Reading into Writing.
Autumn term 2009
Objectives
• To support your role in monitoring and evaluating
teaching and learning in literacy.
• To explore the elements of quality first teaching and
raise awareness of relevant support materials.
• To investigate the links between assessment and
teaching and learning.
• To identify links between the AFs and Renewed
Framework for Literacy.
Teaching is a complex activity!
Take some time on your tables to discuss
your own ideas about how children learn
and how teaching supports this learning.
As a school group,
identify strengths and
any gaps in your
teaching and learning
As managers of your school, how do you
know the strengths and weaknesses?
What evidence do you have to support
your judgements of teaching and
learning?
Pedagogy is the art of teaching and the
rationale that supports the actions that
teachers take. It is what a teacher
needs to know and the range of skills
that a teacher needs to use in order to
make effective teaching decisions
Pedagogy – Core principles.
• Ensure that every learner succeeds; set high expectations.
•Build on what learners already know; structure and pace teaching
so that they can understand what is to be learned, how and why.
• Make learning of subjects and the curriculum real and vivid.
•Make learning enjoyable and challenging; stimulate learning
through matching teaching techniques and strategies to a range of
learning needs.
•Develop learning skills, thinking skills, and personal qualities
across the curriculum, inside and outside the classroom.
•Use assessment for learning to make individuals partners in their
learning.
DFES 2003
These principles recognise that learning
has both cognitive and affective
dimensions.
Factors such as motivation or self esteem
have an important impact on behaviour
and consequently on learning.
Pedagogy.
Teaching repertoire
of skills and
techniques
Subject and
curriculum
knowledge
Quality first teaching
Teaching and
learning models.
Conditions for
learning
Good Teaching involves;
• Planning and structuring learning.
•The generic teaching skills of questioning,
explaining and organising group work.
•A range of active engagement techniques
designed to draw the learner in and
demand participation.
Year 2 Low Level 2 – entering
Year 3.
Activity.
In small groups, work together to analyse the writing
samples from Kaycee’s Standards File.
Please consider;
• the quality first teaching that has taken place.
• the written outcome
• the range of the writing i.e. fiction/non
fiction/curriculum area.
• the context of the activity i.e. individual/group etc.
Do you agree with the judgements recorded on the
guidelines sheet?
Take time to discuss your responses – use post-it notes
for questions and comments.
Where next for Kaycee and her
group?
What are the next steps in their
learning?
How can we best plan for
progression?
•How are teachers in your school
using assessment/AFL to inform
their planning?
•Are you looking at Standards Files
to confirm your judgements?
• Are there planned opportunities for
moderation of teachers’
judgements?
Support for Writing……
…..Steps in Learning.
……Progression Papers
……Writing Targets
……Text type information
http://nationalstrategies.standards.dcsf.gov.uk
-Primary Frameworks
-Literacy Frameworks
-Support for Writing – Steps in Learning
-OR Objectives – Steps in Learning.
Talk for Writing Materials
http://nationalstrategies.standards.dcsf.gov.uk
Primary Frameworks
Literacy Frameworks
- Talk for Writing
- Pie Corbett clips and tips
- NOT A BAG OF TRICKS!.
1. Book Talk
2. Writer Talk
3. Role play and drama
4. Word Games
5. Story Telling and Story Making including
Boxing Up.
Writing Assessment Focuses linked to Framework Strands.
AF1 write imaginative, interesting and thoughtful texts. 9
AF2 produce texts which are appropriate to task, reader and purpose 9
AF3 organise and present whole texts effectively, sequencing and
structuring information, ideas and events. 10 (9)
AF4 construct paragraphs and use cohesion within and between
paragraphs . 10 (9)
AF5 vary sentences for clarity, purpose and effect. 11 (9)
AF6 write with technical accuracy of syntax and punctuation in phrases,
clauses and sentences. 11 (9)
AF7 select appropriate and effective vocabulary. 9
AF8 use correct spelling. 5 & 6
A clearerSTRANDS
structure for Literacy
Speak and Listen
for a wide range
of purposes in
different contexts
1. Speaking
2. Listening and responding
3. Group discussion and interaction
4. Drama
5. Word recognition: decoding and encoding ( R, Y1, Y2 only)
6. Word structure and spelling
Read and write
for a range of
purposes
on paper and
on screen
7. Understanding and interpreting texts
8. Engaging with and responding to texts
9. Creating and shaping texts
10. Text structure and organisation
11. Sentence structure and punctuation
12. Presentation
Child; Kaycee
School;
APP: What are the gaps in learning indicated on guidelines sheet?
Which area needs to be prioritised?
AF6 – write with technical accuracy of syntax and punctuation in
phrases, clauses and sentences.
AF7 – select appropriate and effective vocabulary
PRIMARY FRAMEWORK.
Strand:
Objective:
STEPS IN LEARNING.
What does the child need to learn next?
PUPIL WRITING TARGET.
PEDAGOGY/TEACHING APPROACHES.
AS July 09.
Child; Kaycee entering Year 3
School;
APP: What are the gaps in learning indicated on guidelines sheet?
Which area needs to be prioritised?
AF6 – write with technical accuracy of syntax and punctuation in
phrases, clauses and sentences.
AF7 – select appropriate and effective vocabulary
PRIMARY FRAMEWORK.
Strand: 11 – sentence structure and punctuation
Objective – Compose sentences using adjectives, verbs and nouns for
precision, clarity and impact.
(Vocabulary extension)
STEPS IN LEARNING.
What does the child need to learn next?
PUPIL WRITING TARGET.
PEDAGOGY/TEACHING APPROACHES.
AS July 09.
YEAR 3
Strand 11 Sentence structure and punctuation
Progression summary
Children begin to use subordinate clauses during Year 3
to explain why, using causal connectives (because, so).
They use their growing vocabulary to make
increasingly effective, precise and appropriate choices
when composing sentences. The range of punctuation
they use independently extends to include exclamation
marks.
Do your teachers know what
Learning objectives; Compose sentences using
constitutes progression within a strand
adjectives, verbs and nouns for precision, clarity and
and how to plan for that learning to
impact
take place?
Step in learning 1
Children focus on using verbs (adjectives) for effect. In shared
writing, the teacher models how to compose sentences for a
story. Through supported composition, children contribute to
choosing and using verbs (adjectives) carefully for precision
and for their impact on their reader.
Step in learning 2
Children write the first part of a myth in guided writing. They
focus on choosing vocabulary (nouns, verbs, adjectives and
adverbs) for maximum impact on their reader as they compose
sentences that introduce the first setting and main character.
Step in learning 3
Writing independently, children apply what they know about
sentence structure and vocabulary. They adapt sentence
structure for effect.
Child; Kaycee entering Year 3
School;
APP: What are the gaps in learning indicated on guidelines sheet?
Which area needs to be prioritised?
AF6 – write with technical accuracy of syntax and punctuation in
phrases, clauses and sentences.
AF7 – select appropriate and effective vocabulary
PRIMARY FRAMEWORK.
Strand: 11 – sentence structure and punctuation
Objective – Compose sentences using adjectives, verbs and nouns for
precision, clarity and impact.
(Vocabulary extension)
STEPS IN LEARNING.
What does the child need to learn next?
Children focus on using verbs (adjectives) for effect. In shared
writing, the teacher models how to compose sentences for a story.
Through supported composition, children contribute to choosing and
using verbs (adjectives) carefully for precision and for their impact
On their reader
PUPIL WRITING TARGET.
Use a range of verbs, nouns and adjectives for impact.
PEDAGOGY/TEACHING APPROACHES.
AS July 09.
Three phase planning process.
How does this model reflect planning in your
school?
Do your teachers understand the ‘big picture’ of
planning?
Do teachers understand the essential links
between reading and writing?
Year 3 Narrative Unit 1 – Stories with familiar settings.
School setting - ‘Crunchem Hall’ from ‘Matilda’ by Roald Dahl (Book and DVD)
WOW start – Use novel as class story.
Open up ‘dialogue’ between class and Matilda to provide purpose and
audience.
Start with letter/email from Matilda describing her first impressions of
Crunchem Hall – use as text.
PLANNING PHASE 1.
FAMILIARISATION WITH GENRE;
Reading comprehension; investigation of setting.
Learning Objectives:
8. Identify features that writers (and film directors) use to provoke readers
reactions.
7. Explore how different texts appeal to readers using varied sentence
structure and descriptive language.
Learning Outcome:
Children can express a view clearly as part of class/group discussion.
Children can form opinions of a text and use evidence in the text to explain
their reasons.
Assessment Focus
Reading AF2 and AF4.
Book Talk
Explore letter and raise
discussion and questions.
Repeat with DVD clips –
camera angle, colour, visual
impact.
The extended opportunity to
use talk to explore pupils
personal and collective
response to text as readers
Step 1: Eliciting response
After careful reading of a shared text the teacher initiates ‘book-talk with
very open ended invitations such as:
‘Tell me about…’
‘What came into your mind when you read…’
‘Have you come across anything like this before?’
Step 2: Extending response
The teacher focuses on extending children’s responses with prompts
such as:
‘Tell me about…’
‘What led you to think that?’
‘Can you extend/unpack that idea for us?’
Step 3: Encouraging critique
Frequently groups of children can be supported and encouraged to feed off
each other’s thinking and talking, with prompts such as:
‘Do you agree?’
‘Did anyone have a different response to the story/paragraph/sentence/word?’
The Wolves in the Walls
By Neil Gaiman
Personal Response
Lucy walked around the house.
Inside the house everything was quiet. Her mother was putting homemade jam into
pots.
Her father was out at his job, playing the tuba.
Her brother was in the living room playing video games.
Lucy heard noises. The noises were coming from inside the walls.
They were hustling noises and bustling noises.
They were crinkling noises and crackling noises.
They were sneaking, creeping, crumpling noises.
Lucy knew what kinds of things make noises like that in walls of big old houses,
and she went and told her mother.
“There are wolves in the walls,” Lucy said to her mother.
“I can hear them.”
Key points to model:
• Teacher models before the class tries
• Personal response, not a list of ‘comprehension’ questions
• Open prompts/questions/invitations
• Critical/evaluative thinking (‘real’ comprehension)
• Can’t be wrong – but should be prepared to
change/adapt/amend in response to others
• Building group dialogue
“No,”
said her mother.
“There are no wolves in the walls. You must be hearing
mice, I suppose.”
“Wolves,” said Lucy.
“I’m sure it’s not wolves” said her mother.
“For you know what they say………
…..If the wolves come out of the walls, then it’s all
over.”
“What’s all over?” asked Lucy.
“It,” said her mother.
“Everyone knows that.”
What was the talk teaching?
• generating words and phrases
Key points.
• selection and choice
• training imaginations
• modelling and setting standards
• inviting all to participate
• prompting and digging deeper
• oral rehearsal and revisiting.
• first idea not the
best.
• value all
contributions
• model
• short writes
• fun games for
vocabulary.
• training the brain.
Writer-talk
Reading as a
writer,
writing as a reader
Writer Talk
‘Magpie’ - reading as a writer.
Focus on sentence structure and word choices.
Draw out five or six key features to reflect impact
of both text and DVD to use as a map for writing.
• The articulation of the thinking/creative process involved
in all stages of writing
• Talk that helps children to think/behave like a writer
(consider themselves to be one)
• Externalising/making explicit, through talk, the thinking
involved in both:
- ‘reading as a writer’ – understanding the response the
writer wishes to get from the reader and how they
achieve this
- ‘writing as a reader’ – applying the same
understanding when making the choices involved in
planning, creating and improving their own writing
Key points to model:
• Teacher models before the class tries
• At all stages verbalise/make explicit the
reader’s/writer’s thinking
• Not just about ‘spotting grammar’
• Key question: what effect is the writer creating? (text
level paramount)
• Key follow-up: how is he/she achieving this? (may
involve some word/sentence-level-thinking – but
always in the context of the effect created)
• Identify key features – appropriate to the age of the
class
How did we feel about Matilda when we watched her
walk into the school under the arch?
How were we made to feel like that?
How did the director manipulate our emotions?
How did we feel about the school buildings and
environment?
How were we made to feel like that?
How did the director manipulate our feelings?
What impressions have we made about Miss
Trunchbull?
How were we made to feel like that?
How did the director manipulate our opinions?
What
would
this look
like in a
written
text?
What was the talk teaching?
• generating words and phrases
Key points.
• selection and choice
• training imaginations
• modelling and setting standards
• inviting all to participate
• prompting and digging deeper
• oral rehearsal and revisiting.
• first idea not the
best.
• value all
contributions
• model
• short writes
• fun games for
vocabulary.
• training the brain.
PLANNING PHASE 1.
FAMILIARISATION WITH GENRE;
Reading comprehension; investigation of setting.
Learning Objectives:
8. Identify features that writers (and film directors) use to provoke readers
reactions.
7. Explore how different texts appeal to readers using varied sentence structure
and descriptive language.
Learning Outcome:
Children can express a view clearly as part of class/group discussion.
Children can form opinions of a text and use evidence in the text to explain their
reasons.
Assessment Focus Reading AF2 and AF4.
Short Writing opportunities
1. Short replies to Matilda; ‘My school isn’t like that….’, ‘My first day at school’,
2. Use Zone or relevance to sort adjectives to describe Crunchem Hall and
build into shared/individual descriptive passage.
3. I like/dislike Crunchem Hall because……..
4. The film clip made me feel ………………………..by…………………………
5. Letters to HT – ‘What I like about my school…’.
Lunch
!
Painting a picture
You can
see…
What was the talk teaching?
• generating words and phrases
Key points.
• selection and choice
• training imaginations
• modelling and setting standards
• inviting all to participate
• prompting and digging deeper
• oral rehearsal and revisiting.
• first idea not the
best.
• value all
contributions
• model
• short writes
• fun games for
vocabulary.
• training the brain.
Storytelling and Story Making
• IMITATION – familiarisation
Retelling a story till it can be told fluently Multi-sensory
approach, made memorable
• INNOVATION – adapting a well-known tale
Substitution, addition, alteration, change of viewpoint
and reusing the basic story pattern
• INVENTION – creating your own story
Building up a story – drawing, drama, images, video,
first-hand experience, location, quality reading, etc.
What does the reader internalise?
- Memorable blueprints – patterns that are revisited, eg the
power of 3, ‘quest’ stories.
- Building blocks – common character, setting, action, the rise
and fall of narrative patterns.
- The flow of sentences, the syntactical patterns.
- Vocabulary – connectives that link crucial elements such as
‘once upon a time’, one day, so, next, but, finally etc.
- Images in the mind – most importantly they develop an
imaginative world that may be visited to draw out new ideas
and possibilities.
Story Maps
What a monkey sees…
What was the talk teaching?
• generating words and phrases
Key points.
• selection and choice
• training imaginations
• modelling and setting standards
• inviting all to participate
• prompting and digging deeper
• oral rehearsal and revisiting.
• first idea not the
best.
• value all
contributions
• model
• short writes
• fun games for
vocabulary.
• training the brain.
How do the children in your school develop a
‘storehouse of stories’?
Are they passionate about stories?
How many children’s authors or poets do you think
your teachers could name?
Is story-telling timetabled?
Do children have access to good quality books?
Is reading at home seen as ‘homework’?
As a school leader, how are you creating an
inclusive, engaging and exciting reading
environment?
Assessment & Review
End of phase: assessment of teaching and learning
Teachers need to:
Provide ‘closing the gap’ marking/feedback – against success
criteria/targets
Review attainment against objectives – identifying areas
that need consolidation/further teaching
Set new targets (if you need to)
Begin to collate evidence for APP from both
planned and AFL opportunities
Children need to:
Have opportunities to review their own/peer learning
Respond to marking/feedback
Revisit/review personal targets
PLANNING PHASE 2
CAPTURING IDEAS; Writing in role; analysis and investigations of
aspects of the text.
Learning Objectives:
1. Sustain conversation, explain or give reasons for their views/choices
4. Use some drama strategies to explore stories/issues.
8. Identify features that writers (and film directors) use to provoke
readers reactions
11. Compose sentences using adjectives, verbs and nouns for precision,
clarity and impact.
Learning Outcome;
Children can express a view clearly as part of class/group discussion.
Children can form opinions of a text and use evidence in the text to
explain their reasons.
Children can use visual elements to write sentences describing settings.
Assessment Focus: Reading AF2. Writing AF 5 & 6.
Teaching strategies
Magpie ideas
Vocabulary building
Shared writing
Guided Writing
Modelled writing
Role play
What was the talk teaching?
• generating words and phrases
Key points.
• selection and choice
• training imaginations
• modelling and setting standards
• inviting all to participate
• prompting and digging deeper
• oral rehearsal and revisiting.
• first idea not the
best.
• value all
contributions
• model
• short writes
• fun games for
vocabulary.
• training the brain.
‘Boxing up’
to create a story structure
• Isolate the main character
• Others busy
• Short punchy sentences to emphasise
key points
• Show how character is feeling by what
he/she does, thinks and says.
• ADD SETTING
Assessment & Review
End of phase: assessment of teaching and learning
Teachers need to:
Provide ‘closing the gap’ marking/feedback – against
success criteria/targets
Review attainment against objectives – identifying areas
their need consolidation/further teaching
Set new targets (if you need to)
Ongoing screening of evidence for APP
Children need to:
Have opportunities to review their own/peer learning
Respond to marking/feedback
Revisit/review personal targets
PLANNING PHASE 2
CAPTURING IDEAS; Writing in role; analysis and investigations of aspects of the
text.
Learning Objectives:
1. Sustain conversation, explain or give reasons for their views/choices
4. Use some drama strategies to explore stories/issues.
8. Identify features that writers (and film directors) use to provoke readers
reactions
11.Compose sentences using adjectives, verbs and nouns for precision, clarity
and impact.
Learning Outcome;
Children can express a view clearly as part of class/group discussion.
Children can form opinions of a text and use evidence in the text to explain their
reasons.
Children can use visual elements to write sentences describing settings.
Assessment Focus: Reading AF2. Writing AF 5 & 6.
Short writing opportunities
• Continued correspondence with Matilda – letters, poems, reports.
• Description of setting and character (guided and independent).
PLANNING PHASE 3
TEACHER DEMONSTRATION; shared, guided and independent writing
Learning Objectives:
9. Select and use a range of technical/descriptive vocabulary.
11. Compose sentences using adjectives, verbs and nouns for precision, clarity
and impact.
12 Handwriting/presentation.
Learning Outcome;
Children can compose and punctuate a series of sentences to describe a
familiar setting.
Assessment Focus
Writing AF 3, 5, 6 (AF2 & 7)
Story Making (innovate)
Alternative school setting pictures
on IWB.
What effect would setting have on
characters? Children to create
story scenarios.
Writer Talk
Children to use create own school
setting descriptions – with action –
and relate to original format. Test
reaction with peers.
Writing opportunities…..
Unit outcomes; description of own/alternative school with
character’s first visit.
OR
• Narrative in form of a letter to Matilda describing their own
school in detail
• Report to HT/Chair of Governors describing their own - or
imagined school – complaint or praise?
• Personal diary entry describing an imagined first day at a
terrible/wonderful school.
• Letter to Miss Trunchbull persuading her to create an
improved school setting.
•AND ……and…….and……and ETC
Assessment & Review
Formal end of unit: assessment of pupils’ work
Teachers need to:
Provide ‘closing the gap’ marking/feedback – against success
criteria/targets
Review attainment against objectives – identifying areas
that will require further teaching in the next unit of work
Begin to secure APP/Assessment information
judgements (moderate)
Children need to:
Have opportunities to review their own/peer learning
Respond to marking/feedback
Revisit/review personal targets
Child; Kaycee entering Year 3
School;
APP: What are the gaps in learning indicated on guidelines sheet?
Which area needs to be prioritised?
AF6 – write with technical accuracy of syntax and punctuation in
phrases, clauses and sentences.
AF7 – select appropriate and effective vocabulary
PRIMARY FRAMEWORK.
Strand: 11 – sentence structure and punctuation
Objective – Compose sentences using adjectives, verbs and nouns for
precision, clarity and impact.
(Vocabulary extension)
STEPS IN LEARNING.
What does the child need to learn next?
Children focus on using verbs (adjectives) for effect. In shared
writing, the teacher models how to compose sentences for a story.
Through supported composition, children contribute to choosing and
using verbs (adjectives) carefully for precision and for their impact
On their reader
PUPIL WRITING TARGET.
Use a range of verbs, nouns and adjectives for impact.
AS July 09.
PEDAGOGY/TEACHING APPROACHES.
Book Talk, Writer Talk – vocabulary building games and activities.
Modelled and shared writing – guided writing with tight focus.
Level 5
Meeting the Impact Measures –
Evaluating Professional Learning
Use of knowledge
and skills
What has been the impact
on children’s learning?
Have you evidence to show
that as a result of this,
learning has improved?
Level 4
Organisational
support for
change
Have practices changed? Has
the new knowledge/skill been
used? What criteria will you
use to gauge this so that you
can support whose practice
hasn’t moved on?
Pupil progress
& attainment
Level 3
Teacher
learning
Is the school set up to support
them to do the things that
teachers have been asked to
put into practice?
Level 2
Resources to
support CPD
Participant learning. Have
you evidence to show that as
a result of that experience,
participant’s knowledge base
changed/skills were
developed?
Level 1
Participants’ reactions to the
professional development
program.
Adapted from Gutskey, 2005. Available from http://www.etech.ohio.gov/expert-interviewseries/dr.thomas-gutskey.dot
Questions….comments….discussion.
• In your school, how will you ensure assessment directly
informs planning to secure progress for all children?
• What criteria do you use when completing a scrutiny of
children’s work? Do your present expectations reflect the
‘reading into writing’ process as outlined today or are you
reliant on final unit outcomes?
• What are the immediate CPD requirements for your
staff?
• What are the present expectations for literacy planning
and do these need to alter?
• How will you introduce the ‘Support for Writing’ materials
to teachers?
What do we need
to do next?
Evaluations
please!
Do we have all
we need to be
successful?
What support do
we need to
ensure success?
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