Learning Objects
Kim, L., Yan, L. and Miller, B.
(2004-2006)
HRIM 642/442
Hospitality CBT
Learning Outcomes
At the end of this presentation students will
be able to:
• describe the elements of a learning object
• identify what is and what is not a learning
object
• analyze the quality of a learning object
• produce a high quality learning object
HRIM 642/442
Hospitality CBT
Index
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What is learning objects
Components of learning objects
The requirements for objects
Definition of learning objects
Characteristics of learning objects
Learning objects versus informational objects
Benefit of using learning objects
Pros and Cons of Learning Objects
Standards for learning object design
Relevant Links
HRIM 642/442
Hospitality CBT
What is
Learning Objects?
Learning objects are building blocks
•Designed to be instructional
•Designed to be extractable
•Designed to be reusable
HRIM 642/442
Hospitality CBT
What can be each block?
(content)
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Text
Graphics
Animations
Video
Audio
Regardless of multimedia components
all Learning Objects must have an
assessment
HRIM 642/442
Hospitality CBT
Requirements for each block
• Must be able to communicate with learning
management systems.
• How a learner moves between blocks is
controlled by the integrated learning
system.
• Must have a description that enables
designers to search for and find the right
block for the right job.
• Usually the length of each block is between
five to fifteen minutes.
HRIM 642/442
Hospitality CBT
Integrated Learning System
• ILS is computer-based systems for the delivery of curriculum
material, via an individualized program of study
• An ILS is made up of two components, Computer Aided
Instruction (CAI) modules (often called courseware) and a
Management System.
HRIM 642/442
Hospitality CBT
Key Features of ILS
• An individualized learning program. High performers can
make rapid progress onto higher levels of difficulty.
When learners experience problems, they are given more
practice and/ or additional tutorials. Questions are
related to various skills needed for the topic.
• Instructors have access to data for monitoring learners’
progress. They can identify learners who are
experiencing difficulty and in need of additional support.
Data are gathered automatically and can be displayed in
reports. Over time, Management Systems are helpful in
predicting future performance.
• Provide learners with immediate feedback thus improving
learner motivation and acceleration of learning.
HRIM 642/442
Hospitality CBT
Learning Objects
A learning object, for all practical
purposes (designed for active learning),
is an object or set of resources (blocks)
that can be used for facilitating
intended learning outcomes, and can be
extracted and reused in other learning
environments.
HRIM 642/442
Hospitality CBT
Characteristics of
Learning Objects
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Reusability
Interoperability
Extractable: Stand-Alone
Durability
Accessibility
HRIM 642/442
Hospitality CBT
Learning Objects v.
Informational Objects
• The intent of a learning object's designer is to
facilitate learning, while information objects are
designed to be a reference, and not necessarily for
the purpose of retaining skills or concepts by the
user.
• Learning objects incorporate assessment, while
information objects do not.
Example
HRIM 642/442
Hospitality CBT
Informational Objects are Passive
Learning Objects
• Most learning objects are active learning
objects. However, informational objects are
instructional in design but do not require
active participation from the user. These are
called passive learning objects.
Remember:
• If the intent is to inform, then it is an
informational object. If the intent is to
facilitate learning, then it is a learning object
and should have an assessment.
HRIM 642/442
Hospitality CBT
So, Without Learning
Objects
• A significant investment in either content or a
learning system is locked into that particular
content or system.
• Every time a course or an interactive electronic
training manual needs to be updated, far more
material must be rewritten than is desirable.
• The process of developing high-quality content is
prone to unnecessary duplication of effort, thus
driving up the cost.
HRIM 642/442
Hospitality CBT
Pros of Learning Objects
•Production Costs
– Breaking content into learning objects, content can be
maintained and updated separately. If a suitable learning object
can be found, a new one does not need to be created.
•Flexibility
– As more standards-based learning objects become available,
increased choice will translate into more flexibility.
•End User Cost
– Learning objects prevent consumers from being locked into
specific systems. As standards take hold, the market for
content provide for content to be reused or recycles thus
lowering production cost while increasing options.
•Industry Support
– Leading system vendors and content producers are supporting
SCORM standards, which complements the learning object
approach.
HRIM 642/442
Hospitality CBT
Cons of Learning Objects
•Production Costs
– Changing content to a learning objects from a "selfcontained system" approach involves retooling and
retraining costs.
•End User Cost
– The increased cost of converting existing content to a
learning objects approach will drive end user cost upward.
•Industry Support
– Realistically, it is twelve to eighteen months between the
time the vendor community adopts an approach and the
time products that implement the approach are available.
HRIM 642/442
Hospitality CBT
Standards for Learning
Objects Design
• XML – a structured means of
representing hierarchies and
properties
• Tagged language
• Used by IMS, SCORM and by many
other agencies around the world
HRIM 642/442
Hospitality CBT
Reusability Design Elements
• Design them to be:
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Generic
Interoperable
Rewind-able
Accessible
Free to use
Findable
Engaging
Sandy Mills-Alford - 2004
HRIM 642/442
Hospitality CBT
Example Links
• Hospitality Training Organization
• Hotel Housekeeping Staffing Guide
• Giving Effective Praise
• Managing Quality: 5S
HRIM 642/442
Hospitality CBT
Can you answer the following
questions?
• What is learning object?
• Components of learning object?
• What’s the difference between learning object
and informational object?
• What are pros and cons of learning object?
• Can you identify learning object now?
• Can you find some examples of learning objects?
HRIM 642/442
Hospitality CBT
Assessment
• Learning Object Game Show
HRIM 642/442
Hospitality CBT
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What is Learning Objects?