Iván Fernández
CIEMAT
2nd EU-US DCLL Workshop, University of California, Los Angeles, Nov. 14-15th, 2014
Introduction
Manufacturing and assembly
LiPb loop
Permeator against vacuum
Vacuum system
Heating & cooling systems
Vacuum test
Hydrogen in gas phase permeation tests
Characterization of the hydrogen transport properties of the Fuskite material.
Hydrogen dissolved in LiPb permeation tests
I. Fernández – “Summary of FUSKITE results on materials, modeling and data analysis”
2nd EU-US DCLL Workshop. 14-15 Nov 2014. Los Angeles (CA), USA.
2/21
Fuskite: reduced-scale technology
demonstrator of permeation against
vacuum.
Natural convection LiPb loop.
Objectives:
Scale testing of permeation against
vacuum.
Perform
measurements
permeation in gas-phase
flowing LiPb.
of
and
Analyze permeation under a
number of controlled variables (T,
P, velocity, species).
Assess feasibility of PAV as tritium
extraction system for fusion
reactors.
I. Fernández – “Summary of FUSKITE results on materials, modeling and data analysis”
2nd EU-US DCLL Workshop. 14-15 Nov 2014. Los Angeles (CA), USA.
3/21
Volume: 22.94 l.
Stainless steel + controlled oxidation process (formation of
a chromia layer on the surface as permeation/corrosion
barrier).
Au and Cu O-rings in main flanges.
Bellows valves for safety and drainage to ensure better
closing and sealing. Electric actuators to remotely control
the valves.
I. Fernández – “Summary of FUSKITE results on materials, modeling and data analysis”
2nd EU-US DCLL Workshop. 14-15 Nov 2014. Los Angeles (CA), USA.
4/21
I. Fernández – “Summary of FUSKITE results on materials, modeling and data analysis”
2nd EU-US DCLL Workshop. 14-15 Nov 2014. Los Angeles (CA), USA.
5/21
Spiral-shaped permeator against vacuum (PAV).
I. Fernández – “Summary of FUSKITE results on materials, modeling and data analysis”
2nd EU-US DCLL Workshop. 14-15 Nov 2014. Los Angeles (CA), USA.
6/21
0.5 mm membrane thickness.
250 mm height.
150 mm diameter.
5 mm spacing between membranes.
Evenly distributed inner stiffeners.
Made of SS 316L. Not optimal for permeation but needed by
manufacturing process.
Manufactured by Laser-cusing, a rapid prototyping
technique which allows manufacturing components with
complex geometries and high mechanical performance.
Based on Selective Laser Melting.
I. Fernández – “Summary of FUSKITE results on materials, modeling and data analysis”
2nd EU-US DCLL Workshop. 14-15 Nov 2014. Los Angeles (CA), USA.
7/21
I. Fernández – “Summary of FUSKITE results on materials, modeling and data analysis”
2nd EU-US DCLL Workshop. 14-15 Nov 2014. Los Angeles (CA), USA.
8/21
Hydrogen injection by calibrated leak or B10
bottle.
Vacuum pump incorporated in the He leak
detector. Permeated hydrogen is recovered
and carried to the analyser by means for
bellow valves and flexible metal hoses.
I. Fernández – “Summary of FUSKITE results on materials, modeling and data analysis”
2nd EU-US DCLL Workshop. 14-15 Nov 2014. Los Angeles (CA), USA.
9/21
Heating by electrical tracing.
Hot source (325-400ºC)
Safety/general (260-325ºC)
Compensating system (235-280ºC)
Outlet (260ºC)
Cooling: cold source at 325ºC by cross flow of 2 centrifugal
fans.
The whole loop is thermally insulated.
I. Fernández – “Summary of FUSKITE results on materials, modeling and data analysis”
2nd EU-US DCLL Workshop. 14-15 Nov 2014. Los Angeles (CA), USA.
10/21
I. Fernández – “Summary of FUSKITE results on materials, modeling and data analysis”
2nd EU-US DCLL Workshop. 14-15 Nov 2014. Los Angeles (CA), USA.
11/21
Hydrogen background level of 2.38·10−5 mbar l/s when the gas mixture pressure inside
the loop is 2 bar.
Possible causes: small leaks in permeator and its own material degasification.
Pressure achieved inside the permeator by the rotary vacuum pump: 6.53·10-3 mbar.
I. Fernández – “Summary of FUSKITE results on materials, modeling and data analysis”
2nd EU-US DCLL Workshop. 14-15 Nov 2014. Los Angeles (CA), USA.
12/21
Mixture of inert gas (Ar) and H2 (1%) inside the loop.
Balance between the injected hydrogen and the extracted by permeation  time necessary
for permeation of a specific amount of hydrogen.
Flexibility: possibility of modifying process variables (velocity, temperature, H2 concentration,
etc.) to characterize the efficiency in each case.
I. Fernández – “Summary of FUSKITE results on materials, modeling and data analysis”
2nd EU-US DCLL Workshop. 14-15 Nov 2014. Los Angeles (CA), USA.
13/21
Hydrogen permeation flux rates in steady-state.
I. Fernández – “Summary of FUSKITE results on materials, modeling and data analysis”
2nd EU-US DCLL Workshop. 14-15 Nov 2014. Los Angeles (CA), USA.
T (ºC)
Permeation rate
(mbar l/s)
Time
(min)
335
4.91·10-4
133
325
4.17·10-4
188
300
2.57·10-4
397
275
1.54·10-4
590
250
0.85·10-4
993
200
Not reached
>1000
14/21
Recovery of permeated hydrogen.
18.7% injected
Hydrogen permeated flow and total amount recovered (Pmix= 2 bar, T = 325ºC)
I. Fernández – “Summary of FUSKITE results on materials, modeling and data analysis”
2nd EU-US DCLL Workshop. 14-15 Nov 2014. Los Angeles (CA), USA.
15/21
Characterization of hydrogen transport parameters in the steel SS 316L used by the
manufacturer.
University of the Basque Country facilities.
I. Fernández – “Summary of FUSKITE results on materials, modeling and data analysis”
2nd EU-US DCLL Workshop. 14-15 Nov 2014. Los Angeles (CA), USA.
16/21
Hydrogen pressure load: 0,5-1,5 bar.
Temperature: 200-550ºC.
Confirmed diffusive regime: J  p0.5
1 0 -4
1
8
 ph
1
8
 ph
823 [K]
J [ mol m
-2
s ]  1,83  10
783 [K]
J [ mol m
-2
-2
[K ]
[K ]
[K ]
[K ]
[K ]
s ]  1, 25  10
J  [m o l m
823
783
748
673
598
748 [K]
J [ mol m
-2
s ]  7 , 73  10
673 [K]
J [ mol m
-2
s ]  2 , 04  10
-1
s ]
1 0 -5
1 0 -6
1
9
1
9
0,59
0,58
 ph
0,58
0,60
ph
1 0 -7
104
105
106
p h  [P a ]
I. Fernández – “Summary of FUSKITE results on materials, modeling and data analysis”
2nd EU-US DCLL Workshop. 14-15 Nov 2014. Los Angeles (CA), USA.
17/21
2
2
-1
D [m s ]
1 0 -9
-1
D [m s ]
1 0 -9
1 0 -1 0
1 0 -1 1
1 0 -1 0
1 0 -1 1
1 ,2
1 ,3
1 ,4
1 ,5
1 ,6
1 ,7
1 ,2
1 ,3
-1
D [ m s ]  5 ,84  10
7
e
1 ,6
1 ,7
1 0 0 0 /T [K ]
 52 , 80 [kJ mol
1
1 ,5
-1
1 0 0 0 /T [K ]
2
1 ,4
RT
-1
 53 , 46 [kJ mol
]
1
D [ m s ]  6 ,86  10
2
I. Fernández – “Summary of FUSKITE results on materials, modeling and data analysis”
2nd EU-US DCLL Workshop. 14-15 Nov 2014. Los Angeles (CA), USA.
7
e
-1
]
RT
18/21
-1 /2
Pa
-3
K S [m o l m
K S [m o l m
-3
Pa
-1 /2
]
1 ,0 0
]
1 ,0 0
0 ,1 0
0 ,0 1
0 ,1 0
0 ,0 1
1 ,2
1 ,3
1 ,4
1 ,5
1 ,6
1 ,7
1 ,2
1 ,3
1 ,4
-1
1 0 0 0 /T [K ]
K s [ mol m
Pa
 1/2
]  1, 09  e
1 ,6
1 ,7
1 0 0 0 /T [K ]
 13 , 72 [kJ mol
-3
1 ,5
-1
RT
-1
 13 , 80 [kJ mol
]
K s [ mol m
-3
Pa
I. Fernández – “Summary of FUSKITE results on materials, modeling and data analysis”
2nd EU-US DCLL Workshop. 14-15 Nov 2014. Los Angeles (CA), USA.
 1/2
]  1, 09  e
-1
]
RT
19/21
6 samples were obtained from the Fuskite external surface filings.
Examinations suggest the features of the Fuskite surface, obtained by Laser-cusing, are very
different to the original material ones. Surface limited transport model could occur.
A new characterization of hydrogen transport parameters will be carried out at the University
of the Basque Country with SS 316L samples obtained by Laser-cusing.
If results show permeation is penalized by surface phenomena, it would imply the selected
manufacturing technique is not appropriate.
I. Fernández – “Summary of FUSKITE results on materials, modeling and data analysis”
2nd EU-US DCLL Workshop. 14-15 Nov 2014. Los Angeles (CA), USA.
20/21
Measurements of hydrogen concentration in LiPb at several positions to evaluate the amount
of dissolved hydrogen and then make an hydrogen balance to know efficiency.
Additional safety measurements:
Glove box.
HEPA/ULPA filters.
Inner vacuum cleaner.
Tests will be performed at the beginning of 2015.
I. Fernández – “Summary of FUSKITE results on materials, modeling and data analysis”
2nd EU-US DCLL Workshop. 14-15 Nov 2014. Los Angeles (CA), USA.
21/21
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