to trust my spouse. But I don’t
want to be hurt.
My spouse
feels free from
my bondage
I feel good
about my
marriage
I don’t get hurt
Thinking Process elements included
in the Fundamentals Exam
I trust my
spouse at all
times
I don’t trust
my spouse
© Washington State University-2010
20
Story - Support
2. My spouse is deeply involved in ______. He/she expects me to support
him/her by taking care of __________ while he/she is gone. I don’t mind
doing it, but it leaves me little time for my own hobbies.
We use our
time well
My spouse can
do his/her own
thing
Give lots of
support
I have time for
myself
Give little
support
Thinking Process elements included
in the Fundamentals Exam
© Washington State University-2010
21
Story-Workload
3. My spouse is in a stressful job and at a critical point in his/her career.
It seems like this “critical point” is getting longer and longer. In the mean
time, I have to do my job and hold down the domestic duties too!
I survive
my Job
We balance our
domestic workload
We both
Achieve
My spouse
gets ahead
Thinking Process elements included
in the Fundamentals Exam
© Washington State University-2010
We have unequal
workload
22
Generic Conflict
(a consolidated Evaporating Cloud)
1. Spouse freedom
2. Spouse does own thing
3. Spouse gets ahead
1. Feel Good
2. Use Time Effective
3. Achieve
Happy
Marriage
My Spouse
is Happy
I am
Happy
1. Trust
2. Support
3. Unequal work
My spouse does
what he/she wants
My spouse doesn’t get
what he/she wants
1. I’m not hurt
2. Time for me
3. I Survive
Thinking Process elements included
in the Fundamentals Exam
© Washington State University-2010
1. Lack of Trust
2. Lack of Support
3. Balanced work
23
What to Change?
Core Conflict
Core Problem
Often, my spouse
takes second
place
I am often slighted
We have
different goals
There is pressure to
give my spouse does
what he/she wants
The things my
spouse wants
are important
to our
marriage
There is pressure not to
give what he/she wants
Our wants
are different
My Spouse needs
to be happy
I not happy unless
my spouse is happy
I need to be
happy
We want
a Happy
Marriage
© Washington State University-2010
I have real
needs
My personal
feelings are
important
24
The Current Reality Tree
Results of the Core Conflict
Infidelity
Loss of trust
Lack of Affection
Lack of Compassion
Lack of support
Time
Excessive burdens
continues
Unequal workload
Frequent
arguments
Things need to be
done
Different people have
different levels of
importance
Different Opinions
We have different
goals
© Washington State University-2010
25
A Potential Future
Desirale Effects (DEs)
We have a close We have complete
confidence
relationship
We share the
workload
We support
each other
Committed to
each other
Caring
Relationship
© Washington State University-2010
We share our
burdens
We rarely disagree
on important
matters
We really
understand
each other
26
Starting Injection
My spouse and I share
common goals, objectives
and direction in the important
aspects of our lives.
© Washington State University-2010
27
Start of the Future
We are working towards our
common goals/direction
Spouse is
working to our
common goals
My spouse
works
towards
spouse’s
goals
I’m working to
our common
goals
We have common
goals, objectives
and direction in the
important aspects
My Spouse
of our lives.
needs to
I need to
be Happy
be Happy
I not happy unless my
spouse is happy
We want
a Happy
Marriage
© Washington State University-2010
I work
toward
my
goals
My personal
feelings are
important
28
More Actions Needed
We have complete
confidence
We share our
burdens
We rarely
disagree
We have a close
relationship
We share the
workload
We support
each other
We really understand
each other
?
?
?
?
We have a Caring
Relationship
?
We are working towards our
common goals/direction
© Washington State University-2010
29
A Possible Nice
Future Reality Tree
What to
Change to?
We have complete
confidence in each other
We share a
common set of
moral virtues
We have a close
relationship
We share our burdens
We rarely disagree
We have good
communication
We make it a point
to communicate
(good & bad)
We share the
workload
We really
understand each
other
We support each other
Caring Relationship
We are working towards
our common
goals/direction
© Washington State University-2010
We realize we need
each other to reach
our common goals
30
Negative Branch Reservation
The Good Side
The Bad Side
My spouse’s
goals are
achieved.
Most of my
spouse’s goals are
our common goals
I’m working to
our common
goals
My spouse
works
towards
spouse’s
goals
I can’t achieve
my goals
I’m not working
on my goals
My goals
take a lot
I am very of time
We have common goals,
objectives and direction in the busy
important aspects of our lives.
Thinking Process elements included
in the Fundamentals Exam
© Washington State University-2010
31
Negative Branch Reservation
The Good Side
The Bad Side
My spouse’s
goals are
achieved.
I feel
goodachieve
about
I can’t
Most of my
my
myprogress
goals
spouse’s goals are
our common goals
II’m
work
our goals
I’m working to
noton
working
my goals
our common
onAND
my goals
goals
My goals
My spouse
take a lot
works
am very
We have common goals,
IIwork
on of time
towards
objectives and direction in the busy
things I
spouse’s
I finally
important aspects of our lives. value
goals
prioritize
Thinking Process elements included
my life
in the Fundamentals Exam
© Washington State University-2010
32
OK, Injections, But HOW?
How to Cause the Change?
We realize we need
each other to reach
our common goals
We make it a point
to communicate
(good & bad)
My spouse
works
towards
spouse’s
goals
Create the PreRequisite Tree
(Ambitious Target Tree).
Practice on this Injection
We share a
common set of
moral virtues
We have common
goals, objectives
and direction in the
important aspects
of our lives.
© Washington State University-2010
I work
toward
my
goals
I finally
prioritize
my life
33
We share a common
set of moral virtues
Obstacles
Preventing
Intermediate
Objectives
It’s a gray world out there.
(I can’t tell right from wrong)
We don’t want to change.
Values change according to
the circumstances.
We have different
backgrounds.
Our desires differ.
We both enjoy some moral
indiscretions.
Thinking Process elements included
in the Fundamentals Exam
34
© Washington State University-2010
We share a common set
of moral virtues
Obstacles
Preventing
Intermediate
Objectives
It’s a gray world (can’t tell right
from wrong)
We agree on common virtues
We don’t want to change
We are willing to work on this
Values change according to the
circumstances
We agree on a common virtues
We have different backgrounds
We really know each other
Our desires differ
We share a set of common goals
We both enjoy some moral
indiscretions
We live our set of virtues in all
cases
Thinking Process elements included
in the Fundamentals Exam
35
© Washington State University-2010
Sequencing the solution
(Structure of the PRT)
Thinking Process elements included
in the Fundamentals Exam
We share a common set of moral virtues
Its hard to tell right
from wrong
We live our set of
virtues in all cases
We agree on a common virtues
We are
different
We enjoy our
indiscretions
Our desires differ
We share a set of common goals
We really know each other
We don’t know
each other
We really communicate
We don’t
We don’t want to
talk much
admit error
We subordinate
We recognize our
ourselves to each other
own frailties
© Washington State University-2010
36
Putting the Intermediate Objectives Into Place
• The PreRequisite Tree exposed the Intermediate
Objectives (Milestones) needed for
“How to Cause the Change?”
• But, How to We actually Get there?
• How will, ‘We Really Communicate’?
• For this, the Transition Tree gives the Step-by-Step
Approach to getting there.
We really communicate
We don’t
We don’t want to
talk much
admit error
We subordinate
We recognize our
ourselves to each other
own frailties
© Washington State University-2010
37
Working Upwards on a
Transition Tree
Spouses can be a
significant help and support
for dealing with problems
We recognize (more
and more of) our
own frailties
We generally know about each
other’s mistakes that we try to hide
There are (and
should be) few
secrets between
spouses
We don’t
talk much
We really
communicate
We recognize our
own frailties
<feed back loop
from up above>
We want
to improve
We, each, admit
(confidentially) to
some of our
problems that we
wish to eliminate
We, each of us, try to
hide our mistakes
We don’t want
to admit error
We want
others to
We subordinate
ourselves to each respect us
other
© Washington State University-2010
Mistakes are
inevitable
We are
mortal
People rarely respect
people who make a lot
of mistakes
38
Working Upwards on a
We subordinate
Transition Tree
ourselves (more and
<feed back loop
from up above>
more) to each other
We need cooperation
(give and and take)
from both sides
Real love comes from
sacrificing self for the
benefit of others.
We are willing to do
some things that show
love to our spouse
We don’t
talk much
We
We really
communicate
Loved
each other
We recognize our
in the past
own frailties
We want
to improve
It is easier
to love
when
loved.
We, each, accept
we will do more
things for each
other than we are
currently doing
We need to resolve some
problems on both sides
Mistakes are
inevitable
Our marriage has
some strife caused
by each of us.
We don’t
We desire
to want
love each other
to admit error
even more than we do now
We both have
made some
We subordinate
mistakes
ourselves to each other
© Washington State University-2010
39
Working Upwards on a Transition Tree
We are very
patient and
listen without
judgment.
Neither of us
dominates the
discussion (for
too long)
We need to
talk more
We don’t
talk much
We really
communicate
(more and more)
We talk frequently
about our
successes together
We each mention
three good things
that are happening
in our lives
We really
communicate
We
want our
We
recognize
own
frailties
to improve
<feed back loop
from up above>
We subordinate
ourselves (more
and more) to
each other
We talk
frequently about
our challenges
We dedicate
time to spend
with each
other
We each mention
three problems that
we want to improve.
We don’t want
to admit error
We recognize
We subordinate more and
We don’t talkourselves
much to eachmore) of our
other
own frailties
© Washington State University-2010
We both have
topics of interest
to each other
40
Working Upwards on a Transition Tree
We really
communicate
(more and more)
We each mention
three good things
that are happening
in our lives
We each mention
three problems that
we want to improve.
We, each, admit (confidentially)
to some of our problems that we
wish to eliminate
We don’t
talk
much
We recognize
our own
frailties
We really
communicate
We don’t want
to admit error
We subordinate
ourselves to each
other
© Washington State University-2010
We are very
patient and
listen without
judgment.
We dedicate
time to spend
with each
other
41
The Strategic/Tactic Plan for Marriage
S. Marital
Bliss
T. Love Each
Other
S. Focus on
the Other
T. Have
Common
Goals
S. Get
Along
T. Accept
Each Other
Communication
Forgiveness
S. Trust
Each Other
S. Spouse
Loves Me
T. Share
Moral Code
T. Take
Actions to
cause Spouse
to love me
Fidelity
Shared
Responsibility
© Washington State University-2010
Work at Marriage
42
The Evaporating Cloud
B. My
Need
D. What I
Want
C. Other’s
Need
D’. What
the
Others
Want
A. The
Goal
Thinking Process elements included
in the Fundamentals Exam
© Washington State University-2010
43
Creating the Evaporating Cloud
1. What is it that I Want (that
I’m having trouble getting)?
D. What I
Want
© Washington State University-2010
44
Creating the Evaporating Cloud
1. What is it that I Want (that
I’m having trouble getting)?
D. What I
Want
D’. What
the
Others
Want
2. What is it that the Others Want
(that I don’t want them to have)?
© Washington State University-2010
45
Creating the Evaporating Cloud
3. Why do I want what I want?
What Need am I trying to fulfill?
1. What is it that I Want (that
I’m having trouble getting)?
B. My
Need
D. What I
Want
D’. What
the
Others
Want
2. What is it that the Others Want
(that I don’t want them to have)?
© Washington State University-2010
46
Creating the Evaporating Cloud
3. Why do I want what I want?
What Need am I trying to fulfill?
1. What is it that I Want (that
I’m having trouble getting)?
B. My
Need
D. What I
Want
C. Other’s
Need
D’. What
the
Others
Want
4. Why do the Others want what
they want? What Need do they
have?
2. What is it that the Others Want
(that I don’t want them to have)?
© Washington State University-2010
47
Creating the Evaporating Cloud
3. Why do I want what I want?
What Need am I trying to fulfill?
5. What Goal do we
mutually share? Why
are we still arguing?
1. What is it that I Want (that
I’m having trouble getting)?
B. My
Need
D. What I
Want
C. Other’s
Need
D’. What
the
Others
Want
A. The
Goal
Reading the Cloud:
In order to <point> I must
have <tail>.
4. Why do the Others want what
they want? What Need do they
have?
2. What is it that the Others Want
(that I don’t want them to have)?
© Washington State University-2010
48
Communicating the
Evaporating Cloud
4. Point out that you also have a
significant Need.
1. Start the Mutual Goal.
It is common ground.
Both interested.
5. And you WANT to meet
your Need as well.
B. My
Need
D. What I
Want
C. Other’s
Need
D’. What
the
Others
Want
A. The
Goal
Reading the Cloud:
In order to <point> I must
have <tail>.
2. Recognize you understand the
Other’s Need must be meet to
reach the Goal.
3. Acknowledge the Other side
Wants to act on meeting their
Need.
49
© Washington State University-2010
Let’s Do Some Examples
B. Why I
Want It
D. What I
Want (to do)
C. Why the
Other Side
Wants What
They Want
D’. What the
Other Side
Wants
A. The Goal
Thinking Process elements included
in the Fundamentals Exam
© Washington State University-2010
50
Let’s Do Some Examples
STUDENT
EXAMPLE
A. Get the
Customer
order
B. Make the
offer
attractive to
the
customer
D. Supplier
makes the
mold
C. Insure
the quality
of the
product
D’.
Customer
makes the
Mold
Thinking Process elements included
in the Fundamentals Exam
© Washington State University-2010
51
Let’s Do Some Examples
STUDENT
EXAMPLE
Because: Money is
the ONLY motivator
Because: Motivated
employees deliver
more profit
B. Motivate
better
Performance
A. Make
more Profit
C. Control
Expenses
Because: Expenses
subtract from profit
D. Pay High
Salaries
Because: This will
create conflict with
the team.
Salaries are fixed.
D’. Don’t
pay High
Salaries
Because: Salaries are
a significant part of
Thinking Process elements included
expenses
in the Fundamentals Exam
© Washington State University-2010
52
Evaporating the
Evaporating Cloud
Assumption: All machines must
be keep busy all the time.
Assumption: We are
measured upon our
Production Level
A. Manage
Production
Effectively
Assumption: Our profits
are not high. Customers
demand on-time delivery.
B.
Produce a
Lot
D. Increase
the Work-InProcess
Assumption:
C. Keep
Costs and
Delivery
in Control
D’.
Decrease
the Work-InProcess
We can’t
increase WIP
and Decrease
WIP at the
same time.
Assumption: WIP is expensive.
High WIP delays flow time.
© Washington State University-2010
53
There is an Injection for Every Conflict
• Arrow
• AB
• AC
• BD
• CD’
• D/D’
Assumption
Productive
Cost Effective
Busy Machines
Expensive WIP
Can’t do Both
Injection
Deliver Max Capacity
Price on Value
Keep Constraint 100%
Throughput Focus
Buffer Constraint only
Chosen Injection:
Focus on the Capacity Constrained Resource.
Release work to the system at the rate of the
Capacity Constrained Resource a Buffer Time in
Advance (no sooner, no later).
Use Buffer Management to improve the system.
© Washington State University-2010
54
Sometimes TOC Solutions Are Counter
Intuitive
• DBR: To get more out, put less in.
• CCPM: To finish project sooner, delay the Start.
• CCPM: To be safer, remove the safety.
• Replenishment: To get your products quicker to
the customer, store them farther away.
• To Solve the Conflict, Ignore the conflict.
• To Make More Money, Sell at below Cost.
If you can’t find an injection, then just do what is
opposite of what everyone else is doing (and
then do whatever it takes to make it work).
© Washington State University-2010
55
Negative Branch Reservation Practice
• Story Line.
Thinking Process elements included
in the Fundamentals Exam
 I just had an exposure to the Negative Branch
Reservation Tool of the TOC Thinking Process.
 I can remember parts of it (the Good Side, the
Bad Side part sticks out).
 The class instructor now tells us to make a
Negative Branch Reservations as an in class
quiz.
• Assignment.
 Draw the Negative Branch Reservation and the
results of the trimming Injection.
© Washington State University-2010
56
Negative Branch Reservation
The Good Side
The Bad Side
.
.
.
I draw a NBR Tree
Thinking Process elements included
in the Fundamentals Exam
© Washington State University-2010
.
57
We might
Miss it.
I Won’t be
alone
We might
learn from
Each other
Negative Branch Reservation
The Good Side
I will look
good!
I Could look
The Bad Side
bad.
Two idiots
are better
than one
I learn better
how to do
the NBR
Get Help from
Each other
My NBR tree
may not look
good
Practice
I draw a NBR Tree
Thinking Process elements included
in the Fundamentals Exam
© Washington State University-2010
I might be
called to
present
I’m not too
good at the
NBR
58
PreRequisite Tree Practice
• The AMBITIOUS TARGET:
 To Learn the Evaporating Cloud, the Negative
Branch Reservation and PRT (Ambitious Target)
Tree in the next half hour.
 What are the Obstacles?
 What are the Injections?
© Washington State University-2010
59
Learn EC, NBR, PRT in
30 Mins
Obstacles
Preventing
Intermediate
Objectives
.
.
Thinking Process elements included
in the Fundamentals Exam
© Washington State University-2010
60
Learn EC, NBR, PRT in
30 Mins
Obstacles
Preventing
We are
preoccupied.
Intermediate
Objectives
Full
Time Call Concentration
We are sleepy (after lunch)
Coffee
Too many calls
Switch off (no distractions)
Details unknown to us
We Know the Details
Not enough time
Plenty of time
No writing materials
Write on White Board
Not willing to accept learning
We paid for this class!
Not motivated.
I really want to do this
Difficult, complex, hard
With the right materials, this is easy!
Thinking Process elements included
in the Fundamentals Exam
© Washington State University-2010
61
Sequencing the solution
(Structure of the PRT)
Thinking Process elements included
in the Fundamentals Exam
I learn the EC, NBR, PRT in 30 Mins
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
© Washington State University-2010
62
Categories of Legitimate Reservation
Used to Scrutinize All Logic Trees
• First:
Clarity
• Second:
Entity Existence
Causality
• Third
Cause
Insufficiency
Additional Cause
Cause Reversal
Predicted Effect
Tautology
The Effect
The Cause
This simple set of rules, which compiles all the key elements necessary
and sufficient for anyone to validate or invalidate logic, is one of Eliyhau M.
Goldratt’s significant contribution
thinking.
© Washingtonto
State
University-2010
63
Resistance to Change
• Why don’t People Change?
 Resistance to change is a good thing. It prevents
most un-needed changes.
 People resist because they don’t understand the
value of the change and / or see significant
negative branches without a way to deal with
them.
 There are six basic layers of resistance and six
methods to overcome them.
© Washington State University-2010
64
Layers of Resistance
• Layer 1. Disagree on the problem
•
•
•
•
•
 Solution: Agree on the problem (CRT)
Layer 2. Disagree on the direction of the solution
 Solution: Agree on the direction of the solution (EC)
Layer 3. Disagree that the solution solves the problem.
 Solution: Agree that the solution solves the problem (FRT)
Layer 4. Yes, But, there are potential Negative consequences.
 Solution: Agree that the solution will not lead to any significant
negative effects (NBR)
Layer 5. Yes. But, there are obstacles to implementing the solution.
 Solution: Agree on the way to overcome any obstacles that might
block or distort implementation of the solution (PRT)
Layer 6. Unverbalized fears
 Solution: Overcome Unverbalized fears (TT)
© Washington State University-2010
65
Categories of Legitimate
Reservation: CLR – Clarity
Expressing logic visually gives the opportunity
for scrutiny often missed when voiced only.
This is a pretty
little girls school
This is a small
school for girls
A School only for Pretty Girls?
Or, is it a Pretty School for young girls?
Or, just a very Little School?
Could it be a school for one particularly
Pretty Girl (you missed the apostrophe)?
Are there boys there too?
Does the building look particularly nice?
What is the enrollment?
© Washington State University-2010
66
CLR – Entity Existence
A brand new
Lexus costs
$15,000
Operating costs
of the car are of
little concern
The exterior
appearance of the
car doesn’t matter
There is free
maintenance for
100,000 miles
Entity Existence Reservation:
“Do these things really exist in
your world?”
© Washington State University-2010
67
CLR – Causality
The Effect
I receive
20%
interest
I open a
Savings
Account
The Cause
Causality: Show me how the parts in the
Effect (at the point of the arrow) come from
the Cause (from the tail).
I need pants
like Joe’s
I need
a car
I become a
millionaire
I want to be
different
My roommate
has a car
I buy stock
There are problems with each one.
© Washington State University-2010
68
CLR – Cause Insufficiency
Insufficiency Reservation: You
Need to do your Project well.
I get excellent
grades in Class
I turn-in
good
homework
Insufficiency Reservation: Your
Group needs to complete a
good Group Project too.
My Project
goes well
My Group
Project
goes well
© Washington State University-2010
69
CLR – (More on Insufficiency)
Is it sufficient?
Not without the
Triangle!
© Washington State University-2010
70
CLR – Additional Cause
Additional Cause Reservation:
I don’t get
good Gas
Mileage
Additional Cause Reservation:
I drive too fast
My Truck is
large
I carry heavy
loads
Ah-Ha! We see an
area were
improvement is
possible.
© Washington State University-2010
71
CLR – Cause Reversal
My Garage is
full of stuff.
My Garage is
too small.
My Garage is
too small.
The Garage didn’t
create all the extra
things.
My Garage is
full of stuff
© Washington State University-2010
I can’t get my
car in the
Garage.
72
CLR – Predicted Effect
We don’t
have enough
money
to pay our
bills
Our Income
is too
low
Others with the
same income
would not be
able to pay their
bills
We have too
many bills
The Most Difficult
CLR to use (you
have to think).
Predicted Effect Reservation:
If our income is too low, I
would expect to see most
people with the same income
unable to pay their bills.
And yet, I see lots of people
with the same or less income
paying their bills just fine.
Many others
with same or
less income do
pay their bills
© Washington State University-2010
We buy too
many things
we really don’t
need
Discovery Happens!
73
CLR-Tautology Reservation
A Too Tight a Logical Loop
Too Tight
a Logic
Loop
10. There
is a
Chicken
A Longer Logical
Loop
Resolves the Age
Old Question
20. There
is an Egg
Most Frequent
Logical Error!
11. A Male and
Female Chicken
can produce a
fertile Egg
14. There is a
Male Chicken
16. There is a
Female Chicken
OR
20. There is a
fertile Egg
But, ©maybe
there were two eggs first!
Washington State University-2010
74
CLR – Tautology
The Cause is the Excuse
The Beavers
lost the game
The Effect
The Beavers are
a lousy team.
The Cause
Most Frequent
Logical Error!
• The Circular Logic
of the Cause is
accepted because
of the Effect.
• “How do you know the Beavers are a lousy Team?”
• “Because, they lost the game didn’t they!”
• Whenever you hear, a BECAUSE,
that is the same as the Effect you have
a Tautology (bad logic).
© Washington State University-2010
75
CLR – Tautology
“The Cause is Hard to Define”
Most Frequent
Logical Error!
• The Circular Logic of the Tautology
comes from a Cause which is abstract;
difficult to determine, define or quantify.
The Beavers are
• So, too often the Cause is not
a lousy team.
challenged.
• And, it seems the undefined Cause is
accepted because of the Effect.
• To resolve the Tautology, the Cause needs to be something
that can be determined and challenged;
Not an Abstract Concept.
•In this case, the abstract word is “lousy”. What does that
mean? We need another substantial meaning.
• When the BECAUSE is ABSTRACT,
we need to dig further.
76
The Beavers
lost the game
© Washington State University-2010
CLR – Tautology: Searching
For An Alternate Connection
The Beavers are
depressed by their
mistakes
The Beavers
lost the game
The Beavers
face an easy
team
The Beavers may
are
a
not
lousy
be so
team.
bad.
The Beavers play
a lousy game
The Beavers
don’t execute
well
Most Frequent
Logical Error!
The Beavers are
perceived as a
lousy team.
The Beavers
don’t prepare
well for games
© Washington State University-2010
People feel
bad when
they make
dumb
mistakes
The Beavers are
in a slump
They are not
thinking clearly
77
How Do Tautologies
Happen?
They are
obstinate
They are
obstinate
They still
don’t do it
I push them
hard
I push them
harder
I push them
I tell them
what to do
Most Frequent
Logical Error!
Cause for Tautology is
unanswered questions.
They don’t
Do we every stop to
do it
think why they are not
answered?
Why don’t people do
what they are told?
78
Hum?
© Washington State University-2010
Cause for the Tautology
Pre-Conceived Notion
Most Frequent
Logical Error!
• In General, the most common error in “Jumping to
Conclusions” is the Tautology!
He won’t
help us
He is a
jerk
They are Muslims
He is Black
They are Poor
He’s Indian
Sometimes a
Tautology is a
single statement.
She’s a Woman
Men!
They are Part of
Management!
Hum?
What is the underlying reason for these crude remarks?
© Washington State University-2010
79
Tautology is often a ‘Knee Jerk’
• When we hear, “BECAUSE” (same as Effect)…
• When the BECAUSE is ABSTRACT…
• When the ABSTRACT is DEROGITORY …
 It is probably a Tautology Logic Problem
• Basic Assumptions of the Theory of Constraints:
All People
Think
Every action is logical
(within the environment and in
accordance with the individual’s
understanding of their ability to
change the environment)
All People are
Good
Emotion is evidence of
passionate, logical thinking!
© Washington State University-2010
80
Practice Correcting a Knee Jerk
They are Part of
Management!
=>
Why Should they?
I’m important
I do a good job
Management must
be dealing with
some very serious
needs
I’m glad it’s not me!
Management is
Incompetent
Management
Ignores me
I don’t get
what I need
Management
Doesn’t
Respond
I am not the
system’s
problem
Management
Doesn’t
Listen
Management’s Role is to
oversee systemic
performance
© Washington State University-2010
81
An Additional TOC Insight
• Systems are Inherently Simple
System A
System B
E=MC2
In free markets, economic stability is
controlled by the Interest Rate.
© Washington State University-2010
82
Look for a Simple Solution!
I can’t do
my
homework
I don’t know what the words mean
I don’t understand the problems
The
homework is
too hard
I don’t understand the book
Did you ask
anyone for
clarity?
Lecture doesn’t make sense
No.
It’s too complicated
I can’t see the connections
There are too many concepts
© Washington State University-2010
83
Thinking Processes
The Goal: Improve Systems (Remove UDEs)
The Measure: Number, Scope and Severity of Problems
The Constraint: Core Conflict
UDE
UDE
UDE
UDE
UDE
“There once was an old System
UDE
That lived in a shoe.
UDE
That had so many UDEs
UDE
UDE
UDE
It didn’t know what to do…”
UDE
UDE
UDE
UDE
UDE
UDE
© Washington State University-2010
UDE
UDE
UDE
84
Thinking Processes
The Analysis:
The Paradigm Shift: Cause the
Erroneous Assumption to Go Away
(Fix Rules, Measures)
Let the System Behave Correctly!
© Washington State University-2010
85
Thinking Process Results
Problems Go AwayAre Replaced By Desirable Entities!
Conflicts can be Resolved.
Negative Branches should be Trimmed.
Be “James Bond” -- A Few, Rightly
Placed Injections can Make Dramatic
Improvement!
What do we learn
here to apply to
Daily Lives?
We can achieve Ambitious Targets
Communication is Greatly Improved!
Buy-In Happens!
© Washington State University-2010
86
Thinking Processes
Lessons Learned
• There are Answers -- Don’t Despair
• Look for Cause-->Effect Relationships
• Think Clearly
 Clarity, Causality, Insufficiency, Additional Cause,
Predicted Effect, Cause Reversal
• Don’t Accept Compromise (No Win-Lose or
Lose-Lose)
 Learn to find Breakthrough Injections
 “A Cloud-A-Day keeps the Conflict Away”
• Become Justifiably Self-Confident
 Enter a Complex World, Find the One Spot that
Needs Fixing, Fix it.
 Then, Look for
the Next Spot to Fix
© Washington State University-2010
87
Next Topics
• TOC Thinking Processes
• TOC Applications
 Operations
 Project Management
 Replenishment
• TOC Finances and Measures
• Some TOC Philosophy will be blended into these
additional topics.
© Washington State University-2010
88
Descargar

Slide 1