The Hispanic
Community and
Outdoor Recreation
Applied Management
Research Program
UCLAAnderson
School of Management
Laura Adams
Kafi Baskerville
Dorothy Lee
Michael Spruiell
Rob Wolf
Agenda



Introduction to Hispanics
Methodology
Findings
– 5 key areas
 Culture
 Leisure
Time
 Youth
 Income
 Language


Recommendations
Conclusion
The Hispanic Community and Outdoor Recreation
2
Introduction
Methodology
Findings
Recommendations
Conclusion
Introduction – Hispanic Market

Hispanic segment largely overlooked

Traditional outdoor activity participants
– White non-Hispanics

Opportunity to increase Hispanic participation

Hispanic impact
– Population growth

10x faster than non-Hispanic (1980-2000)
– Enormous purchasing power

Spent $653 billion in 2003
The Hispanic Community and Outdoor Recreation
3
Introduction
Methodology
Findings
Recommendations
Conclusion
Demographic Information
Hispanics
Non-Hispanics
Current Population
39.9 million
250.1 million
Projected Population by 2050
102.6 million
324.9 million
Percentage of U.S. Population
13.7%
86.3%
Projected % of US Pop by 2050
24%
76%
Average Age
26.7
39.6
Mean Household Income
$34,241
$43,318
Background
67% Mexican
14% Central & South America
9% Puerto Rican
4% Cuban
7% Other
Source: U.S. Census Bureau 2003
The Hispanic Community and Outdoor Recreation
4
Introduction
Methodology
Findings
Recommendations
Conclusion
Fundamental Problem
How do retailers and organizations encourage
Hispanics to initially and continuously participate
in future outdoor recreational activities?
The Hispanic Community and Outdoor Recreation
5
Introduction
Methodology
Findings
Recommendations
Conclusion
Secondary Research Methodology


Initial library consultation
Individual review
– Library databases
– Websites
– Partner resources

Categorized findings
–
–
–
–
–

Culture
Leisure Time
Youth
Income
Language
Gaps to address in primary research
The Hispanic Community and Outdoor Recreation
6
Introduction
Methodology
Findings
Recommendations
Conclusion
Primary Research – Survey

Survey
– Leisure time
 Hours,
interests, budget
– Physical activities
 Active/non-active,
hours, interests
– Interest in specific outdoor activities
– Reasons for not participating


Translated into Spanish
Spanish and English versions
– 303 survey respondents
The Hispanic Community and Outdoor Recreation
7
Introduction
Methodology
Findings
Recommendations
Conclusion
Survey Methodology

Distribution of survey
– E-mail
– Face-to-face meetings
– Alumni

Univision
– Television promotion
– www.encuesta.notlong.com
The Hispanic Community and Outdoor Recreation
8
Introduction
Methodology
Findings
Recommendations
Conclusion
Location – Respondent vs. National Population
National Hispanic population
Survey Respondents
Rank
State
%
# surveyed
% of survey
1
CA
30.1%
CA
218
71.9%
2
TX
18.8%
TX
57
18.8%
3
FL
8%
CO
10
3.3%
4
NY
7.4%
AZ
6
2.0%
5
IL
4.3%
IL
3
1.0%
FL
2
0.7%
WA
2
0.7%
NJ
1
0.3%
MA
1
0.3%
NC
1
0.3%
MD
1
0.3%
KS
1
0.3%
303
100.0%
State
Total
5
4
1
2
Source: U.S. Census Bureau 2003
The Hispanic Community and Outdoor Recreation
3
9
Introduction
Methodology
Findings
Recommendations
Conclusion
Findings
Culture

Leisure Time
Youth
Income
Language
5 Key Areas
– Secondary Research
– Primary Research
– Recommendations
The Hispanic Community and Outdoor Recreation
10
Culture
Leisure Time
Youth
Income
Language
Family

Multi-generational family
– Different from American concept of nuclear family
– Boarders





Recent immigrants – to help pay for expenses
Identity retention
– Strong ties to parents/grandparents’ country of origin
Traditional foods
– Weight gain
– Fatty meats, lard
Emotional support
Physical activities
The Hispanic Community and Outdoor Recreation
11
Culture
Leisure Time
Youth
Income
Language
Community


Tightly knit
Major influencers
– Church
 64%
of Hispanics attend services regularly
 40% of Americans attend services regularly


– Community leaders
Word-of-mouth
Brand loyal
Source: USCCB
The Hispanic Community and Outdoor Recreation
12
Culture
Leisure Time
Youth
Income
Language
Personalization

Seek connectivity
– Families and community

Health care
– Doctors’ trust

Politeness towards all
– Effort to make connectivity
The Hispanic Community and Outdoor Recreation
13
Culture
Leisure Time
Youth
Income
Language
Culture – Survey

26% primarily speak Spanish at home
live with 5 or more people

62% of respondents born in the U.S.

76% of respondents’ parents & grandparents born outside U.S.

57% most likely be interested in outdoor activities
if friends/family had higher interest level

78% get outdoor activity info from family & friends

Respondents prefer to be with family when:
– Watching TV/movies at home (62%)
– Going to the park (58%)
– Going to church (74%)
Source: AMR Survey
The Hispanic Community and Outdoor Recreation
14
Culture
Leisure Time
Youth
Income
Language
Recommendations – Culture
Recommendations

Retailers
– Target local churches / sponsor an outdoor outing
 Combines family, church, & outdoor activities
 Grassroots campaign
– Brand loyalty
– Community leaders

Doctors
– Create personalization
– Educate health benefits
 Eat moderately, increase exercise
The Hispanic Community and Outdoor Recreation
15
Culture
Leisure Time
Youth
Income
Language
General Leisure Time Data


Hispanic leisure time has increased dramatically
since 1990
Still ranks lowest in TOTAL leisure time available
– Relative to other major ethnic demographics

Opportunity due to GROWTH in leisure time
– Potential to increase participation rates in outdoor
activities
The Hispanic Community and Outdoor Recreation
16
Culture
Leisure Time
Income
Youth
Language
Leisure Time Growth

Hispanic daily leisure time
increased from 2.9 to 3.9
hours
– Over 13 year period
(34%, 1990–2003)
– Same leisure time growth
rate as white population
– 10% greater growth rate
than black population

Leisure Time Available (in hours)
5
4.7
4.6
4.5
24%
4
3.7
3.5
3.9
34%
3.5
34%
Black
3
2.9
White
Hispanic
2.5
1990
2003
Only 24 minutes of the one hour increase is spent on TV
– White population added 30 minutes to TV time
– Black population added a full hour to TV time
Source: LeisureTrak Report
The Hispanic Community and Outdoor Recreation
17
Culture
Leisure Time
Youth
Income
Language
Leisure Time Availability – Survey

#1 reason for not participating in outdoor
activities  Lack of Time
– 71% of males
– 64% of females
– Only 17% would rather be doing something else

44% would definitely participate in more outdoor
activities if more leisure time was available
– Increases to 49% for Hispanics aged 18-29
– Increases to 59% for Hispanics aged 30-34
Source: AMR Survey
The Hispanic Community and Outdoor Recreation
18
Culture
Leisure Time
Youth
Income
Language
Leisure Time Activities

Hispanics enjoy some of the same leisure activities as
white Americans
– Gardening, fishing, and video games
– Swimming, hiking, and other forms of exercise
– American football preferred over soccer

Hispanics enjoy activities popular with other ethnicities
– African-Americans
 Listening to music, going to the movies, shopping

Group activities are universally popular




Hispanics
African-Americans
Asian-Americans
Whites (to a lesser degree)
Source: LeisureTrak Report
The Hispanic Community and Outdoor Recreation
19
Culture
Leisure Time
Youth
Income
Language
Physical Activities – Survey

61% of Hispanics spend 1-4 hours/week on physical activities
– Increases to 72% for Hispanics aged 35+
– Less common for Hispanics with highest education levels

25-34 age group most active
– Over a third spending 5-9 hours/week on physical activities

Most popular activities
– Running
– Other forms of basic exercise
Running / jogging
48%
Weightlifting / gym
23%
Bicycling (street or mountain)
19%
Aerobics
19%
Dancing
19%
Swimming
17%
Skateboarding
10%
Other
24%
Source: AMR Survey
The Hispanic Community and Outdoor Recreation
20
Culture
Leisure Time
Income
Youth
Language
Team Sports

High interest in organized
and/or team activities
– Commitment to family & friends
– Enjoyment and reliance on team
environment similar to other
interaction with family and
friends

Favorite sports among Hispanics
– American football and basketball


Highly team-based
Requires communication and
collaboration
5 Favorite Sports*
Hispanics
Asian-Americans
Football
13%
Bicycling
10%
Basketball
11%
Weightlifting
9%
Running
9%
Basketball
9%
Walking
8%
Tennis
7%
Soccer
8%
Swimming
4%
Swimming
8%
Soccer
4%
Whites
African-Americans
Walking
14%
Basketball
18%
Golf
11%
Football
10%
Basketball
5%
Walking
9%
Swimming
5%
Running
8%
Exercising
5%
Exercising
8%
*Can be due to participation in the
sport, or simply due to an interest
Source: LeisureTrak Report
The Hispanic Community and Outdoor Recreation
21
Culture
Leisure Time
Youth
Income
Language
Individual Sports

Hispanics enjoy individual and team sports
– Unique compared to other ethnicities


Participation in individual
sports for health benefits
and stress relief
Favorite sports overall
 3rd
= Running
 4th (tie) =
Walking/swimming
5 Favorite Sports
Football
13%
Basketball
11%
Running
9%
Walking
8%
Soccer
8%
Swimming
8%
Source: AMR Survey & LeisureTrak Report
The Hispanic Community and Outdoor Recreation
22
Culture
Leisure Time
Youth
Income
Language
Health Opportunities

Lack of leisure time has resulted in a lack of
exercise
– Health not being addressed

Exercise not listed as top five favorite sport activity
– Yet, high level of interest and some participation in:




Hiking
Biking
Trail running
Hispanics are aware of health benefits
– 82% of Hispanics say outdoor activities are healthy
Source: AMR Survey & LeisureTrak Report
The Hispanic Community and Outdoor Recreation
23
Culture
Leisure Time
Youth
Income
Language
Recommendations – Leisure Time
Recommendations

“Lack of time” #1 reason for not participating
– True despite impact of leisure time growth trend
– Target outdoor activities with small time commitment


Hiking, biking, fishing, & trail running
Increase awareness
– Encourage Hispanics to choose outdoor activities with available
leisure time

Promote group oriented activities
– Group and individual activities popular, but group activities:



Allow time with family and friends
Allow parents to participate with children; promote active lifestyles
Promote health benefits
– Encourage switch from current exercise to outdoor activities
– Requires no more of a time commitment than already expending
The Hispanic Community and Outdoor Recreation
24
Culture
Leisure Time
Income
Youth
Language
Youth Background

Hispanic youth are a dominant force in U.S.

Hispanics under 18
– Increased 81%

Non-Hispanics
– Increased 6.1%

73% under 16
– Mexican
Hispanic and Non-Hispanic Population - Under 18
1990
1990 vs 2002
2002
#
% Total
Population
#
% Total
Population
Cumulative
growth
1980 2002
0-4
2,330
3.7%
3,962
5.4%
70%
5 - 13
3,778
5.9%
6,611
9.1%
75%
14 - 17
1,141
1.8%
2,552
3.5%
123.70%
Total 0 - 17
7,249
11.4%
13,125
18.0%
81%
0-4
15,934
25.1%
15,647
21.5%
-1.80%
5 - 13
28,231
44.4%
30,310
41.6%
7.40%
14 - 17
12,193
19.2%
13,812
18.9%
13.30%
Total 0 - 17
56,358
88.6%
59,769
82.0%
6.10%
Total US 0 - 17
63,607
Age and
Category
Hispanic
Non-Hispanic
72,895
14.60%
Source: Packaged Facts - The US Hispanic Market
The Hispanic Community and Outdoor Recreation
25
Culture
Leisure Time
Youth
Income
Language
Youth Language



Young Hispanics view English as dominant language
Many bilingual
– 88% of 5 to 17-year-olds
– 71% of 18 to 64-year-olds
– 60% of 65 years +
Web usage
– 91% of youth in L.A. use mostly English websites
Bilingual and Native English speaking Hispanics by Age Group, 2000
Age 5-17
Category
(in thousands)
18-24
65+
#
%
#
%
Bilingual and native English speakers
7,557
87.9%
15,056
70.8%
1,024
60.2%
Speak Spanish at home & English "well" or "very well"
5,792
67.4%
13,377
62.9%
1,000
58.8%
Speak only English at home
1,765
20.5%
1,679
7.9%
24
1.4%
Speak English "not well" or "not at all"
1,038
12.1%
6,217
29.2%
677
39.8%
TOTAL
8,595
21,273
Source:
Packaged Facts
- The US Hispanic
Market,
Cultural Access
Group and Sapo Communications
The
Hispanic
Community
and
Outdoor
Recreation
#
%
1,701
26
Culture
Leisure Time
Youth
Income
Language
Youth Purchasing Decisions

Moms large role in family spending decisions

Mothers are the “ultimate gatekeepers”


Teens “tend to be shielded by parents from messages
or activities that are seen as threatening to the family
or irrelevant”
Hispanic children have major impact on brands
selected by parents less acculturated
Source: Packaged Facts - The US Hispanic Market
The Hispanic Community and Outdoor Recreation
27
Culture
Leisure Time
Youth
Income
Language
Youth Obesity


Hispanic youth more obese & unhealthy than others
– 72% Hispanics age 5 to 17 in good or excellent health
– 74% blacks age 5 to 17 in good or excellent health
– 87% whites age 5 to 17 in good or excellent health
Children 12-18 that are overweight
– 25% of Hispanics
– 12.9 % of whites
– 21.8 % of blacks

Parents accommodate children’s dietary wishes

Lack of proper physical education at schools

Cultural emphasis on large, social meals can cause weight gain
Source: The Associated Press
The Hispanic Community and Outdoor Recreation
28
Culture
Leisure Time
Youth
Income
Language
Youth Outdoors and Leisure – Survey




Spending
– 90% of youth spend < $40/week on leisure
– 50% of youth spend < $20/week on leisure
Finding Information on Leisure
– 78% rely on friends/family
– School, T.V., Radio and Internet also popular
– Direct Mail, Church not major sources for youth
Perception of Leisure
– Almost all respondents had favorable attitudes towards
outdoor activities
Physical Activity
– Large majority of youth spend 1-4 hours/week
Source: AMR Survey
The Hispanic Community and Outdoor Recreation
29
Culture
Leisure Time
Youth
Income
Language
Youth Outdoors and Leisure – Survey

Motivation to participate
– Increased interest amongst friends and family

Main constraints preventing participation
– Time, lack of equipment, proximity to activity and
limited interest amongst family and friends

Levels of interest
– Camping, biking, snowboarding highest
– X-country skiing, fishing, birdwatching, snowshoeing low

Levels of participation
– Camping, biking, trailrunning, hiking most popular
– Canoeing, x-country skiing, kayaking, rafting,
snowshoeing have minimal participation
Source: AMR Survey
The Hispanic Community and Outdoor Recreation
30
Leisure Time
Culture
Youth
Income
Language
Recommendations – Youth
Recommendations

Gateway activities as a stepping-stone
– Interest in camping, hiking, biking, trail running
– Less time away from friends and family or lower costs involved
 Increasing participation in more expensive, complex, time
consuming outdoor activities could be a longer term goal

Get youth to try some activities
–
–
–
–

Consider sponsors fund and support
Encourage parents participation with children
Increase overall exposure to activities and opportunities
Word-of-mouth advertising is key
Disburse information through school and Internet
– Less need for Spanish websites

Emphasize health benefits to parents for overweight youth
The Hispanic Community and Outdoor Recreation
31
Culture
Leisure Time
Youth
Income
Language
General Income Data

$34,421 average household income of Hispanics
– Compared to $43,318 average income of non-Hispanics


18% faster growth in income than national average
Still the lowest average income
– Job type
– Lower education levels
2001 Total money of households by type (1,000s)
Hispanics
Non-Hispanics
under 15k
1,986
18.9%
15,322
15.5%
15k to 24,999
1,833
17.5%
12,743
12.9%
25k to 34,999
1,621
15.4%
11,968
12.1%
35k to 49,999
1,811
17.3%
14,992
15.2%
50k to 74,999
1,729
16.5%
18,327
18.5%
75k and over
1,517
14.5%
25,446
25.8%
total
10,497
98,798
Source: The US Hispanic Market
The Hispanic Community and Outdoor Recreation
32
Leisure Time
Culture
Youth
Income
Language
Hispanic Spending

Spend more of yearly income
– 96% vs. 82% national avg.

Largest spending categories
– Absolute terms

Footwear (36% more)
– Hispanic households spend $406
– Non-Hispanic households spend $292
– Relative terms



Entertainment
Children
Other categories with increased spending
– Vacations, clothes, services, and food

Factors impacting spending decisions
– Relationships, sampling, word-of-mouth
Source: The US Hispanic Market
The Hispanic Community and Outdoor Recreation
33
Leisure Time
Culture
Youth
Language
Income
Household Income

Survey versus National Population
– respondents consistent with secondary data

Survey respondent slightly higher income levels
Survey vs entire Nation - Hispanic income
30.0%
28.1%
25.0%
20.0%
18.9%
16.0%
17.5%
16.0%
15.4%
17.4%
17.3%
15.0%
16.5%
12.8%
14.5%
9.6%
10.0%
5.0%
0.0%
< $15k
$15k to
$24.9k
$25k to
$34.9k
$35k to
$49.9k
$50k to
$74.9k
$75k or >
Survey population
National population
Source: The US Hispanic Market / AMR Survey
The Hispanic Community and Outdoor Recreation
34
Culture
Leisure Time
Youth
Language
Income
Participation by Income Level – Survey

Number of outdoor activities that Hispanics participate in
– Not really determined by their income
# of outdoor activities respondents
in each income level participates in
none
1
2
3
income levels
$75k or >
$50k to $74,999
$35k to $49,999
$25k to $34,999
4
5
6
7 or more
$15k to $24,999
< $15k
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
80%
90%
100%
% of population
Source: AMR Survey
The Hispanic Community and Outdoor Recreation
35
Culture
Leisure Time
Youth
Income
Language
Participation in All Activities by Income – Survey

Weighted average of current activities by income
– # and avg. day/yr of current OUTDOOR activities
– # and avg. day/week of current OTHER activities
– Not really determined by their income
OUTDOOR Activities participation
OTHER Activities participation
Income
#
avg day/yr
#
avg day/week
< $15k
3.09
31.8
1.33
1.81
$15k to $24,999
2.97
24.4
1.53
3.27
$25k to $34,999
2.95
26.8
1.63
4.96
$35k to $49,999
3.33
42.8
1.82
3.85
$50k to $74,999
2.86
33.8
1.94
4.38
$75k or >
3.18
31.3
1.90
4.56
Source: AMR Survey
The Hispanic Community and Outdoor Recreation
36
Leisure Time
Culture
Youth
Language
Income
Interest in Outdoor Activities by Income – Survey
Income

No real significance or
correlation on income
or interest
# activity interested
< $15k
4.02
$15k to $24,999
5.76
$25k to $34,999
4.67
$35k to $49,999
4.92
$50k to $74,999
6.19
$75k or >
5.39
Hiking interest vs income
-60%
-40%
-20%
0%
20%
40%
60%
80%
% people from incom e group
income range
< $15k
$15k to $24,999
-11%
-18%
-24%
-11%
-9%
-13%
36%
18%
22%
18%
9%
11%
Unfamiliar with activity
$25k to $34,999
-7%
$35k to $49,999
-10% -8%
$50k to $74,999
-19%
-7%
-24%
52%
31%
15% 0%
18%
8%
Very low interest
Low interest
Medium interest
-14%
-11%
-17%
36%
17%
6%
High interest
Very high interest
$75k or >
-3%
-22%
-16%
39%
14%
6%
The Hispanic Community and Outdoor RecreationSource: AMR Survey
37
Leisure Time
Culture
Youth
Income
Language
Recommendations - Income
Recommendations

With lower average income than rest of the nation,
Hispanics are conscious of spending,
particularly if the product is unknown
– Use less expensive activities as gateway
– Use trial or discounted trips and apparel for initial interest

Footwear spending higher than non-Hispanics
– Stress benefits of participating

Show value
The Hispanic Community and Outdoor Recreation
38
Culture
Leisure Time
Youth
Income
Language
Language General Data

Five segments within Hispanic population
Segments
Country of Birth
Primary Language
New Lifers (29%)
Foreign
Spanish
Old Ways (17%)
Foreign
Spanish
Settled in (17%)
U.S.
English
Pioneers (6%)
U.S.
English
Young Americans
(31%)
U.S.
English
59% like to use Spanish in every situation
70% speak Spanish in their homes
Source: Emerging Latino Markets
The Hispanic Community and Outdoor Recreation
39
Leisure Time
Culture
Youth
Income
Language
Outdoor Activities and Language
Improvements

Applewhite Picnic Area in San Bernardino
– Bilingual signs and Spanish-speaking hosts
– 80% visitors are now Hispanic; 50% before

Vail Resorts
– Goal to hire 10 minority personnel at each of their 5 resorts
However there is still a lot of room for more change……

Angeles Forest
– Bilingual signs, hosts and maps
– Online space solely in English

Advertisements for outdoor facilities
– Solely run on English-language television
The Hispanic Community and Outdoor Recreation
40
Culture
Leisure Time
Youth
Income
Language
Language in the Retail Sector
Physical visits to three top outdoor retailers in L.A.

Patagonia
– Environmentally-friendly retailer / Located in upscale location
– No bilingual references or employees
– Demographic 86% non-Hispanic

REI
– ‘Everything outdoors’ retailer / Located in upscale & middle-class area
– No bilingual references or employees
– Advertised ‘beginner’ clinics only in English

Big 5 Sporting Goods
– General sporting goods retailer / Located in middle-class location
– No bilingual signs or employees
– Advertised low-cost ‘learn-to-ski’ packages in English

Online spaces of all retailers were offered only in English
The Hispanic Community and Outdoor Recreation
41
Culture
Leisure Time
Youth
Income
Language
How Important Is Language Really? – Survey

88% consider themselves highly proficient or fluent in English

86% of those who primarily speak Spanish
– Don’t think lack of information in Spanish is key factor for not
participating

15% most likely or definitely participate more
– If there were more information available in Spanish
– 40% of these respondents are aged 45+

8% said there was not enough info available in Spanish
– 3% think not enough tour guides/instructors speaking Spanish
Source: AMR Survey
The Hispanic Community and Outdoor Recreation
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Culture
Leisure Time
Youth
Income
Language
Recommendations – Language
Recommendations

Survey results indicate less need for bilingual approach
– Secondary research indicated benefits

Encourage participation through
– Bilingual signs, maps, and websites

Retailers
– Short-term

Educational brochures in Spanish
– Long term


Engage Hispanics with Spanish website targeting older Hispanics
Send direct mail in Spanish (older Hispanics 3.5x more likely to
respond)
The Hispanic Community and Outdoor Recreation
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Introduction
Methodology
Findings
Recommendations
Conclusion
Other Influences on Participation

Safety issues

Accessibility/distance

Lack of necessary equipment

Parental approval
The Hispanic Community and Outdoor Recreation
44
Introduction
Methodology
Findings
Recommendations
Conclusion
Recommendations Summary

Increase Awareness
– Stress the health benefits
 Informational campaign
 Community mentors
 Doctors to promote outdoor activities
– Community groups – introduce new activities
 After school program
 Summer or weekend camps
 Church programs
– Retailer sponsored outings
 Organize group activities
 Funding for equipment
The Hispanic Community and Outdoor Recreation
45
Introduction
Methodology
Findings
Recommendations
Conclusion
Recommendations Summary (cont’d)

Gateway activities
– Further participation in gateway activities

camping, fishing, hiking, biking, trail running
– Stress less time consuming activities
– Stress group activities
– Loyalty and interest  encourage other activities

Personalization
– Reach out
– Spanish language

Signs, maps, websites, direct mail, brochures
– Commitment to Hispanic segment

Hiring practices, recruitment
The Hispanic Community and Outdoor Recreation
46
Introduction
Methodology
Findings
Recommendations
Conclusion
Recommendations Summary (cont’d)

Other
– Increase accessibility

Transportation to venues
– Leverage population size and buying power


Alternative form of entertainment
What NOT to do
– Treat Hispanics as homogenous population
– Assume all demographics respond similarly
– Assume Hispanics cannot afford to participate
The Hispanic Community and Outdoor Recreation
47
Introduction
Methodology
Findings
Recommendations
Conclusion
Conclusion

Hispanic segment is important!
– Growing population and buying power
– Youth segment very significant

When promoting outdoor activity, consider:
– Strong commitment to family & friends
(especially with youth)
– Lack of leisure time
– Income is not necessarily a factor
– Spanish language personalization
The Hispanic Community and Outdoor Recreation
48
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Youth - Growth - Outdoor Foundation