12207 SPIWG
An Introduction to IEEE/EIA 12207
498
2167A
5000.1
1220
7
CMM
9000
3405.1
J-016
1679
5000.2-R
by Software Engineering Process Office (SEPO - D12)
Software Process Improvement Working Group (SPIWG)
October 13, 1999
Software Engineering Process Office
1
12207 SPIWG
Outline
• Background of IEEE/EIA 12207
• Structure of the standard
• Its Life Cycle Processes
• 12207 vs. 2167A and 498
• How it relates to the SW-CMM
• How to tailor it for your use
• How to use it on a project
• How to get a copy of it
Software Engineering Process Office
2
12207 SPIWG
Are there TWO 12207’s?
ISO/IEC 12207: Information Technology - Software Life Cycle Processes
published in 1995 by
International Organization for Standardization
International Electrotechnical Commission
IN T E R N A T IO N A L S T A N D A R D © IS O /IE C
IS O /IE C 1 2 2 0 7 : 1 9 9 5 (E )
In fo rm a tio n te c h n o lo g y – S o ftw a re life c yc le p ro c e ss e s
1
1 .1
Scope
P u rp o s e
T h is In te rn a tio n a l S ta n d a rd e s ta b lis h e s a c o m m o n fra m e w o rk fo r s o ftw a re life c y c le
p ro c e s s e s , w ith w e ll-d e fin e d te rm in o lo g y , th a t c a n b e re fe re n c e d b y th e s o ftw a re in d u s try .
It c o n ta in s p ro c e s s e s , a c tiv itie s , a n d ta s k s th a t a re to b e a p p lie d d u rin g th e a c q u is itio n o f
a s y s te m th a t c o n ta in s s o ftw a re , a s ta n d -a lo n e s o ftw a re p ro d u c t, a n d s o ftw a re s e rv ic e a n d
d u rin g th e s u p p ly , d e v e lo p m e n t, o p e ra tio n , a n d m a in te n a n c e o f s o ftw a re p ro d u c ts .
S o ftw a re in c lu d e s th e s o ftw a re p o rtio n o f firm w a re .
T h is In te rn a tio n a l S ta n d a rd a ls o p ro v id e s a p ro c e s s th a t c a n b e e m p lo y e d fo r d e fin in g ,
c o n tro llin g , a n d im p ro v in g s o ftw a re life c y c le p ro c e s s e s .
1 .2
• Provides common framework for developing
and managing software
F ie ld o f a p p lic a tio n
T h is In te rn a tio n a l S ta n d a rd e s ta b lis h e s a c o m m o n fra m e w o rk fo r s o ftw a re life c y c le
p ro c e s s e s , w ith w e ll-d e fin e d te rm in o lo g y , th a t c a n b e re fe re n c e d b y th e s o ftw a re in d u s try .
It c o n ta in s p ro c e s s e s , a c tiv itie s , a n d ta s k s th a t a re to b e a p p lie d d u rin g th e a c q u is itio n o f
a s y s te m th a t c o n ta in s s o ftw a re , a s ta n d -a lo n e s o ftw a re p ro d u c t, a n d s o ftw a re s e rv ic e a n d
d u rin g th e s u p p ly , d e v e lo p m e n t, o p e ra tio n .
N O T E : T h e p ro c e s s e s u s e d d u rin g th e s o ftw a re life c y c le n e e d to b e c o m p a tib le w ith th e p ro c e s s e s
u s e d d u rin g th e s y s te m life c y c le .
T h is In te rn a tio n a l S ta n d a rd e s ta b lis h e s a c o m m o n fra m e w o rk fo r s o ftw a re life c y c le
p ro c e s s e s , w ith w e ll-d e fin e d te rm in o lo g y , th a t c a n b e re fe re n c e d b y th e s o ftw a re in d u s try .
It c o n ta in s p ro c e s s e s , a c tiv itie s , a n d ta s k s th a t a re to b e a p p lie d d u rin g th e a c q u is itio n o f
a s y s te m th a t c o n ta in s .
T h is In te rn a tio n a l S ta n d a rd e s ta b lis h e s a c o m m o n fra m e w o rk fo r s o ftw a re life c y c le
p ro c e s s e s , w ith w e ll-d e fin e d te rm in o lo g y , th a t c a n b e re fe re n c e d b y th e s o ftw a re in d u s try .
1 .3
T a ilo rin g o f th e In te rn a tio n a l S ta n d a rd
T h is In te rn a tio n a l S ta n d a rd e s ta b lis h e s a c o m m o n fra m e w o rk fo r s o ftw a re life c y c le
p ro c e s s e s , w ith w e ll-d e fin e d te rm in o lo g y , th a t c a n b e re fe re n c e d b y th e s o ftw a re in d u s try .
It c o n ta in s p ro c e s s e s , a c tiv itie s , a n d ta s k s .
N O T E : T h e p ro c e s s e s u s e d d u rin g th e s o ftw a re life c y c le n e e d to b e c o m p a tib le w ith th e p ro c e s s e s .
IEEE/EIA 12207: Software Life Cycle Processes
published in 1998 by
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
Electronic Industries Association
IN T E R N A T IO N A L S T A N D A R D © IS O /IE C
IS O /IE C 1 2 2 0 7 : 1 9 9 5 (E )
In fo rm a tio n te c h n o lo g y – S o ftw a re life c yc le p ro c e ss e s
1
Scope
IE E E /E IA 1 2 2 0 7 .0 -1 9 9 6
R e p ro d u c e d b y G L O B A L
E N G IN E E R IN G D O C U M E N T S
Pisusrp
os
W ith T1
h .1
e P e rm
io n
o feIE E E
U n d e r R o y a lty A g re e m e n t
(A J o in t S ta n d a rd D e v e lo p e d b y IE E E a n d E IA )
T h is In te rn a tio n a l S ta n d a rd e s ta b lis h e s a c o m m o n fra m e w o rk fo r s o ftw a re life c y c le
p ro c e s s e s , w ith w e ll-d e fin e d te rm in o lo g y , th a t c a n b e re fe re n c e d b y th e s o ftw a re in d u s try .
It c o n ta in s p ro c e s s e s , a c tiv itie s , a n d ta s k s th a t a re to b e a p p lie d d u rin g th e a c q u is itio n o f
a s y s te m th a t c o n ta in s s o ftw a re , a s ta n d -a lo n e s o ftw a re p ro d u c t, a n d s o ftw a re s e rv ic e a n d
d u rin g th e s u p p ly , d e v e lo p m e n t, o p e ra tio n , a n d m a in te n a n c e o f s o ftw a re p ro d u c ts .
S o ftw a re in c lu d e s th e s o ftw a re p o rtio n o f firm w a re .
IE E E /E IA S ta n d a rd
T h is In te rn a tio n a l S ta n d a rd a ls o p ro v id e s a p ro c e s s th a t c a n b e e m p lo y e d fo r d e fin in g ,
c o n tro llin g , a n d im p ro v in g s o ftw a re life c y c le p ro c e s s e s .
In d u s try Im p le m e n ta tio n o f
.2
F ie ld o f a p p lic a tio n
In te rn a1tio
n
a l S ta n d a rd
T h is1 2
In te
IS O /IE C
2 rn
0 a7tio:n a1l 9S ta9n5d a rd e s ta b lis h e s
• Includes ISO/IEC 12207 in its entirety
• Adds clarifications, concepts, and guidelines
to foster better understanding and application
• Adopted for use by DoD on May 27,1998
• Designated by SSC SD for life cycle processes
Software Engineering Process Office
a c o m m o n fra m e w o rk fo r s o ftw a re life c y c le
p ro c e s s e s , w ith w e ll-d e fin e d te rm in o lo g y , th a t c a n b e re fe re n c e d b y th e s o ftw a re in d u s try .
It c o n ta in s p ro c e s s e s , a c tiv itie s , a n d ta s k s th a t a re to b e a p p lie d d u rin g th e a c q u is itio n o f
s y s te m th a t c o n ta in s s o ftw a re , a s ta n d -a lo n e s o ftw a re p ro d u c t, a n d s o ftw a re s e rv ic e a n d
(IS O /IEadC
1 2 2 0 7 ) S ta n d a rd fo r In fo rm a tio n
u rin g th e s u p p ly , d e v e lo p m e n t, o p e ra tio n .
T e c h n o lo g y N O T E : T h e p ro c e s s e s u s e d d u rin g th e s o ftw a re life c y c le n e e d to b e c o m p a tib le w ith th e p ro c e s s e s
u s e d d u rin g th e s y s te m life c y c le .
S o ftw aTre
life c y c le p ro c e s s e s
h is In te rn a tio n a l S ta n d a rd e s ta b lis h e s
a c o m m o n fra m e w o rk fo r s o ftw a re life c y c le
p ro c e s s e s , w ith w e ll-d e fin e d te rm in o lo g y , th a t c a n b e re fe re n c e d b y th e s o ftw a re in d u s try .
It c o n ta in s p ro c e s s e s , a c tiv itie s , a n d ta s k s th a t a re to b e a p p lie d d u rin g th e a c q u is itio n o f
a s y s te m th a t c o n ta in s .
T h is In te rn a tio n a l S ta n d a rd e s ta b lis h e s a c o m m o n fra m e w o rk fo r s o ftw a re life c y c le
M a rc h 1 9 9p8ro c e s s e s , w ith w e ll-d e fin e d te rm in o lo g y , th a t c a n b e re fe re n c e d b y th e s o ftw a re in d u s try .
1 .3
T a ilo rin g o f th e In te rn a tio n a l S ta n d a rd
T h is In te rn a tio n a l S ta n d a rd e s ta b lis h e s a c o m m o n fra m e w o rk fo r s o ftw a re life c y c le
te rm in oElo
a IC
t cIN
aD
n UbSeT Rre
reSnS c
bIO
y Nth e s o ftw a re in d u s try .
L EgCyT, Rth
ON
IEfe
S A
Oe
Cd
IA T
a c tiv itie s , a n d ta s k EsN
. G IN E E R IN G D E P A R T M E N T
p ro
eLsE, CwT ith
wLe ll-d e fin e d
T H E IN S T IT
U Tc
E eOsFs E
R IC A
It EcLoEnCta
p Sro c e s s e s ,
AND
T Rin
Os
N IC
E N G IN E E R S , IN C .
N O T E : T h e p ro c e s s e s u s e d d u rin g th e s o ftw a re life c y c le n e e d to b e c o m p a tib le w ith th e p ro c e s s e s .
3
12207 SPIWG
The Purpose of 12207
Establish a common framework for software life-cycle processes, with
well-defined terminology that can be referenced by the software
industry.
• To acquire, supply, develop, operate, and maintain software
products
• To define, control, and improve software life cycle processes
12207 provides industry a basis for software practices
usable for both national and international business
Software Engineering Process Office
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12207 SPIWG
IEEE/EIA 12207 Has Many Uses
•
To acquire, supply, develop, operate, and maintain software
•
To support the above functions in the form of quality assurance,
configuration management, joint reviews, audits, verification,
validation, problem resolution, and documentation
•
To manage and improve the organization’s processes and personnel
•
To establish software management and engineering environments
based upon the life cycle processes as adapted and tailored to
serve business needs
•
To foster improved understanding between customers and vendors
and among the parties involved in the life cycle of a software
product
•
To facilitate world trade in software
- 12207.0 Forward
Software Engineering Process Office
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12207 SPIWG
Why Use Standards?
• Establish uniform requirements for development and documentation
• Define a common framework for software life cycle processes
• Clarify the roles and interfaces of participants
• Clarify the types and contents of documentation
• Identify the tasks, phases, baselines, reviews, and documents needed
• Follow the lessons learned and best practices of the industry
• Avoid the pitfalls and problems of the past
Software Engineering Process Office
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12207 SPIWG
Don’t Get Caught in the Standards Quagmire
From the SPC’s http://www.software.org/Quagmire/
Software Engineering Process Office
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12207 SPIWG
The Evolution of Standards
Affecting DoD Software Development
•
•
•
•
MIL-STD-1679A
DOD-STD-2167A
DOD-STD-7935A
MIL-STD-498
Software Development
Defense System Software Development
AIS Documentation Standards
Software Development and Documentation
1983
1988
1988
1994
(SecDef Perry Memo - June 1994)
• ISO 9000
(series - on Quality Management, etc.)
• J-STD-016-1995 Software Development Acquirer-Supplier Agreement
• ISO/IEC 12207
Information Technology - Software Life
Cycle Processes
19911995
• IEEE/EIA 12207
1998
Software Life Cycle Processes
Software Engineering Process Office
1996
8
12207 SPIWG
The Family Tree of Standards
DOD-STD-2167A
“Defense System
Software
Development”
Feb 88
ISO/IEC 12207 “Software
Life Cycle Processes”
Aug 95
ISO 12207
IEEE Stds
2167A
498
7935A
DOD-STD-7935A
“DoD Automated
Information
Systems (AIS)
Documentation
Standards”
Oct 88
MIL-STD-498
“Software
Development and
Documentation”
Dec 94
Software Engineering Process Office
016
J-STD-016-1995
(Trial Use)
“Software Life
Cycle Processes,
Software
Development”
Sep 95
IEEE/EIA
12207
IEEE/EIA 12207.0-1996
IEEE/EIA 12207.1-1997
IEEE/EIA 12207.2-1997
“Software Life Cycle
Processes”
Mar/Apr 98
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12207 SPIWG
Outline of IEEE/EIA 12207.0:
“Software Life Cycle Processes”
IE E E /E IA 1 2 2 0 7 .0 -1 9 9 6
R e p ro d u c e d b y G L O B A L
E N G IN E E R IN G D O C U M E N T S
W ith T h e P e rm is s io n o f IE E E
U n d e r R o y a lty A g re e m e n t
(A J o in t S ta n d a rd D e v e lo p e d b y IE E E a n d E IA )
Forward
IE E E /E IA S ta n d a rd
In d u s try Im p le m e n ta tio n o f
In te rn a tio n a l S ta n d a rd
IS O /IE C 1 2 2 0 7 : 1 9 9 5
(IS O /IE C 1 2 2 0 7 ) S ta n d a rd fo r In fo rm a tio n
T e c h n o lo g y S o ftw a re life c y c le p ro c e s s e s
1. Scope
M a rc h 1 9 9 8
T H E IN S T IT U T E O F E L E C T R IC A L
E L E C T R O N IC IN D U S T R IE S A S S O C IA T IO N
A N D E L E C T R O N IC S
E N G IN E E R IN G D E P A R T M E N T
E N G IN E E R S , IN C .
2. Normative references
3. Definitions
4. Application of this Standard
5. Primary processes
6. Supporting processes
7. Organizational processes
Annexes A - D
Annexes E - J
total: 85 pages
Software Engineering Process Office
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12207 SPIWG
Outline of IEEE/EIA 12207.1:
“Software Life Cycle Processes - Life cycle data”
IE E E /E IA 1 2 2 0 7 .0 -1 9 9 6
R e p ro d u c e d b y G L O B A L
E N G IN E E R IN G D O C U M E N T S
W ith T h e P e rm is s io n o f IE E E
U n d e r R o y a lty A g re e m e n t
(A J o in t S ta n d a rd D e v e lo p e d b y IE E E a n d E IA )
IE E E /E IA S ta n d a rd
Forward
In d u s try Im p le m e n ta tio n o f
In te rn a tio n a l S ta n d a rd
IS O /IE C 1 2 2 0 7 : 1 9 9 5
(IS O /IE C 1 2 2 0 7 ) S ta n d a rd fo r In fo rm a tio n
T e c h n o lo g y S o ftw a re life c y c le p ro c e s s e s
1. Scope
M a rc h 1 9 9 8
T H E IN S T IT U T E O F E L E C T R IC A L
E L E C T R O N IC IN D U S T R IE S A S S O C IA T IO N
A N D E L E C T R O N IC S
E N G IN E E R IN G D E P A R T M E N T
E N G IN E E R S , IN C .
2. Normative references
3. Definitions
4. Life cycle data
5. Generic info item content guidelines
6. Specific info item content guidelines
Annex A - References
total: 36 pages
Software Engineering Process Office
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12207 SPIWG
Outline of IEEE/EIA 12207.2:
“Software Life Cycle Processes Implementation considerations”
IE E E /E IA 1 2 2 0 7 .0 -1 9 9 6
R e p ro d u c e d b y G L O B A L
E N G IN E E R IN G D O C U M E N T S
W ith T h e P e rm is s io n o f IE E E
U n d e r R o y a lty A g re e m e n t
(A J o in t S ta n d a rd D e v e lo p e d b y IE E E a n d E IA )
Forward and introduction
IE E E /E IA S ta n d a rd
In d u s try Im p le m e n ta tio n o f
In te rn a tio n a l S ta n d a rd
IS O /IE C 1 2 2 0 7 : 1 9 9 5
(IS O /IE C 1 2 2 0 7 ) S ta n d a rd fo r In fo rm a tio n
T e c h n o lo g y S o ftw a re life c y c le p ro c e s s e s
1. Scope
M a rc h 1 9 9 8
T H E IN S T IT U T E O F E L E C T R IC A L
E L E C T R O N IC IN D U S T R IE S A S S O C IA T IO N
A N D E L E C T R O N IC S
E N G IN E E R IN G D E P A R T M E N T
E N G IN E E R S , IN C .
2. Normative references
3. Definitions
4. Application
5. Primary processes
6. Supporting processes
7. Organizational processes
Annexes A - M
Repeats 12207.0 clauses with
additional guidance
total: 109 pages
Software Engineering Process Office
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12207 SPIWG
Terminology used in 12207 (both of ‘em)
• 17 Life Cycle Processes
– 5 Primary Processes
– 8 Supporting Processes
– 4 Organizational Processes
- 12207.0 § 5
- 12207.0 § 6
- 12207.0 § 7
• Each Process is broken down into Activities
Aed repf dbmezrt
• Each Activity is broken down into Tasks
• Tasks reference Information Items
(software products/documents)
– 84 items in matrix
– Generic guidelines for 7 categories
– Specific guidelines for 30
- 12207.1 § 4.3
- 12207.1 § 5
- 12207.1 § 6
(Note: § = Clause/Section)
Software Engineering Process Office
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12207 SPIWG
12207’s five Primary Life Cycle Processes
The primary processes define what the organization elements do
during the software life cycle.
Process
Role
498 term
Acquisition
Acquirer - an organization that
Acquirer
Supply
Development
Maintenance
Operation
procures a system or service
Supplier - an organization that
enters into contract with acquirer
under terms of the contract
Developer - organization that
performs development during
the life cycle process
Maintainer - an organization that
performs maintenance activities
Operator - an organization that
operates the system
User - An individual or organization
that uses the system for
a specific function
Software Engineering Process Office
Developer
(Support
Agency)
(User)
14
12207 SPIWG
Examples of Life Cycle Roles
Teens’ Truck
Navy System
• Acquirer (“Buyer”)
Mom and Dad
Systems Command, PD-xx
• Supplier (“Vendor”)
Ed’s Car Lot
Systems Center D555
• Developer
Ford Motor
Cool Coders Corp.
• Maintainer
Terry’s Tuneup Shop
Systems Center D999
Family’s Teenagers
Pacific Fleet
A teenager
Ship’s watch team
Role
• Operator
• User
Software Engineering Process Office
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12207 SPIWG
12207’s Organizational and Supporting Processes
• Organizational Life Cycle Processes - typically outside the realm of
specific projects and contracts. Should be in place prior to
performing primary processes.
– Management
– Infrastructure
– Improvement
– Training
• Supporting Processes - employed and executed by another
process. Responsibility of the organization.
– Documentation
– Configuration Management
– Quality Assurance
– Verification
– Validation
– Joint Review
– Audit
– Problem Resolution
Software Engineering Process Office
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12207 SPIWG
How The Life Cycle Processes Interact
MAINTENANCE
ACQUISITION
MANAGEMENT
contract
•
OPERATION
SUPPLY
DEVELOPMENT
CM
DOCUMENTATION
PROB. RES.
VERIFICATION
QA
JOINT REVIEW
AUDIT
VALIDATION
SUPPORTING PROCESSES
INFRASTRUCTURE
TRAINING
IMPROVEMENT
ORGANIZATIONAL PROCESSES
Software Engineering Process Office
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12207 SPIWG
The Three Software Life-Cycle Development
Strategies
Define All
Requirements
First?
Multiple
Development
Cycles
Distribute
Interim
Software?
Once-Through (Waterfall)
Yes
No
No
Incremental (Preplanned
Product Improvement)
Yes
Yes
Maybe
Evolutionary
No
Yes
Yes
Program Strategy
From IEEE/EIA 12207.2 Annex I
• These are recommended by SSC SD as the basis for project
planning and implementation.
Software Engineering Process Office
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12207 SPIWG
A Sample 12207 Development Process
One example of applying 12207 to the Waterfall development strategy
Process Implementation Activity
DPP, SDSD
SARAD
Sys Arch
Design
System
Reqts
Analysis
Software
Qual Test
Software
IntegraSoftware
tion SCR, T/VRR
Code
Software Item 1:
Software & Test
SIP,T/VPr
Software Detailed
Design EOCR, SCR,T/VPr, T/VRR
Arch.
Software
Design
Reqts.
SRD, UDD
Analysis
Software
SAD, SIDD, DBDD, T/VP
Qual
Test
SRD, UDD
Software
IntegraSoftware
tion
Code
Software Item 2:
Software & Test
Software Detailed
Design
Arch.
Software
Design
Reqts.
Analysis
Software
Installation
System
Integration
System
Qual
Test
T/VRR
SCR
T/VPr
T/VRR
SRS
Hardware items
Software
Acceptance
Support
T/VRR
SCR
Supporting Processes: Documentation, CM, QA, Verification, Validation, Joint Review, Audit, Problem resolution
SCMP, SCMR, SCIR, SQAP, SQAR, SVRR, PR/PRR
Organizational Processes: Management, Infrastructure, Improvement, Training
Software Engineering Process Office
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12207 SPIWG
The 30 12207.1 “Information Items”
Descriptions
Concept of operations description
Database design description
Software architecture description
Software design description
Software devel. standards descr.
Software interface design descr.
Software requirements description
Sys. arch.& reqts. alloc. descr.
User documentation description
Plans
Acquisition plan
Development process plan
Maintenance process plan
Operation process plan
Project management plan
Software CM plan
Software integration plan
Software QA plan
Test or validation plan
Software Engineering Process Office
Procedures
Test or validation procedures
Record
Evaluation records
Executable object code record
Software configuration index record
Software CM records
Software QA records
Source code record
Report
Problem report & prob. resolution report
Software verification results report
Test or validation results report
Request
Change request or modification request
Specification
System requirements specification
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12207 SPIWG
12207’s Guidance for the “Information Items”
G u id a n c e
E x a m p le
1 2 2 0 7 .0 : G e n e ra l o u tp u t/a rtifa c t
re q u ire m e n ts w ith in
P ro c e s s /a c tivitie s /ta s k
d e s c rip tio n s
1 2 2 0 7 .1 § 4 .3 T a b le 1 : A va ila b le
s ta n d a rd s , g u id e s , re fe re n c e s fo r
e x a m p le a n d a s s is ta n c e o n 8 4
in fo rm a tio n ite m s
§ 5 .3 .1 .4 : “ T h e d e ve lo p e r s h a ll d e ve lo p p la n s fo r
c o n d u c tin g th e a c tivitie s o f th e d e ve lo p m e n t
p ro c e s s . T h e p la n s s h o u ld in c lu d e (5 to p ic s )… ”
1 2 2 0 7 .1 § 5 : G e n e ric c o n te n t
g u id e lin e s fo r 7 “ k in d s ” o f ite m :
d e s c rip tio n , p la n , p ro c e d u re ,
re c o rd , re p o rt, re q u e s t,
s p e c ific a tio n
1 2 2 0 7 .1 § 6 : S p e c ific c o n te n t
g u id e lin e s fo r 3 0 in fo rm a tio n
Ite m s
§ 5 .2 .2 “ A p la n s h o u ld in c lu d e … p la n n in g
a c tivitie s a n d ta s k s , s c h e d u le s , e s tim a te s ,
ris k s , c o s t, in te rfa c e s ,… ” (2 0 to p ic s )
F o r d e ve lo p m e n t p ro c e s s p la n (§ 5 .3 .1 .4 ), s e e :
 J -S T D -0 1 6 § E .2 .1 : “ c o n te n ts o f S o ftw a re
D e ve lo p m e n t P la n ” (lik e 4 9 8 )
 IE E E 1 0 7 4 S ta n d a rd fo r D e v e lo p in g
S o ftw a re L ife C y c le P ro c e s s e s
 IE E E 1 0 7 4 .1 G u id e fo r D e v e lo p in g S o ftw a re
L ife C y c le P ro c e s s e s
 a n d 2 o th e rs
§ 6 .5 “ T h e d e ve lo p m e n t p ro c e s s p la n s h o u ld
in c lu d e s p e c ific s ta n d a rd s , m e th o d s , to o ls ,
a c tio n s a s s o c ia te d w ith th e d e ve lo p m e n t … (8
to p ic s )
Software Engineering Process Office
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12207 SPIWG
12207’s Management Process
An Organizational Life Cycle Process - 12207.0 § 7.1
Defines the basic activities of the management, including project management,
related to the execution of a life cycle process.
Activity
Tasks
1 Initiation and
.1 Establish the requirements for management
scope definition
.2 Check resources: personnel, materials, etc.
.3 Modify requirements to achieve criteria
2 Planning
.1 Plan efforts, schedules, tasks, duties, costs (in
Management process plan)
3 Execution and
.1 Implement plan to meet objectives
control
.2 Monitor process
.3 Investigate and resolve problems
.4 Report progress
4 Review and
.1 Ensure products and plans are evaluated
evaluation
.2 Assess evaluation results
5 Closure
.1 Determine when process is complete
.2 Check results for completeness
Software Engineering Process Office
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12207’s Maintenance Process
12207 SPIWG
A Primary Life Cycle Process - 12207.0 § 5.5
Defines the basic activities of the maintainer: managing modifications to the
software product to keep it current and in operational fitness.
Activity
1 Process Implementation
Tasks
Document maintenance activities (in Maintenance
process plan). Document problem tracking procedures.
Manage modifications to the system.
2 Problem and modification
Analyze problem reports. Replicate or verify
analysis
problems. Develop modifications. Document problems,
analysis, fixes (with Modification request). Get
modifications approved per contract.
3 Modification implementation Document where changes are needed. Implement
modifications (use Development Process).
4 Maintenance review/
Review integrity of modified system. Get approval for
acceptance
modifications per contract.
5 Migration
Ensure products meet with this standard. Develop
and use Migration Plan. Notify users of migration.
Conduct parallel operations if needed. Notify all
concerned, archive all records. Perform post-op review
of changes. Keep data from old environment.
6 Software retirement
Document plans for retirement. Notify all users of
plans and activities. Conduct parallel operations.
Notify all concerned, archive all records. Keep data
from retired product per contract.
Software Engineering Process Office
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12207 SPIWG
What about the Software Development Plan?
Management Process calls for ”plans for execution of the process.”
12207.0 § 7.1.2.1 lists 9 topics for inclusion
12207.1 § 4.3 Table 1 includes “Management process plan,” refers to
IEEE 1058.1: “Standard for Software Project Management Plans”
12207.1 § 5.2 gives 20 items of Generic content of a “Plan”
Supply Process calls for project management plan(s)
12207.0 § 5.2.4.5 lists 15 topics to be considered
12207.1 § 4.3 Table 1 includes “Project management plan,” references include
IEEE 1058.1: “Standard for Software Project Management Plans”
J-STD-016 § E.2.1: “contents of Software Development Plan” (like 498)
IEEE 1074 Standard for Developing Software Life Cycle Processes
IEEE 1074.1 Guide for Developing Software Life Cycle Processes
12207.1 § 5.2 gives 20 items of Generic content of a “Plan”
12207.1 § 6.11 gives 18 items for “Project management plan”
Development Process calls for “plans for conducting the activities of the
development process”
12207.0 § 5.3.1.4 lists 7 topics for inclusion
12207.1 § 4.3 Table 1 includes “Development process plan,” references include
ASTM E622 Guide for Developing Computerized Systems
ASTM E1340 Guide for Rapid Prototyping of Computerized Systems
J-STD-016 § E.2.1: “contents of Software Development Plan” (like 498)
12207.1 § 5.2 gives 20 items of Generic content of a “Plan”
12207.1 § 6.5 gives 13 items for “Development process plan - may be part of
Project management plan”
Software Engineering Process Office
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12207 SPIWG
Can you Tailor 12207?
Software Engineering Process Office
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12207 SPIWG
Tailoring 12207
• 12207 should be tailored for a project - no two projects are the same
• Tailoring considerations:
– Life cycle activity: prototyping, maintenance
– Software characteristics: COTS, reuse, embedded firmware
– Your org’s policies, languages, hardware reserve, culture
– Acquisition strategy: contract type, contractor involvement
– Life cycle strategy: waterfall, evolutionary, spiral, etc.
• The Tailoring Process (12207.0 Annex A)
1. Identify project environment - strategy, activity, requirements
2. Solicit inputs - from users, support team, potential bidders
3. Select processes, activities, documentation, responsibilities
4. Document tailoring decisions and rationale
SEPO’s guidance on tailoring:
What CAN’T be tailored: the intent or objectives
What CAN be tailored: number of phases/activities, roles, responsibilities,
document formats, formality/frequency of reports or reviews
(see Tailoring Guidelines in “Description of SSC SD Software Process Assets”,
at http://sepo.spawar.navy.mil/sepo/docs.html under OPD)
Software Engineering Process Office
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12207 SPIWG
How does 12207 Compare to Previous Standards?
• DOD-STD-2167A: Defense System Software Development
– Published: 29 February 1988
– Superseded by MIL-STD-498 on 5 December 1994
May still remain valid on many contracts
• MIL-STD-498: Software Development and Documentation
– Published: 5 December 1994
– Cancelled: 27 May 1998. superseded by IEEE/EIA 12207.
May still remain valid on many contracts.
• SecDef Memo “Specifications and Standards - A New Way of Doing
Business”
– Issued 29 June 1994: “Use performance and commercial specifications and
standards in lieu of military specifications and standards, unless no practical
alternative exists...”
• J-STD-016-1995: Software Development - Acquirer-Supplier Agreement
– Published: 30 September 1995 as Trial Use Standard by IEEE/EIA
– Objective: replace MIL-STD with a non-government equivalent
– “Almost identical” to MIL-STD-498 with changes in traceability, terminology
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12207 SPIWG
PHASE
DOD-STD-2167A Deliverables, Reviews, Baselines
SYS
REQTS
ANALYSIS
SYSTEM
DESIGN
DELIVERABLE PRODUCTS
PRELIM
SYS
SPEC
SOFTWARE
REQTS
ANALYSIS
PRELIM
DESIGN
DETAILED
DESIGN
SYSTEM
SPEC
PRELIM
SDD
SYS/SEG
DESIGN
DOC
SOFTWARE
TEST
PLAN
PRELIM
SW REQTS
SPEC
SOFTWARE
REQTS
SPEC
PRELIM
I’FACE
REQTS
I’FACE
REQTS
SPEC
CODING CSC INTEG.
CSC
AND CSU AND TEST TESTING
TESTING
DETAILED
SDD
SOURCE
CODE
LISTINGS
SOURCE
CODE
SW TEST
DESCR.
(CASES)
PRELIM
I’FACE
DES DOC
SYSTEM
INTEG.
AND TEST
UPDATED
SOURCE
CODE
SW TEST
DESCR.
(PROC)
I’FACE
DESIGN
DOC
SW TEST
REPORTS
OPERATION
& SUP’RT
DOCS
SOFTWARE
DEVEL.
PLAN
VERSION
DESCR.
DOC
SOFTWARE
DEVELOPMENTAL CONFIGURATION
PRODUCT
REVIEWS
AND
AUDITS
BASELINES
SRR
SPEC
SDR
FUNCTIONAL
BASELINE
SSR
PDR
ALLOCATED
BASELINE
Software Engineering Process Office
CDR
TRR
F/PCA
PRODUCT
BASELINE
28
12207 SPIWG
Sample MIL-STD-498 Life Cycle
Project planning and oversight
SIP/STrP
STP
SDP
Software Item 1:
Software
Impl. &
Unit Test
SoftSoftware
ware
Reqts.
Design
Analysis
SDD/IDD/DBDD
SRS/IRS
SSDD/IDD
System
Design
System
Reqts.
Analysis
OCD SSS/IRS
Software
Item
Qual Test
Unit
Integ/
Test
Software Item 2:
Software
Impl. &
Unit Test
SoftSoftware
ware
Reqts.
Design
Analysis
SDD/IDD/DBDD
SRS/IRS
Prepare
for Software Use
STR
STD
Sys Qual
Test
Unit
Integ/
Test
Software
Item
Qual Test
STR
STD
Hardware item(s) (not covered by this standard)
SW/HW
Item
Integ/Test
Executable SW
SVDs
User/op manual
STR
STD
Prepare
for SW
Transition
Executable SW
Source files
SVDs
SPSs
Updated SSDDs
Maint. manuals
Other ongoing activities: SQA, SCM, Reviews, Risk Management, Process Improvement, etc.
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12207 SPIWG
MIL-STD-498 Data Item Descriptions
and
J-STD-016-1995 Software Product Descriptions
Planning
Software Development Plan (SDP)
Software Test Plan (STP)
Software Installation Plan (SIP)
Software Transition Plan STrP)
Concept and Requirements
Operational Concept Descr. (OCD)
System/Subsystem Spec. (SSS)
Interface Requirements Spec. (IRS)
Software Requirements Spec. (SRS)
Design
System/Subsys. Design Descr. (SSDD)
Interface Design Description (IDD)
Database Design Description (DBDD)
Software Design Description (SDD)
Qualification Testing
Software Test Description (STD)
Software Test Report (STR)
Maintenance
Software Product Specification (SPS)
Software Version Description (SVD)
Computer Programming Manual (CPM)
Firmware Support Manual (FSM)
User/Operator
Software User Manual (SUM)
Software Input/Output Manual (SIOM)
Software Center Operator Manual (SCOM)
Computer Operation Manual (COM)
MIL-STD-498 DIDs are still in effect!
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12207 SPIWG
How do the Standards Compare?
D o D -S T D -2 1 6 7 A
M IL -S T D -4 9 8
IE E E /E IA 1 2 2 0 7
Focus
D e fe n s e s o ftw a re
p ro d u c ts
D e fe n s e s o ftw a re
d e ve lo p m e n t
p ro c e s s
E n te rp ris e
p ro c e s s e s
S o ftw a re life
c y c le
9 d e ve lo p m e n t
p h a s e s , b ia s e d to
w a te rfa ll
E x p a n d s p la n n in g ,
u s e . W a te rfa ll,
in c re m e n ta l,
e vo lu tio n a ry
E x p a n d s s u p p o rt.
O n c e -th ro u g h ,
in c re m e n ta l,
e vo lu tio n a ry
D ocum ent
re q u ire m e n ts
5 2 fo rm a l D ID s
2 2 fo rm a l D ID s
3 0 In fo rm a tio n
Ite m s - g u id e s
P ro g ra m
R e v ie w s
1 0 F o rm a l R e v ie w s – 1 1 c a n d id a te m g m t.
M IL -S T D -1 5 2 1 B
re vie w s , b rie f
g u id e lin e s
C o v e ra g e fo r S c a n t
p la n n in g , Q A ,
C M , m a in t.
R o le s
G o ve rn m e n t,
C o n tra c to r
Software Engineering Process Office
L im ite d
A c q u ire r,
D e ve lo p e r
S im ila r to 4 9 8
S p e c ifie d
p ro c e s s e s
A c q u ire r,S u p p lie r,
D e ve lo p e r, M a in ta in e r, O p e ra to r
31
12207 SPIWG
How have the Development Activities Changed?
2 1 6 7 A A c tivitie s (9 )
4 9 8 A c tivitie s (1 3 )
1 2 2 0 7 A c tivitie s (1 3 )
P ro c e s s Im p le m e n ta tio n
S ys re q ts a n a lys is
P ro j. p la n & o ve rs ig h t
E s ta b lis h d e v. e n viro n .
S ys . re q ts . a n a ly s is
S ys te m d e s ig n
S ys te m d e s ig n
S ys . a rc h . d e s ig n
S o ftw a re re q ts a n a lys is
S o ftw a re re q ts a n a lys is
S o ftw a re re q ts a n a lys is
P re lim in a ry d e s ig n
S o ftw a re d e s ig n
S o ftw a re a rc h . d e s ig n
D e ta ile d d e s ig n
S ys . re q ts . a n a ly s is
S o ftw a re d e ta ile d d e s ig n
C o d in g & C S U te s tin g
S o ftw a re im p l. & u n it te s t
S o ftw a re c o d e & te s t
C S C in te g r. & te s tin g
U n it in te g ra tio n & te s t
S o ftw a re in te g ra tio n
C S C I te s tin g
C S C I q u a l. te s tin g
S o ftw a re q u a l te s tin g
S ys in te g r. & te s tin g
C S C I/H W C I in t. & te s t
S ys te m in te g ra tio n
S ys te m q u a l te s tin g
S ys te m q u a l te s tin g
P re p : s o ftw a re u s e
P re p : s o ftw a re tra n is tio n
S o ftw a re in s ta lla tio n
S o ftw a re a c c e p t s u p p o rt
S’w ar e
Software Engineering Process Office
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12207 SPIWG
Have the Management Reviews changed?
DOD-STD-2167A
Formal Reviews (10)
MIL-STD-498
Joint Mgmt. Reviews (11)
Software plan review
Operational concept review
System/subsys. reqts rev.
System/subsys. design rev.
Software reqts review
IEEE/EIA 12207
Project mgmt. reviews (11)
Software plan review
Operational concept review
System/subsys. reqts rev.
System/subsys design rev.
Software reqts. review
Software design review
Test readiness review
Test results review
Production Readiness Rev(PRR) -Software usability review
Software supportability rev.
Critical reqts. review
Software design review
Test readiness review
Test results review
-Software maintenance rev.
Software supportability rev.
Critical reqts. review
Functional Config Audit (FCA)
Physical Config Audit (PCA)
Formal Qual. Review (FQR)
(FCA in MIL-STD-973)
(PCA in MIL-STD-973)
(dropped by MIL-STD-073)
(FCA in IEEE Std 1042)
(PCA in IEEE Std 1042)
--
(see MIL-STD-1521B)
(see 498 Appendix E)
(see 12207.2 Annex G)
(see also IEEE Std 1028)
System Reqts. Rev.(SRR)
System Design Rev.(SDR)
Software Spec. Rev. (SSR)
Prelim Design Rev. (PDR)
Critical Design Rev. (CDR)
Test Readiness Rev. (TRR)
Software Engineering Process Office
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12207 SPIWG
Wordsmithing the Review and Document Names
D o D -S T D -2 1 6 7 A
F o rm a l R e v ie w s /
R e la te d D o c u m e n ts
S ys te m R e q ts R e vie w (S R R )
S ys te m /S e g m e n t S p e c
S ys te m D e s ig n R e vie w (S D R )
S ys te m /S e g m e n t S p e c
S o ftw a re D e ve l. P la n
S o ftw a re R e q ts S p e c
In te rfa c e R e q ts S p e c
S o ftw a re S p e c R e vie w (S S R )
S o ftw a re R e q ts S p e c
In te rfa c e R e q ts S p e c
S o ftw a re T e s t P la n
S o ftw a re U s e rs M a n u a l
P re lim . D e s ig n R e vie w (P D R )
S o ftw a re D e s ig n D o c u m e n t
In te rfa c e D e s ig n D o c u m e n t
C ritic a l D e s ig n R e vie w (C D R )
S o ftw a re D e s ig n D o c u m e n t
In te rfa c e D e s ig n D o c u m e n t
S o ftw a re T e s t D e s c rip tio n
T e s t R e a d in e s s R e vie w (T R R )
S o ftw a re T e s t D e s c rip tio n
S o ftw a re D e ve l. F o ld e rs
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
M IL -S T D -4 9 8
J o in t M g m t. R e v ie w s /
R e la te d D o c u m e n ts
S ys te m /s u b s ys re q ts . re vie w
S ys te m /s u b s ys te m s p e c
S ys te m /s u b s ys d e s ig n re vie w
S ys te m /s u b s ys te m s p e c
S o ftw a re D e ve l. P la n
S o ftw a re R e q ts S p e c
In te rfa c e R e q ts S p e c
S o ftw a re R e q ts R e vie w
S o ftw a re R e q ts S p e c
In te rfa c e R e q ts S p e c
S o ftw a re T e s t P la n
S o ftw a re U s e r M a n u a l
S o ftw a re D e s ig n R e vie w
S o ftw a re D e s ig n D e s c r.
In te rfa c e D e s ig n D e s c r.
S o ftw a re D e s ig n R e vie w
S o ftw a re D e s ig n D e s c r.
In te rfa c e D e s ig n D e s c r.
S o ftw a re T e s t D e s c r.
T e s t R e a d in e s s R e vie w
S o ftw a re T e s t D e s c rip tio n
S o ftw a re D e ve l. F o ld e rs
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
IE E E /E IA 1 2 2 0 7
P ro je c t M g m t. R e v ie w s /
R e la te d D o c u m e n ts
S ys te m /s u b s ys re q ts re vie w
S ys te m re q u ire m e n ts s p e c
S ys te m /s u b s ys d e s ig n re vie w
S ys te m re q ts d e s c rip tio n
D e ve lo p m e n t p ro c e s s p la n
S o ftw a re re q ts d e s c rip tio n
S o ftw a re re q ts d e s c rip tio n
S o ftw a re re q ts re vie w
S o ftw a re re q ts d e s c rip tio n
S o ftw a re re q ts d e s c rip tio n
S o ftw a re in te g ra tio n p la n
U s e r d o c u m e n ta tio n d e s c r.
S o ftw a re d e s ig n re vie w
S o ftw a re a rc h d e s c rip tio n
S o ftw a re I’fa c e d e s ig n d e s c r
S o ftw a re d e s ig n re vie w
S o ftw a re d e s ig n d e s c rip tio n
S o ftw a re I’fa c e d e s ig n d e s c r
T e s t o r va lid a tio n p ro c e d u re s
T e s t re a d in e s s re vie w
T e s t o r va lid a tio n p ro c e d u re s
S o ftw a re c o d e & te s t re c o rd
* = C h a n g e fro m p re vio u s s ta n d a rd
- Software Management for Executives Guidebook
Software Engineering Process Office
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12207 SPIWG
Comparing 12207 to the CMM for Software
CMM Key Process Area
L2: Requirements Mgmt.
Software Project Planing
Proj. Track & Oversight
Software QA
Software CM
Software Subctr. Mgmt.
L3: Org. Process Focus
Org Process Def’n.
Integ. Software Mgmt.
Training Program
Software Prod. Engr.
Intergroup Coord.
Peer Reviews
IEEE/EIA 12207.1
Development process, activity 2 and 4
Management process
Development process, activity 1
Management process
Quality assurance process
Configuration management process
Acquisition process
Improvement process
Improvement process
Mgmt process, tailoring guidance
Training process
Development process
Joint review process
Joint review process
Software Engineering Process Office
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12207 SPIWG
How do I Get Copies of 12207?
• Hard copies of IEEE/EIA 12207 available from IEEE
– Print: 236 pages $182.00 IEEE Mbr: $146.00
– PDF: $273.00 IEEE Mbr: $218.00
– see http://standards.ieee.org
• With IEEE username & password, download from
http://standards.ieee.org/catalog/olis/search.html
• Review the Defense Automated Printing Service (DAPS) ASSIST
Online webpage at http://astimage.daps.dla.mil/online/
– IEEE/EIA 12207 can be downloaded to government users with
DoD Single Stock Point accounts from http://assist.daps.mil/
Choose “Assist Quick Search” then Document Number = 12207
• Hard copies of 12207 can be ordered from DAPS, see
http://www.stsc.hill.af.mil/DOC/std12207ad.doc
• Review SSC Technical Library documents
and suppliers at
http://iweb.spawar.navy.mil/services/sti/library/
Software Engineering Process Office
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12207 SPIWG
How do I Get Copies of Other Standards?
• MIL-STD-498 and DIDs on SEPO’s webpage at
http://sepo.spawar.navy.mil/
• DoD and other standards can be downloaded from the Defense
Automated Printing Service (DAPS) ASSIST Online webpage at
http://astimage.daps.dla.mil/online/
– Users have to register for many documents, but the Assist
QuickSearch (lower right icon) can be used for the following:
– MIL-STD-498, all DIDs, and the cancellation notice available at
http://assist.daps.mil/ - choose “Assist Quick Seach” and enter document
number
• Hard copies of cancelled DOD specifications and standards can be
obtained from the DoD Single Stock Point (DoDSSP) at
http://www.dodssp.daps.mil/
• Review SSC Technical Library documents and suppliers at
http://iweb.spawar.navy.mil/services/sti/library/
Software Engineering Process Office
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12207 SPIWG
The Cliff Notes: “Overview of IEEE/EIA12207”
(attached to this handout)
•
13-page summary of all three volumes and annexes
•
Tabular lists of processes, activities, tasks, and related info items
*
Cross references: Info Item to activity - and vice versa
*
Comparison of 498 activities to 12207
*
Comparison of program reviews among 2167A/1521B, 498, 12207
*
Comparison of documents among 2167A, 498, J-016, 12207
(also online at http://sepo.spawar.navy.mil/sepo/Standards.html )
Software Engineering Process Office
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12207 SPIWG
SEPO Recommends:
• Use IEEE/EIA 12207: It is the standard of DoD and SSC-SD
– It models all major roles and interfaces
– It achieves breadth of ISO/IEC 12207 and depth of MIL-STD-498
• Relate 12207, the CMMs, ISO 9000, and other standards of interest
to the activities within your project
• Tailor all “standards” for your organization/project/contract
• Reconcile conflicts of language and guidance within different
“standards” related to the same activity
Software Engineering Process Office
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12207 SPIWG
References
- Capability Maturity Model For Software, Version 1.1,
SEI-93-TR-24, Feb. 1993.
On web at http://rbse.jsc.nasa.gov:80/cmm/
- IEEE Standards Collection: Software Engineering. 1997 Edition,
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc. New York, NY.
See http://www.ieee.org/prod_svcs.html
- 9000: Quality Management, International Organization for
Standardization, 1994. See http://www.iso.ch/welcome.html
- The ISO 9000 Implementation Manual, Omneo- Oliver Wight
Publications, 1994. In SEPO library.
- U.S. Software Lifecycle Process Standards, Crosstalk, July 1997. See
http://www.stsc.hill.af.mil/
- Defense Acquisition Policy - A More Flexible Management Approach.
Program Manager magazine, July-August 1996. See
http://www.dsmc.dsm.mil/pubs/pdf/pm_articles96.htm
- Software Engineering Standards - A User's Road Map. IEEE Computer
Society, Nov. 1997.
See http://www.computer.muni.cz/cspress/CATALOG/bp08008.htm
Software Engineering Process Office
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