The Community Trade Mark
Seminar on Trademarks and Designs
Warsaw, 28. November 2006
Dr. Jörg Weberndörfer
First OHIM: an EU Agency
Office for Harmonization of the
Internal Market
• • • • -
Created through Community trade mark Regulation
(CTMR)
Decentralized agency of the EU
Around 700 staff from soon 27 Member States
Self-financed through fees
The Seat of OHIM
Bilbao
SPAIN
Madrid
Barcelona
Valencia
Sevilla
ALICANTE
OHIM
WHAT IS A COMMUNITY TRADE
MARK (CTM)?
• A sign that identifies and distinguishes goods and
services
• Valid in the whole territory of the European Union
• Has unitary character
• Registered by the OHIM in accordance with the
CTM Regulation
COMMUNITY WIDE TRADE MARK
PROTECTION
Since 1996: The Community
trade mark
MAIN ADVANTAGES
• Reduced administrative burden:
–
–
–
–
–
–
Only one Office to deal with
One single application
One legal system
One single language (out of 20 to choose)
One single file to be dealt with
One single fee system
• Obligation to use easy to be met
• Uniform protection throughout the EU.
LANGUAGES
EU
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Czech
Danish
Dutch
English
Estonian
Finnish
French
German
Greek
Hungarian
OHIM
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Italian
Latvian
Lithuanian
Maltese
Polish
Portuguese
Slovak
Slovenian
Spanish
Swedish
•
•
•
•
•
English
French
German
Italian
Spanish
WHO CAN BE CTM OWNER?
• Accessible for everybody!
– Anyone from any country in the world may be the
owner of a CTM.
• Any applicant without a seat or real and effective
establishment within the EU needs to be represented by:
– A legal practitioner
– A professional representative authorised to act before
the OHIM
– An employee
HOW MUCH DOES IT COST?
Reduced fees since 22/10/2005!
• Application fee
– 900 EUR incl. 3 classes of goods/services in case of
paper filing
– 750 EUR incl. 3 classes of goods/services in case of
e-filing
– 150 EUR for each additional class
• Registration fee
– 850 EUR incl. 3 classes of goods/services
– 150 EUR for each additional class
DURATION OF REGISTRATION
• Duration:
– 10 years from the date of filing
• Renewal:
– Every 10 years, provided that the renewal fees are
paid (indefinitely possible!)
– Renewal fees:
• 1.500 EUR paper renewal
• 1.350 EUR e-renewal
WHICH SIGNS MAY BE COMMUNITY
TRADE MARKS?
• Two conditions
– Signs which distinguish the goods or services of
one enterprise from those of another
– Signs which can be represented graphically,
particularly words, including personal names,
designs, letters, numerals, the shape of goods or
of their packaging
What can be a Community Trade Mark?
WORDS (word marks)
Adidas Starbucks Whirlpool Nestlé Volkswagen
Sony Harley Davidson Philips Just Do It Orange
Siemens
Lays
Red Bull
Gatorade Coca Cola
Rolex
Microsoft
Shell
PepsiCo
Java
Ford
Vodafone JVC
Apple
RayBan
Zippo
Levis
Bic
MGM Petronor Herbalife EMI Sellotape Pfeizer
What can be a Community Trade Mark?
LOGOS (figurative marks)
What can be a Community Trade Mark?
OBJECTS (3-D marks)
What can be a Community Trade Mark?
SOUNDS (sound marks)
 
 

(Tarzan yell)
(Popping)
(Sound of tennis balls being hit)
What can be a Community Trade Mark?
COLOURS OR COMBINATIONS (colour marks)
What can be a Community Trade Mark?
OTHERS ?
• Olfactory Marks (smells)
• Movement Marks
• Holograms
Though acceptable in principle, graphic representation
is problematic with such marks.
Smell marks have already been ruled out by EU courts
EXAMINATION OF THE APPLICATION
Filing
Classification, Formalities examination
Absolute grounds examination
10-12
months
Search and translation
Publication
18-20
months
Opposition (inter partes proceeding)
Partial and total
refusal
Registration
Third parties observations
ABSOLUTE GROUNDS EXAMINATION
• “absolute grounds” relating to the sign itself
– Examined ex officio for all applications
– Grounds based on the interest of the consumers
• Prohibition of illicit signs (deceiving or contrary to
public order and morality)
– Grounds in the sake of a free competition
• Refusal of signs which are not distinctive,
descriptive or generic.
OPPOSITION PROCEDURE
PUBLICATION
NOTICE OF OPPOSITION (OPPONENT)
NOTIFICATION
TO APPLICANT
ADMISSIBILITY EXAMINATION
COOLING OFF
PERIOD
START OF WRITTEN PROCEDURE
(observations from parties, proof of use, etc.)
EXAMINATION AND DECISION ON OPPOSITION,
COSTS AND APPLICATION FOR A CTM
RELATIVE GROUNDS EXAMINATION
(EXTRACT)
• „Relative grounds for refusal“ = conflicts with earlier
rights of third parties
– Not examined ex officio by the office
– Only if an opposition is lodged by the owner of the
earlier right
– Delay: 3 months as from the publication of the
application
REGISTRATION
If no opposition or if opposition rejected:
• CTM proceeds to Registration
• Request for payment sent to
applicant/representative
• Published again as registered CTM in CTM
Bulletin (Part B)
• Certificate sent out
AND NOW?
• Congratulations… You are the owner of a
CTM!
• Put the CTM to use in at least one Member State (within
5 years)
• Observe the market and defend your right against
subsequent conflicting applications!
LINKS BETWEEN NATIONAL AND
COMMUNITY SYSTEMS
Different ways to protect trade marks
within the EU
• National system
• International system
– Trade Marks: Madrid system and/or Madrid Protocol
for trade marks (Designs: Hague Agreement)
• Community systems
Or a combination of these systems
(at the free choice of the applicant)
(1) The national route
File
individual
applications
at each of
the national
TM offices
Each
protection title
subject to the
different
national laws
ALWAYS:
Translation
Costs
Lawyers
Fees
(2) The international route
A home application/registration is needed
Request in EN, FR or ES - basic fee to be paid
Individual fees
are payable to
the national TM
offices
No single unitary
right is granted ‘bundle’ of rights’
- subject to
national law of
each country
In case of
problems:
Translation
Costs
Lawyers
fees
(3) The Community route
• EU as a single territory
• 1 application, 1 file, 1 fee
• 1 unitary right
• Single legislation interpreted by the same
Courts
• publication in 20 (22)
languages (translations to
other 19 (21) needed)
Inclusion of OHIM in the international route
The international Trade Mark route is based on the
Madrid Agreement/Protocol: OHIM joined the
Madrid Protocol on 10/2004
The international Design route is based on the
Hague Agreement: It is assumed that OHIM will join
it in the second half of 2007
Result: OHIM can be either the office of origin or
the office of designation
EQUIVALENCE COMMUNITY FILING /
NATIONAL FILING
Filing of a CTM application
 regular filing in each Member State
 effect of 23 (soon 25) national applications
filed simultaneously
• CTM application may impede subsequent registrations at
national /international level in the EU
• National applications in the EU may impede subsequent
registrations at Community level
Links between national and CTM system:
1. SENIORITY
• Allows proprietors of national trade marks to group
them into the CTM
Requirement: Triple Identity of trade mark,
goods/ services and owner
Goal: Simplification of administration and reduction of
costs of the trade mark portfolio
SENIORITY
SUCHARD
AT: International trade mark as from 29.7.52
BX: International trade mark as from 29.7.52
DE: International trade mark as from 29.7.52
DK: National trade mark as from 30.3.07
ES: International trade mark as from 29.7.52
SENIORITY
SUCHARD
CTM: 31294
Community trade
mark as from 01.04.96
Links between national and CTM system:
Conversion
2. CONVERSION
CTM application:
withdrawal or refusal
 national(s) trade mark(s)
application(s)
Registered CTM:
Surrender, revocation,
invalidity, nonrenewal
 national(s) trade mark(s)
application(s)
Goal: Maintaining the filing/priority date of the CTM
THE EU ENLARGEMENT:
Legal Implications?
Art 142 (a) CTMR: 3 Rules
• Automatic extension for free!
• Grandfathering of CTMs
• Respect of acquired rights in new Member States via
possibility of protection against the use of acquired
CTMs in the national territory
APPEAL PROCEEDINGS
European Court of Justice
Court of First Instance
LUXEMBOURG
OHIM Boards of Appeal
Trade Marks Department
Admin. of TM & Designs
Department
ALICANTE
Designs Department
CTM COURTS
• Competent for infringement actions (full details Art.
92 CTMR)
• Designated by the respective countries
• List of competent courts:
http://oami.eu.int/en/mark/aspects/default.htm
Community Trade Mark Statistics
General Statistics
Executed at
15/11/2006
Accumulated CTM Applications
Total - 527,853
70,000
64,774
50,000
57,679 58,955
57,380
60,000
57,726
48,908
45,221
43,139
41,294
40,000
31,629
27,277
30,000
20,000
10,000
0
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
Accumulated CTM Registrations
Total - 348,418
70,000
59,737
60,000
50,000
38,529
40,000
34,256 34,756
30,000
51,277
35,885 34,305 34,434
24,244
20,000
10,000
0
576
1996
1997
0
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
Oppositions Filed Against CTM Applications
Total - 106,891
20,000
17,367
18,000
16,000
14,000
12,879
11,059 10,609 11,500
12,000
10,000
9,802
9,940
2002
2003
11,684
10,721
8,000
6,000
4,000
2,000
0
851
0
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2004
2005
2006
Cancellation Applications Filed
Total - 1,938
400
369
350
300
300
478
271
250
200
150
167
160
2001
2002
114
100
60
50
0
0
1996
1997
19
0
1998
1999
2000
2003
2004
2005
2006
Community Trade Marks Cancelled
Total - 910
200
263
180
160
144
142
2003
2004
149
140
120
104
93
100
80
53
60
40
20
0
0
0
0
1996
1997
1998
1999
0
2000
2001
2002
2005
2006
Top Ten CTM Filing Countries
Sweden
1.96
Netherlands
2.42
Switzerland
3
France
3.61
Japan
4.62
Italy
5.28
Spain
6.98
UK
12.54
Germany
19.45
USA
30.7
0
5
10
15
20
25
Percentage of CTM Application Filed Since 1996
30
35
Type of Marks Filed
Sound
0.2
Other
0.04
Colour
0.03
3D
0.54
Figurative
38.19
Word
61
0
10
20
30
40
50
Percentage by Type of Mark Filed
60
70
Top Ten CTM Owners
Unilever N.V.
562
REWE-Zentral AG
588
BASF Aktiengesellschaft
595
Novartis AG
687
L'Oreal
793
DaimlerChrysler AG
862
Mars, Incorporated
917
Deutsche Telekom AG
1071
Konami Kabushiki Kaisha
1215
The Procter & Gamble Company
1282
0
200
400
600
800
1000
Number of CTMs Applied For
1200
1400
Top Ten CTM Representatives
Murgitroyd & Company
3615
Withers & Rogers LLP
4036
Novagraaf Nederland B.V.
4169
Ungría López
4147
Lovells
4423
Field Fisher Waterhouse
4428
Boult Wade Tennant
4782
Elzaburu
6181
Marks & Clerk
6682
Bureau Gevers
14978
0
2000
4000
6000
8000
10000 12000 14000 16000
Number of CTMs Applied For
Community Trade Mark Statistics
CTM Statistics for
POLAND
CTM Applications from Poland
Total - 2380
800
750
700
650
600
550
500
450
400
350
300
250
200
150
100
50
0
798
750
557
188
12
1996
6
6
6
1997
1998
1999
26
2000
11
2001
20
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
Registered CTMs from Poland
Total - 615
400
360
356
320
280
240
200
184
160
120
80
40
0
0
1996
0
1997
4
1998
11
1999
5
2000
22
2001
6
2002
11
2003
16
2004
2005
2006
Type of Marks Filed by Polish Applicants
Sound
0
Other
0.38
Colour
0.13
44
3D
Figurative
60.94
Word
36.62
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
70
Percentage by Type of Mark Filed
75
80
85
90
95
100
Top Ten Polish Applicants
Nepentes Sp. zo.o.
15
Tan Viet International Ltd.
15
Agros Nova Sp. Z.o.o.
15
Valvex S.A.
16
Pzedsiêbiorstw o WiM...
17
ASA Sp. Z.o.o
18
Agencja Wydaw ninza ' Technopol'
18
V&S Luksusow a Zielona Góra
21
Tym bark S.A
21
Kam is-Przypraw y S.A.
21
0
5
10
15
20
Num ber of CTMs Applied For
25
Top Ten Representatives in Poland
Bocheñska
38
Loesenbeck, Stracke, Specht Dantz
40
Ostriga, Sonnet, Wirths & Roth
45
Romuald Suszczewicz
45
Kancelaria Patentowa Klar Mirosaw
45
Kancelaria Patentowa W Zajyczkowski..
46
Hubisz
47
Weber & Sauberschwarz
53
Patent-Service Kancelaria
66
Kancelaria Patentowa Piotr Jankowski
67
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
Number of CTMs Applied For
70
80
General
Information:

(+ 34) 965 139 100

(+ 34) 965 131 344

[email protected]

Office for Harmonization in the Internal
Market (Trade Marks and Designs)
Avenida de Europa, 4
E-03008 Alicante
SPAIN
Descargar

No Slide Title