Query Languages
Keyword-Based Querying
 Single Word Queries
 Context Queries
 Phrase
 Proximity
 Boolean Queries
 OR, AND, BUT
 Natural Language
Pattern Matching
 … allow the retrieval of pieces of text that have some
property (match a pattern).
 Pattern is a set of syntactic features that must occur
in a text segment
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Words
Prefixes
Suffixes
Substrings
Ranges
Allowing errors (note edit distance)
Regular expressions
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Union a|b
Concatenation ab
repetition a*
Example: (DNA | microbe) (question | problem) ( | s)
Structural queries
 Form-like fixed structure
 Given example: Mail archive
 Other examples: Log file, …
 Hypertext structure
 Search by content and structure
 Hierarchical structure
 Intermediate level of flexibility
Hierarchical models
 PAT expressions
 PAT is a text searching system
 Developed at University of Waterloo
 Commercially available through Open Text Corporation
in Waterloo
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See PAT expressions: an algebra for text search
By Airi Salminen and Frank W. Tompa
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Acta Linguistica Hungarica 41, 1-4 (1992-93) 1994, 277-306
http://db.uwaterloo.ca/~fwtompa/publications.html
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http://db.uwaterloo.ca/OED/search/expl-pat.html
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Match a string and return the string and suffix, to the end of the
document.
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PAT interprets text as a set of suffix strings
For example, indexing every word in this sentence yields the 12
strings:
For example, indexing every word in this sentence yields the 12 strings:
example, indexing every word in this sentence yields the 12 strings:
indexing every word in this sentence yields the 12 strings:
every word in this sentence yields the 12 strings:
word in this sentence yields the 12 strings:
in this sentence yields the 12 strings:
this sentence yields the 12 strings:
sentence yields the 12 strings:
yields the 12 strings:
the 12 strings:
12 strings:
strings:
PAT search example
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>> water
1: 48442 matches
>> pr sample.7
192807323, ..sper.dr-</gk> water + <gk>a&lenis.dhfa&acu.goj</gk> voracious: s..
520790341, ..e took to the water, disappeared, leaving it on the low under ba..
145798504, ..nced from the water like a carp. </T></Q><Q><D>1843</D> <A>Paget..
549737948, ..4 <T>The 1929 water ski champion, Herr Pribitzer of the water-sk..
190797617, ..ngsley</A> <W>Water-Bab.</W> iii. 116 <T>Dark hovers under swirl..
549099801, ..ating-oil..of water-white and odorless qualities. </T></Q><Q><D>..
549623784, .. the maddest *Waterloo-Crackers. </T></Q><Q><D>1851</D> <A>Mayhe..
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Source: http://db.uwaterloo.ca/OED/search/expl-pat.html
>> a..z
2: 60343111 matches
>> pr sample
555709177, ..e Christopher as my owne, I will he be put unto the schoale. </T..
290164101, ..ir slangy off-colour jokes. </T></Q><Q><D>1972</D> <PSA><A>G. Bl..
10053096, ../D> <W>Compl. Fam.-Piece</W> <sc>ii. </sc>iii. 388 <T>Amber Pear..
97073359, ..> in <W>Cott. Hom.</W> 201 <T>&Th.e muchele delit of &th.ine swe..
58277014, .. specially in knowledge (as the seraphim in love); a conventiona..
194517420, ..mplative, and nonverbal. </T></Q></PQP><PQP><Q><D>1957</D> <W>Wh..
408029625, ..us widths and patterns.</T></Q><Q><D>1833</D> <A>J. Bennett</A> ..
481205743, ..design of the SEAC and DYSEAC. </T></Q><Q><D>1960</D> <A>Gregory..
440450458, ..III. 558/2 <T>The domain of Sonata was for a long while almost m..
502535403, ..ed comprises..two Gatling guns, and six *torpedo tubes or torped..
>> "to be or"
3: 458 matches
>> pr sample.5
454233240, .. set upright; to be or become erect. Of hair, spines, etc.: cf...
562398537, ..</PS>, liable to be or capable of being withheld.</DEF></SE></p>..
94031003, ..></IL>): i.e. to be (or make it) a matter of death of capital pu..
192510576, ..Of the voice: to be or to become husky. </p></DEF><QP><Q><D>1922..
407435097, ..7 <T>A Sealer to be ordeyned &amp. sworne to stryke the Cloth &a..
Query Protocols
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Z39.50
WAIS
CCL
CD-RDx
SFQL
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