IV. C. Changes & Challenges to
Political-Territorial Arrangements
Debra Coram Troxell, NBCT
5. Electoral Geography
• Redistricting & Reapportionment
• Gerrymander
• “electoral districts, municipalities”
Congressional reapportionment
If Party A is in control of redistricting…
• Wasted votes: Party B is a minority in every district
• Excess votes: almost all of Party B supporters are in one
district
• Stacked votes: Party A controls the majority of districts,
yet Party B controls more than 1 – can result in very
strange shaped districts
www.redistrictinggame.org
“Gerrymandering”
Redistricting for
partisan purposes
A famous gerrymander
NC Voter registration
I
205
229
1
Change in Electoral Votes
1980
41
1990
33
2000
31
2010
30
NC
Florida
13
17
14
25
15
27
15
28
Texas
California
26
45
32
54
34
55
37
55
New York
Presidential Elections
2008
2004
2012
2008 Election
2004 Presidential Election
2012 Presidential Election
2012 Presidential Election
2012 Presidential Election
2012 Presidential Election
1. Changing Nature of Sovereignty
• Early People: Tribes behaved territorially but not exclusively – held sway over
people but no collective agreement among rulers about how territory would
be organized or what rulers could do within their respective domains (deBlij
241)
• Westphalian System: 1648 Treaty of Westphalia gave rise of politicalterritorial power
– Instead of societies defining territories; Territories define societies
• “These new countries are artificial units, geographic expressions carved on
the map by European imperialists. These are the units we have tried to turn
into nations.” -Julius Nyerere, president of Tanzania 1971
• Globalists_supr article in polit. Folder on EU being close to global governance
1. Changing Nature of Sovereignty
•
1.
2.
Globalization has changed the face of sovereignty, with companies, people,
and ideas now interacting across borders at a pace never seen before. With
emerging intergovernmental organizations, such as the European Union,
the definition of sovereignty is in flux. http://digitalcommons.hamline.edu/dhp/14/
Globalization of economies, transnational corps., outsourcing
International and supranational institutions
1.
2.
3.
3.
4.
5.
•
Trade blocs
WTO
EU
NGOs
International Migration and effective communication undermines the state
as a cultural community
Increased nationalist and separatist movements in “culturally composite
states”
Globalists_supr article in polit. Folder on EU being close to global
2b. Unification
• East Germany – West Germany
• Hong Kong – China
• North Korea – South Korea
2c. Cooperation
• Due to “economic globalization” & international
cooperation
– Some of sovereign state’s traditional responsibilities
and authorities are being diluted by
•
•
•
•
Higher-order political and economic organizations
Transnational corporations
Non-governmental organizations (NGOs)
Which operate outside of nation-state jurisdiction
– Transnationals corps. Limit the economic influence of
individual countries
– Internet & Cyberspace are not controlled
3. Supranationalism & International
Alliances
Supranational Political Bodies
• Associations of three or more states created for
mutual benefit and to achieve shared objectives.
• Supranational organizations come into being when
countries give up a portion of their sovereignty
(willingly) in order to gain the advantages of having a
closer relationship with their neighboring countries,
politically, economically or culturally.
Goals of International Organizations
• Political & Military
– United Nations
– North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
– Warsaw Pact (1955 – 1991)
– Organization of American States (OAS)
– African Union (AU)
Goals of International Organizations
• Economic
– European Union (EU)
– Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (COMECON)
– communist countries (1949 – 1991)
– North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)
(1994 - )
Political & Military Organizations
United Nations
• 1945 – original 49 members
• 2014 – 193 members
The United Nations
United Nations
• The United Nations System is based on five
active principal organizations:
•
•
•
•
•
UN General Assembly
UN Security Council
UN Economic and Social Council
UN Secretariat
International Court of Justice
• http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_Nations
Non-member States
Taiwan (China)
Vatican City
Western Sahara (territory of Morocco)
Palestinian Territories
Tibet (China)
Sample
United
Organizations
Sample
of Nations
UN Organizations
• UNDP - United Nations Development Programme
• UNIFEM - United Nations Development Fund for Women
• UNV - United Nations Volunteers
• UNEP - United Nations Environment Programme
• UNFPA - United Nations Fund for Population Activities
• UNHCR - Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees
• UN-HABITAT - United Nations Human Settlements Programme
• UNICEF - United Nations Children's Fund
Maritime boundaries
•
United Nations Convention on the Law
of the Sea (UNCLOS):
–
Four zones:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Territorial sea – 12 nautical miles
Contiguous zone – 24 n.m.
Exclusive Economic zone (EEZ)-200 n.m.
High Seas or Global Commons
Map of Canada outlining the 200 mile exclusive
economic zone (red line) and the possible limit of the
extended continental shelf (white line).
NATO
•After WWII – 16 member nations
•Since fall of communism – some former Warsaw pact countries have
joined
European Union
• Began as European Economic Community (EEC),
– 1957.
– Stronger in 1994
– 10 new members, joined, 2004
– 2015: 28 members
• Turkey wants to join but have faced resistance.
– Greece objects due to Cyprus
– Objections due to human rights abuses of Kurds
– Not “European” enough
Notice
France &
Germany are
members and
use the Euro
UK & Romania
are members but
do not use the
Euro
Switzerland &
Norway are not
members
EU: Federal or Confederate?
• Almost one-half of the total annual legislation in
the United Kingdom now comes from the
European Union.
• Power of Place: EU
Economic Organizations
The Overlapping of Political & Economic
Membership
UMA: Arab Maghreb Union
COMESA: Common Market for
Eastern & Southern Africa
CEN-SAD: Community of SahelSaharan States
EAC: E. African Com.
ECCAS: Eco. Com. of Central
African States
Angola
ECOWAS: Eco. Com. of W.
African States
IGAD: Intergovernmental
Authority on Development
SADC: Southern Africa Dev.
Com.
Swaziland
Trading Blocs
OPEC
The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) is a large
group of countries[1][2] made up of Algeria, Angola, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq,
Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates,
Venezuela, and Ecuador (which rejoined OPEC in November 2007)
NAFTA
• 1993
• Designed to converge wealth between Canada,
US, & Mexico
• Increase in wealth for elite, decline in income for
Mex. farmers, and job loss for US workers
• Increase in maquiladoras
ASEAN
• Association of Southeast Asian Nations
• Formed 1967
• To promote political and economic cooperation
and regional stability
ASEAN
• Components
– Political-Security Community
• Intergovernmental Commission on Human Rights
• Defence Ministers Meeting, etc.
– Economic Community
• Free Trade Area
• Ministers on Energy Meeting
• Ministerial Meeting on Agriculture and Forestry, etc.
– Socio-Cultural Community
• Ministers Responsible for Culture & Arts
• Education Ministers Meeting
ASEAN
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Brunei
Cambodia
Indonesia
Laos
Malaysia
Myanmar
Philippines
Singapore
Thailand
Viet Nam
• Asia
Cooperation
Dialogue
• Gulf
Cooperation
Dialogue
• Shanghai
Cooperation
Organization
• Turkic Council
• Economic
Cooperation
Organization
• South Asian
Association for
Regional
Cooperation
• Bay of Bengal
Initiative for
Multi-Sectoral
Technical and
Economic
Cooperation
3b. International Alliances
• “NATO, ASEAN, NAFTA and European Union”
4a. Centripetal & Centrifugal Forces
The largest ethnic group as the percentage of total population.
* Dark yellow: 85% and above.
* Yellow: 65-84%.
* Light yellow: 64% and below;
* Blue: Traditional ethnic definitions do not apply. Ethnicity is replaced by color of skin.
(Source: WFB. Data as of 2000-2008).
Centripetal forces
•
•
Forces that promote national unity and solidarity.
The ultimate centripetal force is the nation’s raison
d’être:
 Its ‘reason for being’
 Every state must have a reason to exist:
 Defending a culture or ideology
 Standing up to a common enemy
 Special status in the world
 States that don’t have a raison d’etre try to create one
to unify the people.
Centripetal forces
1. Raison d’etre
2. Nationalism
3. Unifying institutions: schools, the armed forces and
state churches.
*Organization and administration of the government.
4. Transportation and communication – strong core area
5. A perceived threat to a group’s sense of identity.
Examples of centripetal forces
• Nationalism is the primary source of group
identity in the modern state.
– It is the idea that a person derives a significant part
of his identity from a sense of belonging to a
nation.
– States try to create allegiance to keep country
stable: want their populace to accept the ideology,
adhere to laws, participate in its operation.
– Icons—flags, national sports teams, holidays,
statues
Centrifugal forces
• Forces that disrupt internal order and further the
destruction of a country.
–
–
–
–
–
–
Ethnic conflicts; competing claims among ethnic groups.
Religion
Poorly run government and/or transportation systems.
A dissident minority seeking autonomy
Large population in frontier area
Devolution: transfer of power from the state’s central
government. to separate political subdivisions within its
territory.
Government systems and
Cultural Diversity
• Homogenous populations with similar languages,
religions and shared history—a single identity—are best
governed as unitary states. Reaction by the people
against unitary rule can generate strong centrifugal
forces.
• Heterogeneous populations are best governed as
federal states. Allowing people to govern themselves
close to home can generate strong centripetal forces.
Size and shape
• Can influence the viability of a state.
• The size may encourage unity or division
• The shape may also encourage unity or division

Thus either size or shape have the potential to
generate centrifugal or centripetal forces.
Centrifugal forces
Size
Shape
“Too big”
Or
“Too small”
“Too much like
Shattered glass”
Or “Too much like
Swiss cheese.”
Centripetal forces
“Just right”
“Just the right
shape”
Advantages
Disadvantages
Large
Size
Large population:
more talent
large army
More natural resources
Economic self-sufficiency
Difficult to unify
Population: more spread out,
more culturally diverse.
Transportation difficult
Everyone pays attention
Small
Size
Easier to unify
Population is closer
together
Less culturally diverse
Transportation easy
No one pays attention
Small population:
Less talent
Small defense force
Vulnerable to attack
Fewer resources
Economic vulnerability
2a. Fragmentation
• “indigenous areas”
• “autonomous lands affect political, social and
economic processes”
4b. Devolution
• “ethnic separatism”
• Time Permitting: Devolution hw
(devolution_act) ESPN
• Power of Place: Velvet Divorce
6a. Armed Conflicts - War
• Ethnic Conflicts/Genocide
• Acquisition of Territory/Resources
– Russia – Ukraine
– Iraq – Kuwait and oil
– Falkland Islands
6b. Terrorism
Mr. Craddock
What is Terrorism
• US: premeditated, politically motivated violence
perpetrated against noncombatant targets by
subnational groups or clandestine agents
• UN: intention to cause death or serious bodily harm to
civilians or non-combatants with the purpose of
intimidating a population or compelling a government
or an international organization to do or abstain from
doing any act.
Terrorism?
• Terrorism or Acts of Violence or War Activity
Terrorism or Acts of Violence or War
 North Ossetia
 Lebanon
 Sri Lanka
 Pakistan
 India
 France
 Dagestan,Russia
 Burma
 New York
 Istanbul, Turkey
 Elazig Province,
Turkey
 Texas
 Guinea
 Blacksburg
 Seattle
 Uzbekistan
 Grozny, Russia
 Kosovo
 Cote d’Ivoire
 Yemen
Definition cont.
• Terrorism generally can be confined to three
concepts
– Violence
– Fear
– Intimidation
• It is almost always targeted in the most public
way against civilians in order to draw attention
to the act
Number of Terrorism Incidents, 2000-2008
Types of Terrorism
• Domestic – acts against one’s own country
(Oklahoma City)
• International – acts that transcend national
boundaries (9/11)
• Subnational – acts committed by
nongovernmental groups (Chechnya)
• State – acts committed by agents of the
government (Syria – before ISIS, “passive support” of
HAMAS, Hezbollah, Palestinian Islamic Jihad)
Major Terrorist Incidents
•
•
•
•
•
•
9/11 (2001)
Munich Olympic Massacre (1972)
Iran Hostage Crisis (1979-1981)
Beirut Bombing (1983)
Mumbai (2008)
School Hostages in Russia (2004)
Categorize the Paris Charlie Hebdo
attack
Charlie Hebdo must
be veiled
Oklahoma City Bombing
• April 19, 1995
• Alfred P. Murrah Federal
Bldg.
• By Timothy McVeigh
and Terry Nichols
• 168 Died, 680+ Injured
• American militia
movement sympathizer
(survivalist, anti-tax, etc)
Beirut, Lebanon
(1983)
Mumbai, India
(2008)
New York
City (2001)
Types of Terrorism cont.
• Bioterrorism – intentional release of toxic
biological agents for the intent of terrorism
• Cyberterrorism – usually an attack on
information technology to disrupt an
organization
• Ecoterrorism – attacking disruptors of the
environment in order to protect the
environment.
Terrorist Groups
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Basque Fatherland and Liberty (Spain)
Irish Republican Army (N. Ireland)
HAMAS (Palestine)
Hezbollah (Lebanon; to resist Israeli occupation)
Palestinian Liberation Front (Palestine)
Sikh Terrorism (India)
Boko Haram (Nigeria)
Khalistan
Basque
Palestinian State
Al Qaeda
• Established in 1989 by Osama bin Laden
• Is a fundamentalist organization seeking to rid
Muslim nations of Westernization and
secularism and replace with Theocracies.
• Operates out of individual cells instead of as a
formal organization.
Reactions to Terrorist Attacks
• Reducing or addressing the cause of terrorism (Basque
Spain)
• Increasing international cooperation in surveillance of
subnational groups (Arab Gulf States)
• Increasing security measures within the country (United
States)
• Using military means against terrorism (United States)
Ukraine Case Study?
• NATO eastward expansion,
• the splintering of the EU over sanctions,
• and the idea of two Ukraines divided by
language, religion, and economic development.
• centripetal and centrifugal forces,
• ethnic conflict,
• core/periphery tensions, and
• supranationalism vs devolution in contemporary
Europe.
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IV. C. Changes & Challenges to Political