Toronto and Region
Toronto and Region
• Toronto differs from its
metropolitan region in urban
form, housing market
characteristics and population
composition.
• Despite the ongoing shift of
population to the region,
Toronto continues to be home
to a significant proportion of
socially and economically
vulnerable population groups.
Toronto and Region
In 2006 Toronto included:
– 65% of GTA low income children under age six
– 72% of GTA tenant households
– 64% of seniors Ages 85 and over
– 58% of GTA lone parent families
– 61% of GTA low income families
– 52% of GTA immigrants and 67% of recent immigrants
– 75% of GTA households receiving Social Assistance
– 40% of GTA households with income of $100,000 or more
Low Income Characteristics
Low Income Characteristics 2006
• 21% of economic families, 41% of unattached individuals
and 25 % of all persons were living with Before Tax income
below the LICO in 2006.
• This reflects 134,247 families, 165,156 unattached
individuals and 604, 048 persons in total.
• Low income persons in Toronto were more likely than the
rest of the population to be female, a visible minority
person, a recent immigrant, living in lone parent family and
relying on precarious work.
Toronto and Other Jurisdictions
•
Toronto Share of Low Income
Canada, Ontario and GTA, 2006
In 2006, Toronto comprised 13%
of all low income persons in
Canada, 35% of those in Ontario
and 62% of those in the GTA
80
73.1
70
62.1
60.7
60
50
34.4
40
34.5
33.8
30
20
13.3
12.9
10.6
10
•
Low income rates for Toronto
were double those for Canada,
Ontario and the rest of the
Toronto region.
Among major Canadian cities,
low income rates were highest
in Montreal, followed by
Vancouver, Toronto, Winnipeg,
Edmonton and Calgary.
0
Canada
Ontario
Families
GTA
Unattached individuals
All Persons
Before Tax Low Income Rates, 2006
Canada, Ontario, and GTA Regional Municipalities
30
24.5
25
20.6
20
Percent
•
15.3
15
14.7
11.6
12.7
11.7
9.4
10
14.5
11.4
13.0
8.5
7.7
6.7
5
0
Canada
Ontario
Durham
Total Persons
York
Toronto
Economic Families
Peel
Halton
Low Income Trends 1990-2006
Unemployment Rate, 1987-2010
Persons 25 and Over
12
10
8
6
4
2
CANADA
ONTARIO
TORONTO CMA
CITY OF TORONTO
Median Family Income
City of Toronto, 1990-2005
$60,000
$50,000
$40,000
$30,000
$20,000
$10,000
$0
1990 1993
1995 1997
1998 1999
2000 2001
2002 2003
2004 2005
2010
2009
2008
2007
2006
2005
2004
2003
2002
2001
2000
1999
1998
1997
1996
1995
1994
1993
1992
1991
1990
1989
1988
1987
0
Low Income Trends, 1996-2006
Change in Low Income
City of Toronto 1996-2006
20
16.8
15
10
7.4
9.3
8.9
5
0
-5
Economic families
Unattached individuals
-7.3
-10
-15
-20
Persons
-8.2
-12.4
-14.9
-16.5
1996-2006
1996-2001
2001-2006
• Before-tax low income rates improved from 1996-2001 before
moving upward as economic growth slowed following the
“tech bubble” collapse, 9-11 and SARS .
• In 2006, low income economic families and all persons were
7% and 9% above 2001 levels.
• From 1996-2006, the number of low income persons in the
rest of the GTA increased by 30%.
Labour Force and Employment
Persons 15 & Over by Labour Force Characteristics
City of Toronto 2006
70
65
60
51
percent
50
40
30
20
16
8
10
0
Participation rate
Low Income Persons
Unemployment rate
All Persons
•
Forty-three percent of low income persons ages 15 and over were
engaged in paid employment in 2005.
•
Low income persons fare poorly with regard to labour force
participation, unemployment and access to full-time jobs.
•
Participation rates for low income men and women were 15% and 28%
lower than the comparable non-low income population.
•
Unemployment rates were twice as high
Labour Force and Employment
Persons 15 & Over by Incidence of Full Time Employment
City of Toronto 2006
70
59
60
•
Among employed low income
persons, 2/3 worked part time,
part year in 2005.
•
The most common occupations
were clerical occupations, retail
salespersons and sales clerks,
transportation equipment
operators and occupations in
food and beverage service.
•
Median and average personal
income for low income persons
was 72% and 40% below the
population as a whole.
50
percent
50
40
30
30
23
20
10
0
Males
Females
Low Income Persons
All Persons
Median and Average Personal Income
City of Toronto 2006
45000
$40,376
40000
35000
30000
$24,544
25000
20000
15000
$10,438
$10,371
10000
5000
0
Median income $
Average income $
Population Disparities
Age and Sex
Low Income Persons by Age and Sex
City of Toronto, 2006
Before Tax Low Income Rate by Age and Sex
City of Toronto, 2006
40
70000
35
60000
30
50000
25
40000
20
30000
15
20000
10
10000
5
0
0
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
70
75
80
85
to 4 to 9 to 14 to 19 to 24 to 29 to 34 to 39 to 44 to 49 to 54 to 59 to 64 to 69 to 74 to 79 to 84 and
over
Males
Females
0-14
15-24
years of years of
age
age
25-34
35-44
years of years of
age
age
MALES
45-54
55-64
years of years of
age
age
65-74
years of
age
75 and
over
FEMALES"
•
Before-tax low income rates were higher for children, youth and older
women.
•
The income gap between men and women is reflected in both in low
income rates and median personal income levels.
•
Low income women outnumbered men in all age groups 15 years and
over, the gap widens after age 55, and is largest for persons ages 75
and over.
•
Faced with dramatic growth in the city’s older population as the “baby
boom” ages out over the next twenty years, income security for
seniors, especially women, is likely to be a critical concern.
Children and Families
• Nearly one-third of Toronto children were living
with low income in 2006.
• The low income rate for children was 1.5 times
that of low income persons overall.
• Among the 131,000 low income children ages 14
and under, 74% were Canadian born, 6% arrived
in Canada from 1991-2001 and 20% from 20012006.
• Sixty-four percent of low income children lived in
couple families and 36% lived with a single
parent.
Children and Families
Low Income Rates- Families by Population Type
City of Toronto, 2006
Low Income Rates by Family Type
City of Toronto, 2006
45
60
39.1
40
53.3
50
35
29.8
31.2
30
40
25.8
25
22.6
30
20
23.2
21.3
20.4
20
15
12.1
10
10
5
0
All Economic
Families
Couples
without children
under 18 years
Couples with
children under
18 years
Lone parents
with children
under 18 years
Other economic
families
0
All Economic
Families
Aboriginal
Visible Minority
Immigrant
Recent
Immigrant
• Lone parent families, families with visible minority or aboriginal
persons and those with recent immigrants had low income
rates significantly higher than the city average.
• 53% of lone parent families, 40% of recent immigrant families
and 30% of visible minority and aboriginal families were low
income in 2006.
Immigrants and Visible Minorities
• Immigrants and visible minority persons account for a
disproportionate number of low income persons in the city.
• 57% of low income persons were immigrants.
• 36% arrived in the previous 5 years and 32% between 1991
and 2000
• Top countries of origin for low income immigrants in 2006
were China, India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Jamaica .
Low Income Rate for Immigrants by Region of Origin
City of T oronto, 2006
Oceania and other
20.0
Southern Asia
34.0
Southeast Asia
19.7
35.5
Eastern Asia
West Central Asia
and the Middle East
44.5
Southern Africa
13.3
Central Africa
49.7
Northern Africa
32.6
43.5
Eastern Africa
Western Africa
39.4
Northern Europe
13.8
16.8
Southern Europe
Eastern Europe
26.3
Western Europe
15.8
South America
25.6
Caribbean and
Bermuda
27.7
26.8
Central America
United States of
America
17.6
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
Immigrants and Visible Minorities
Low Income Rate by Period of Immigration
City of Toronto, 2006
50
45.9
45
40
35
31.0
30
27.7
23.6
25
20
17.9
15.6
15.5
15
10
5
0
Before
1961
1961 to
1970
1971 to
1980
1981 to
1990
1991 to
1995
1996 to
2000
2001 to
2006
• Low-income rates for immigrants decline the longer they reside in
Canada.
• The rate for people who arrived before 1991 compares to that of
non-immigrants.
Immigrants and Visible Minorities
• One third of visible minority persons had before
tax income below the LICO, a rate nearly double
that of non-visible minority persons (17%).
• Among the 383,500 low income visible minority
persons living in Toronto, thirty-one percent
were black, 19% Chinese, 19% South Asian and
7% Latin American.
• 63% of low income persons in 2006 were visible
minority.
Low Income Rate by Visible Minority Group
City of Toronto, 2006
60
53.7
47.0
50
43.8
40.3
40
25.1
30
28.8
30.9
31.5
33.1
33.8
16.8
Filipino
Not a visible
minority
West Asian
Korean
Arab
Black
Southeast
Asian
Latin
American
South Asian
Chinese
Visible
minority, n.i.e.
Multiple
visible minority
Japanese
17.3
19.3
20
10
0
Spatial Patterns
Residential Characteristics
• The residential pattern of low income in Toronto approximates a U
shape emanating both Northeast and Northwest from the Central
Area.
• This pattern reflects the location of the city’s affordable housing,
including 91,000 social housing units, and a large number of
privately owned rental apartment buildings
Residential Characteristics
• More than 70% percent of low-income persons
lived in rental accommodations and 43% lived in
apartment building with five or more stories.
• The past 20 years has seen strong growth of
neighbourhoods with high concentrations of
low-income in the “inner suburbs.
Residential Characteristics
Residential Characteristics
Toronto Neighbourhoods
• Family low income rates
ranged from a low of 4% in
Princess-Rosethorn to a
high of 61% in Regent
Park.
Neighbourhoods with Highest Family Low Income Rates
City of Tornto, 2006
Regent Park
63.6
Oakridge
44.7
Thorncliffe Park
43.3
Flemingdon Park
40.0
Kensington-Chinatown
38.4
South Parkdale
38.3
Black Creek
• 32 of Toronto’s 140
neighbourhoods had
family low income rates of
25% or more, two more
than in 2001.
• Four were in East York,
one in Etobicoke, eleven in
North York, ten in
Scarborough, five in the
former City of Toronto, and
three in York.
35.8
Crescent Town
32.3
Brookhaven-Amesbury
31.9
Rustic
31.8
Scarborough Village
31.6
Eglinton East
30.7
North St.Jamestown
30.1
Mount Dennis
30.0
Weston
28.9
Kennedy Park
28.7
Glenfield-Jane Heights
28.4
Beechborough-Greenbrook
28.0
Mount Olive-Silverstone-Jamestown
27.9
Humbermede
27.8
Broadview North
27.5
L'Amoreaux
26.8
Dorset Park
26.5
Steeles
26.5
Westminster-Branson
25.9
Victoria Village
25.9
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
Toronto Neighbourhoods
TORONTO NEIGHBOURHOODS
Toronto Neighbourhoods
Percent
Selected Population Characterisitcs
Neighbourhoods with High and Low Prevalence of Low Income
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
65
63
59
33
30
17
Visible
Minority
Persons
22
13
8
Family Low
Income Rate
26
Immigrants
69
Recent
Immigrants
10
Lone Parent
Families
9
4
Paticipation Unemployment
Rate
Rate
High Prevalence Low Prevalence
Neighbourhoods with high family low income rates have
significantly larger concentration of visible minority
persons, immigrants, and lone parent families, as well as
lower labour force participation and higher unemployment.
Recent Trends
Recent Trends
Unemployment Rate -3 Month Moving Average
City of Toronto 2007-2010
12.0%
10.0%
8.0%
6.0%
4.0%
2.0%
0.0%
2007
A
J
O
2008
A
J
O
2009
A
J
O
2010
A
J
The shock of the global recession on the Toronto
economy resulted in a downturn in business activity
and sharp rise in unemployment beginning in 2008
Recent Trends
Evidence of increasing prevalence of
low income is reflected in the rise in
social assistance cases and growing
use of community supports to
supplement basic needs.
Recent Trends
•
From October 2007 to October
2010, the City’s social
assistance caseload jumped by
29%. Singles increased by 40%
and families by 10%.
Social Assistance Cases
City of Toronto, 2007-2010
100,000
90,000
80,000
70,000
60,000
50,000
•
Food bank use in 2010 showed
the largest year to year jump
since 1995, a fifteen percent
increase over 2009.
• Daily Bread attributes this
to lingering effects of the
recession. Among new food
bank clients, 40% reported
recent job loss or declining
income due to reduced
hours of employment.
40,000
30,000
20,000
J07 A07 J07 O07 J08 A08 J08 O08 J09 A09 J09 O09 J10 A10 J10 O10
All Cases
Singles
Families
Concluding
• Low income is not evenly distributed by population group or
by neighbourhood in Toronto. Its prevalence is
disproportionate for children, youth, senior women, recent
immigrants, visible minority groups and lone parent families.
• Low income households are becoming more concentrated
across Toronto’s inner suburbs as well as in high-rise
apartments in relatively more affluent neighbourhoods.
• The recession has added to already growing need and people
are increasingly turning to community services for basic
necessities.
• In the current fiscal environment, the impact of the recession
creates even greater challenge to provide appropriate
supports to populations in need and, ultimately, to succeed in
meeting poverty reduction goals..
For more information contact:
Harvey Low
City of Toronto
Social Development and Administration Division
Social Policy Analysis and Research
Telephone: 416-392-8660
Email: [email protected]
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