India Overview
Fall 2006
Nicki Pearce
Kurt Frevert
Molly McDonald
Geography
• Area: 1,270,000 squ.
miles
• Approx the 1/3 the size
of the US
• Border: 8800 miles total;
2100 miles with China; 1800
miles with Pakistan
• Coastline: 4350 miles
Demographics: Population
2006 (est.)
• Population: 1,095,352,000
• 17% of the world’s
population (2nd most
populous)
• 5% of county’s population is
within 10 urban areas with
2000+ persons/squ mi.
• 28% population is urban
Demographics: Population cont.
2006 cont.
• Growth: 1.38% per year
• Birth Rate: 22.01
births/1000
• Death Rate: 8.18
deaths/1000
• Migration: -.07/1000
• Median age: 24.9 years
• Population: 1.06
males/female
History
• Indus Valley civilization is 5000 years old - one of the
oldest in the world
• Aryan tribes enter in 1500 BC and merge with early
Dravidian inhabitants to create classic Indian culture
• Incursions by other cultures:
– Arabian – 8th century
– Turkish – 12th century
– European – 15th century
• Independence in 1947 from UK
• Country split into 3 at independence – Pakistan, India,
and East Pakistan
• 3rd war with Pakistan in 1971 results in East Pakistan
becoming Bangladesh
Government: Central Government
• Federal Republic with legislative, executive &
judicial branches
• Executive Branch: subordinate to the legislature
– President: head-of-state, largely ceremonial,
Commander-in-Chief of armed forces, interprets
Constitution, signs laws
– Prime Minister: elected by majority of Parliament,
head of government, retains most executive powers
• Judicial Branch:
– Supreme Court: jurisdiction of disputes between
states and the Central Gov; appellate jurisdiction over
each state’s High Court and subsequent lower courts
Government: Central Government
cont.
• Legislative Branch:
– Rajya Sabha/Council of States (Upper House): 245 members;
chosen through the electoral college
– Lok Sabha/Council of People (Lower House): 552 members,
chosen through direct elections
• All Indian citizens above the age of 18 are eligible to vote
• The Indian National Congress Party has controlled the
national government for most of India’s independent
history, although opposition parties have intermittently
controlled the national government since 1977 and the
2004 elections required the Congress to form a coalition
with Communist and Progressive parties to secure
control.
Government: State Governments
• 28 states, 6 territories &
the National Capital
Territory of Delhi
• States elect their own
governments
• Territories are governed
by administrators
appointed by the union
government
Culture: Languages
• 22 official languages
• 33 unofficial languages
• 2000 dialects
• Hindi (180 million speakers) is the national language
and primary tongue
• English is an associate language but very important
for national, political and commercial communication
• Sanskrit is the classical language (& literature) of
India
Culture: Religion/Ethnicity
Ethnicity of the
population
• Indo-Aryan: 72%
• Dravidian: 25%
• Mongoloid and other:
3%
Religions of the population
• Hindu: 80.5%
• Muslim: 13.4%
• Christian: 2.3%
• Sikh: 1.9%
• Jain: 0.4%
• Other: 1.5%
• Significant differences exist within the
80% Hindu majority, arising not only out
of divisions of caste, but also out of
differing religious beliefs. One
difference is between the devotees of
the god Vishnu and the devotees of the
god Shiva
Culture: The Hindu Caste System
• The caste system is pervasive in India. Although it is entwined in
Hindu beliefs, it encompasses non-Hindus as well. A caste is a social
class to which a person belongs at birth and which is ranked against
other castes, typically on a continuum of perceived purity and
pollution. People generally marry within their own caste. In rural
areas, caste may also govern where people live or what occupations
they engage in. The particular features of the caste system vary
considerably from community to community and across regions.
• Since 1947 the importance of caste has declined somewhat in India.
Many people have also been influenced by the nationalist
movement’s ideological commitment to the equality of men and
women, and lower castes have increasingly used the power of their
numbers or their right to vote to gain social status in their local
community. However, castes are not disappearing, mainly because
of the system of marriage. Almost all Hindu marriages in India are
arranged, and almost all arranged marriages occur between people
of the same caste, thus providing continuity to the caste system.
Culture: Education
• India has some of the best Universities in the world, but
struggles with literacy
• Enrollment (2001-2002)
– Primary (ages 6-11): 113.9 million
– Middle/High (ages 11-18): 44.8 million
– Higher Education (college): 30.5 million
• Higher Education:
– Must be accredited by the government and indirectly controlled by
the government
• Literacy: 59.5%; defined as 15 years+ that can read and
write
– Male: 70.2% vs. Female: 48.3%
Economics: Currency
• Basis of exchange: Rupee (INR)
– Formerly used by Pakistan, Qatar, UAE, Malaysia as
basis of currency
– Most often distributed as 100 & 500 Rupee
denominations from ATMs
– Current exchange rate: 1 USD = 44.42 INR (12/8/06)
– Pegged by the Bhutanese ngultrum
– Accepted in Nepal, near India – Nepal border
Economics: National metrics
• GDP: $3.6 trillion using purchase power parity-PPP &
785.5 billion measured in USD exchange rate (2005)
– 4th largest in the world when measured using PPP & 12th in the
world when measured in USD exchange rate
– PPP: a method of equalizing currencies for comparison by
comparing a given basket of good within each country
• GDP growth: 7.6% (2005) – among the fastest in the world
• GDP per capita: $3300 using PPP (2005)
– 122nd in the world
• GDP composition by sector:
– Agricultural: 18.6%
– Industry: 27.6%
– Services: 53.8%
Economics: Workforce
• Labor force: 496.4 million
• Labor by occupation and percentage of
population:
– Agricultural: 60%
– Industry: 17%
– Services: 23% (accounts for over 50% of India’s
total output)
• Unemployment rate: 8.9%
Economics: Liberalization
• Economic liberalization:
– Pre-1991: India focused on self-sufficiency & government control.
Allowed trade was primarily with Soviet Union & eastern block.
Foreign countries were viewed as economic threats, not
opportunities.
– Liberalization occurred in 1991, catalyzed by the collapse of the
Soviet Union and the economic shocks resulting from the Gulf
War. Results include a reduction of government influence,
privatization of many government enterprises, relaxing of Foreign
Direct Investment (FDI) restrictions, incentives for Trade (import of
foreign goods) and revision of labor laws.
– Recent activity (2005): High tariffs (20% on non-Agricultural) and
FDI limits remain in place. Liberalization of civil aviation, telecom
and construction sectors continue. Privatization of governmentowned industry slowed/halted.
Economics: Infrastructure
• 1.5 million miles of paved
roads (US–2.6 million)
• 39,300 miles of railroad,
one of the most extensive
in the world (US-140,035)
• 3550 miles of navigable
waterways/canals (US12,000)
• 243 airports with paved
runways (US–5200)
• Pipelines:
– Oil: 4040 miles (US-152,000)
– Gas: 3221 miles (US341,000)
Economics: Resources
• 4th largest reserve of coal in world, natural gas, petroleum
• Iron ore, manganese, mica, bauxite, titanium ore,
chromite, natural gas
• Diamonds,
limestone
• Forests: oak,
pine, teak
Economics: Industry
• Agriculture:
– Ranks 2nd worldwide in farm output
– Gross land use: 49% arable, 3% permanent crops, 216,000 squ
miles irrigated land
– In the Gangetic Plain and in the peninsular deltas, groundwater
is plentiful and close to the surface, making year-round irrigation
possible. These regions may produce two or three harvests a
year.
• Industry: manufacturing,
mining and construction
– Ranks 14th worldwide in factory
output
• Information Technology:
– A large quantity well-educated,
English speaking people result
in India as a major exporter of
software services and software
Economics: Population Wealth
• Household income by
percentage share of wealth:
– Lowest 10% of population with
3.5% of national
spending/consumption
– Highest 10% of population with
35% of national
spending/consumption
• 25% of population is below
the poverty line
• Inflation rate: 4.5%
Economics: Imports/Exports
Imports
• Total Imports: $113.1 f.o.b.
billion
Exports
• Total Exports: $76.3 f.o.b.
billion
– Textiles
– Electricity: 1.4 billion kWh from
– Gems/Jewelry
Nepal & Bhutan (from
hydropower)
– Engineering goods
– Oil: 2.09 million bbl/day
– Leather products
– Other: machinery, gems,
• Export Partners:
fertilizer, chemicals
– US: 16.7%
• Import Partners:
– UAE: 8.5%
– China: 7.3%
– China: 6.6%
– US: 5.6%
– Singapore: 5.3%
– Switzerland: 4.7%
– UK: 4.9
Economics: Technology Metrics
• Telephone:
– Land line users: 49.75 million users
(2005)
– Cell phone users: 69.2 million (2006)
• Radio:
– 253 broadcast stations (1998)
– 116 million radios (1997)
• Television:
– 562 broadcast stations (1997)
– 63 million televisions (1997)
• Internet
– 43 Internet providers (2000)
– 60 million internet users (2005)
Cities: New Delhi, Mumbai
(Bombay) & Bangalore
Cities: India for Visitors
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Local Currency: Rupee
Time Zone: GMT + 5hr 30min
Electricity: 220 volt, 50 hz
Climate (January only):
–
–
–
–
New Delhi: 45 - 70 deg F daily, heavy fog
Mumbai: 55 – 83 deg F daily
Bangalore: 55 - 77 def F daily
Little rain during January
• Business Hours: Public & private offices:
9:30am – 5:30pm M-F
Cities: New Delhi
Cities: New Delhi
• Location: Within the capital Territory of Delhi.
Geographics: 16.5 squ miles (Delhi: ~900 squ miles)
• Capital of the Republic of India and the seat of the
Government of India
• Population: 320,000 (Delhi:13.8 million)
• Government: Municipal Council of 11 members
– Includes: 1 Chairperson, 3 members of New Delhi Legislative
Assembly, 2 members nominated by the Chief Minister of New
Delhi and 5 members nominated by the central government
Cities: New Delhi
• History: Delhi has been the historic capital of much of the
sub-continent. The British moved the capital to Delhi, from
Calcutta, in 1911.
• Economics (of the Delhi):
– A large scale English speaking work force and high literacy (81.7%)
attract multinational companies
– A large consumer market and readily available skilled labor force
– As the Federal capital, the government employs 212,000 federal
workers
– Manufacturing employs 731,000 workers
– Other industries important to Delhi: tourism, construction, banking,
telecommunications, defense
– Delhi is projected to be the 3rd largest metro-area in the world by
2025, trailing Tokyo and Mumbai
Cities: New Delhi
Parliament House
Rashtrapati
Bhawan
Cities: New Delhi
Red Fort
Humanyun Tomb
Cities: Mumbai (Bombay)
Cities: Mumbai (Bombay)
• Renamed Mumbai in 1995
• Location: Central-western coast of India
• Geographics: 170 squ miles, multiple lakes and rivers within metro
area
• State capital of Maharashtra
• Population: 13 million, the most populous city in India and the 6th
largest in the world
• Government: Municipal Council (corporation) of 277 direct elect
Councilors representing 24 wards
• History
– Area was governed by different Buddhist and Hindu rulers until 15th
century, by the Portuguese in the 16th century and finally the British in
the 17th century
– The American Civil War resulted in Mumbai (Bombay) becoming the
world’s chief cotton trading market (foundation for textile industry). The
opening of the Suez Canal in 1869 transformed it into a large seaport.
Cities: Mumbai (Bombay)
• Economics:
– Commercial capital of India:
• Home of Reserve Bank of India, Bombay
Stock Exchange, the National Stock Exchange
of India and many corporate headquarters
– Entertainment capital of India: Bollywood
– Deep natural harbor with a port that handles
half of India’s passenger traffic and significant
cargo
– Contributes 10% of all factory employment in
India, 40% of all income tax collection in
India, 60% of all custom duties in India and
40% of all India’s foreign trade.
– Pre-1980s prosperity was due to textile mills
and the sea port
– Post-1980s properity is due to engineering,
healthcare, information technology, etc
Cities: Mumbai (Bombay)
Gateway of India
Marine Drive
Cities: Mumbai (Bombay)
SiddhiVinayak Temple
Cities: Bangalore
(Bengaluru)
Cities: Bangalore (Bengaluru)
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Renamed Bengaluru in December 2005
Location: South-central India
Geographics: 183 squ miles
State capital of Karnataka
Population: 6.2 million
Government: Municipal Council (corporation) of 100
direct elect Councilors representing 100 wards
• History
– Many different ethic rulers until the British in 1799. British rule
through 1947 integrated technology into Bangalore such as
telegraphs (1846), rail connections (1846), telephone lines
(1898) and hydro-electic power (1906 – the 1st city in India to
use hydro power)
– Became a manufacturing base following independence (1947)
and experienced a software boom in 1990s.
Cities: Bangalore (Bengaluru)
• Economics:
– India’s 4th largest and fastest growing market
– Evolved as a manufacturing hub for public sector
heavy industries (defense, aero-space) during postIndian independence
– Accounts for 35% of India’s software exports
• Included: Software Technology Park of India, Bengaluru Int’l
Technology Park & Electronic City
• Daily Life:
– Rapid growth has resulted in traffic congestion and
infrastructure obsolescence
Cities: Bangalore (Bengaluru)
Bull Temple
Glass House
Cities: Bangalore (Bengaluru)
Utilities Building
Bangalore
High Court
Additional information about India
on the Web
– en.wikipedia.org/wiki/India (A good source for any
depth of information. Look for “See also” links at the
bottom of the page. Search for cities from this site for
city specific information)
– www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/in.html
– Current information: timesofindia.indiatimes.com/?
– Maps:www.mapsofindia.com/
– Indian Embassy:
www.indianembassy.org/newsite/default.asp
– Tourism: www.tourindia.com/htm/homepage.htm
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