Grammar three
Lecture four
By: Eman Alkatheery
Eman Alkatheery
Part One
Adjective Clauses:
Restrictive Clauses
versus
Nonrestrictive Clauses
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Adjective Clauses
An adjective (or relative) clause is a
dependent clause that functions as an
adjective in a sentence. It modifies nouns,
pronouns, or a whole sentence. It begins with
a relative pronoun. It comes immediately
after the words that it modifies. In some
cases, a prepositional phrase may come in
between.
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Adjective Clauses
Examples:
The first football world cup ,which took place in 1930,
was held in Uruguay.
I have not read the magazine that is lying on the table.
People who use microwave ovens save time and money.
Ovens that use microwave energy cook food quickly.
The award that Mario received was for his volunteer
work.
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Adjective Clauses
There are several types of adjective clauses (Table 4.1, p. 156)
Types of
Clauses
Relative
Pronoun
Example
Subject
That, which, who Biology is a subject that is very interesting.
Object
That, which, who
(m)
possessive
whose
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It is a subject which I would like to study.
Dr. Smith, whose class meets today, is an
expert.
Adjective Clauses
Types of
Clauses
Relative
Pronouns
example
place
Where
I remember the café where we met.
Time
When
Does the class meet at a time when
you can attend?
quantity
Quantity + of +
which or whom
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I saw three movies, one of which
was boring.
Adjective Clauses
 Biology is a subject that is very interesting.
Biology is a subject.
+
Biology is very interesting
 It is a subject which I would like to study.
It is a subject.
+
I would like to study the subject.
 Dr. Smith, whose class meets today, is an expert.
Dr. Smith is an expert.
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+
His class meets today.
Adjective Clauses
Adjective clauses are divided into two types:
1. Restrictive clauses
2. Nonrestrictive clauses
The type of the adjective clause determines the
use of commas. Commas are only used with
nonrestrictive clauses.
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Adjective Clauses
 Restrictive clauses (Table 4.2, p. 157)
It explains which people, places, or things:
not everything or everyone. It limits the
noun or pronoun that it modifies to only
what is described in the clause. No
commas are used. The relative pronoun
(that) is only used with restrictive clauses.
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Adjective Clauses
Example:
Men who are not married are called bachelors.
The students who passed the exam will take
the next level.
There is only one museum that is open on
Sundays.
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Adjective Clauses
 Nonrestrictive clauses (Table 4.2, p. 157)
It does not define or limit the noun or pronoun that
it modifies. It only adds more information about the
word it modifies. It does not explain which people
or which things. Nonrestrictive adjective clauses
usually modify proper names, nouns that are
unique, and nouns preceded by demonstratives.
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Adjective Clauses
Examples:
Professor Jones, who teaches my biology class,
won a Nobel prize.
We visited this pyramid, which is located in
Cairo.
The moon, which appears in many ancient
drawings, was an ancient symbol of fertility.
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Adjective Clauses
Compare:
Professor Jones, who teaches my biology
class, won a Nobel prize.
The professor who teaches my biology
class won a Nobel prize.
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Clauses with Multiple meanings
In some cases, a particular clause can be either
restrictive or nonrestrictive. (Table 4.3, P. 157)
It can either identify or give extra information.
The adjective clause type can be identified by:
1. The speaker’s or writer’s point of view
2. Punctuation ( commas)
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Clauses with Multiple meanings
COMPARE:
My sister who lives in Jeddah teaches in a high school.
My sister ,who lives in Jeddah, teaches in a high school.
Practice 1, P. 158
Practice 2, P. 159
Practice 3, P. 161
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Clauses with Multiple meanings
Compare:
 The teacher thanked the students who brought her
flowers.
 The teacher thanked the students, who brought her
flowers.
 The teacher pointed at the maps which are located at
the back of the classroom.
 The teacher pointed at the maps, which are located at
the back of the classroom.
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Part Two
Adjective Clauses:
Replacement of Subjects
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Clauses with who, that , and which
A sentence with an adjective clause can be seen
as a combination of two sentences. The relative
pronouns who, which, and that may replace the
subject of a simple sentence in order to form an
adjective clause (Table 4.4., P. 163)
John is a doctor.
+
John works hard.
John, who is a doctor, works hard.
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Clauses with who, that , and which
In restrictive clauses, who and that refer to
people, but who is preferred.
Which and that refer to animals and things,
but that is preferred.
In nonrestrictive clauses, only who and
which are used. That is not possible.
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Clauses with who, that , and which
The man was named Stephens.
The man found the ruins.
The man who found the ruins was named Stephens.
The house is expensive.
The house is in the 7th street.
The house that is in the 7th street is expensive.
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Clauses with who, that , and which
Shakespeare wrote more than 100 sonnets.
Shakespeare is a famous English poet.
Shakespeare, who is a famous English poet, wrote more
than 100 sonnets.
Toronto is a beautiful place.
Toronto is the largest city in Canada.
Toronto , which is the largest city in Canada, is a
beautiful place.
Practice 1, P. 163
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Clauses with who, that , and which
Practice:
John Fish explained the structure of DNA.
John Fish is a research chemist.
English words are difficult for foreigners to
pronounce.
English words begin with /th/ sound.
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Clauses with whose
Whose may replace a possessive noun, pronoun,
or adjective in the subject of a simple sentence in
order to form an adjective clause, e.g., Sarah’s,
his, their, ….etc (Table 4.5., P. 165)
Whose may be used to refer to people, animals,
and things. It can also be used with both
restrictive and nonrestrictive clauses.
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Clauses with Whose
I retuned the book to the library.
The book’s cover was torn.
I returned the book whose cover was torn to the
library.
The nanny takes care of two children.
The two children’s mother works at a hospital.
The nanny takes care of the two children whose
mother works at a hospital.
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Clauses with Whose
I read about Shakespeare.
His plays are famous.
I read about Shakespeare, whose plays are famous.
Practice 2, p. 165
Practice 3, p. 166
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Anticipatory it with Adjective Clauses
Anticipatory it is often used with adjective clauses to
place more emphasis on the word modified by the adjective
clause (table 4.6, p. 167).
Hernando Cortez led the Spanish conquest of central America.
It was Hernando Cortez who led the Spanish conquest of
central America.
An environmental disaster caused the end of the Mayan
Empire.
It was an environmental disaster that caused the end of the
Mayan Empire.
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Anticipatory it with Adjective Clauses
Did an environmental disaster cause the end of
the Mayan empire?
Was it an environmental disaster that caused the
end of the Mayan empire?
The verb in the adjective clause is singular or
plural depending on the complement of the
main clause.
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Anticipatory it with Adjective Clauses
Olive oil fights heart diseases.
It is olive oil that fights heart diseases.
Apples strengthen your health.
It is apples that strengthen your health.
A football match is aired on TV now.
It is a football match that is aired on TV now.
Practice 4, p. 167
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Part Three
Adjective Clauses:
Replacement of Objects
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Clauses with whom, that, and which:
Replacement of Objects
The relative pronouns whom, which, and
that may replace the object of a simple sentence
in order to form an adjective clause.
In restrictive clauses that refer to people,
who(m) and that can be used, or the relative
pronoun can be omitted. Whom is preferred in
formal English.
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Clauses with whom, that, and which:
Replacement of Objects
In restrictive clauses that refer to
animals and things, which and that can be
used, or the relative pronoun can be omitted.
In nonrestrictive clauses, only who(m)
and which are used, and they cannot be
omitted (table 4.7, p. 172)
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Clauses with whom, that, and which:
Replacement of Objects
 Restrictive clauses (people):
The artists lived centuries ago.
Historians credit them for the statues.
 Restrictive clauses( things):
The figure is of a horse.
I like this figure the most.
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Clauses with whom, that, and which:
Replacement of Objects
The artists whom historians credit for the statues lived
centuries ago.
The artists who historians credit for the statues lived
centuries ago.
The artists that historians credit for the statues lived
centuries ago.
The artists historians credit for the statues lived
centuries ago.
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Clauses with whom, that, and which:
Replacement of Objects
The figure which I like the most is of a
horse.
The figure that I like the most is of a
horse.
The figure I like the most is of a horse.
Practice 1, p. 172
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Clauses with whom, that, and which:
Replacement of Objects
 Ahmad is a doctor.
 I invited Ahmad to my party.
Ahmad, whom I invited to my party, is a doctor.
Ahmad, who I invited to my party, is a doctor.
 Paris is a beautiful city.
 I visited Paris last summer.
Paris, which I visited last summer, is a beautiful city.
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Clauses with whom, that, and which:
Replacement of Objects of prepositions
The relative pronouns whom, which,
and that may replace the object of a
preposition in a simple sentence in order to
form an adjective clause.
In formal English, the preposition is
sometimes placed before the relative
pronoun. In this case only whom and which
are used.
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Clauses with whom, that, and which:
Replacement of Objects of prepositions
If the preposition is placed at the end of a
restrictive clause, that can also be used, or the
relative pronoun can be omitted. This
construction is frequently used in conversational
English, but it is not preferred in formal written
English.
In nonrestrictive clauses, whom or which must
be used. (table 4.8, p.173)
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Clauses with whom, that, and which:
Replacement of Objects of prepositions
Restrictive Clause ( people):
Bill is the man.
I spoke to the man.
 Bill is the man to whom I spoke.
 Bill is the man whom I spoke to.
 Bill is the man who I spoke to.
 Bill is the man that I spoke to.
 Bill is the man I spoke to.
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Clauses with whom, that, and which:
Replacement of Objects of prepositions
She is the director.
I wrote to the director.
 She is the director to whom I wrote.
 She is the director whom I wrote to.
 She is the director who I wrote to.
 She is the director that I wrote to.
 She is the director I wrote to.
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Clauses with whom, that, and which:
Replacement of Objects of prepositions
The gods are depicted in the statues.
The Greeks believed in them.
The gods in whom the Greeks believed are
depicted in the statues.
The gods whom the Greeks believed in are
depicted in the statues.
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Clauses with whom, that, and which:
Replacement of Objects of prepositions
The gods who the Greeks believed in are
depicted in the statues.
The gods that the Greeks believed in are
depicted in the statues.
The gods the Greeks believed in are depicted
in the statues.
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Clauses with whom, that, and which:
Replacement of Objects of prepositions
Restrictive Clauses (things):
It is the studio.
He works for the studio.
It is the studio for which he works.
It is the studio which he works for.
It is the studio that he works for.
It is the studio he works for.
Practice 2, p. 174
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Clauses with whom, that, and which:
Replacement of Objects of prepositions
The museum has many Greek artifacts.
I bought some books at the museum.
 The museum at which I bought some books has
many Greek artifacts.
 The museum which I bought some books at has
many Greek artifacts.
 The museum that I bought some books at has many
Greek artifacts.
 The museum I bought some books at has many
Greek artifacts.
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Clauses with whom, that, and which:
Replacement of Objects of prepositions
Nonrestrictive clauses:
 Sarah Palin lost the election.
 I voted for Sarah Palin.
Sarah Palin, for whom I voted, lost the election.
Sarah Palin, whom I voted for, lost the election.
 Paris is a beautiful city.
 I went to Paris.
Paris, to which I went last summer, is a beautiful city.
Paris, which I went to last summer, is a beautiful city.
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Clauses with whose:
Replacement of Objects
Whose may replace a possessive noun in the
object of a preposition in a simple sentence in
order to form an adjective clause (Table 4.9., P.
175)
Whose may be used to refer to people, animals,
and things. It can also be used with both
restrictive and nonrestrictive clauses. It can not
be omitted.
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Clauses with whose:
Replacement of Objects
 One of Greece’s greatest philosophers was Socrates.
 Plato put Socrates’ ideas in writing.
One of Greece’s greatest philosophers was Socrates,
whose ideas Plato put in writing.
 He is the actor.
 I go to his films.
He is the actor whose films I go to.
Practice 3, p. 175
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Superlatives and adjective clauses
Restrictive clauses are often used after
superlative constructions. Adjective clauses
are used to identify superlatives. The is
generally used with the noun being modified.
(table 4.10, p. 176)
Practice 4, p. 176
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Superlatives and adjective clauses
 Several of the greatest statues that were
originally in the Parthenon are now in London.
 Fifty of the most important statues that were
removed were sold to the British museum.
 Some of the most beautiful statues that we
have ever seen are in the British museum.
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Part Four:
Other Adjective Clause
Constructions
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Clauses with when and where
When and where may be used to form adjective
clauses. In nonrestrictive clauses, only when, where, or
which + preposition are used.
In restrictive clauses, that or that + preposition can
also be used, or the relative pronoun can be omitted.
(table 4.11 , p. 179)
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Clauses with when
Restrictive clauses with when, that or Ø:
 At the time, the statues were still standing.
 The Dutch arrived then.
At the time when the Dutch arrived, the statues
were still standing.
At the time that the Dutch arrived, the statues were
still standing.
At the time the Dutch arrived, the statues were still
standing.
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Clauses with when
 The lives of Germans suddenly changed on the night.
 East German soldiers began building the Berlin Wall
during that night.
The lives of Germans suddenly changed on the night when
East German soldiers began building the Berlin Wall.
The lives of Germans suddenly changed on the night that
East German soldiers began building the Berlin Wall.
The lives of Germans suddenly changed on the night East
German soldiers began building the Berlin Wall.
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Clauses with when
 Nonrestrictive clauses with when:
In 1722, the statues were still standing.
the Dutch arrived then.
In 1722,when the Dutch arrived, the statues were
still standing.
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Clauses with when
 On November 9, 1989, their lives changed
again.
 The wall was torn down on November 9, 1989.
On November 9, 1989, when the wall was torn
down, their lives changed again.
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Clauses with where
 Restrictive clauses with where, which, that or Ø :
This is an island.
An advanced society had flourished here.
This is an island where an advanced society had
flourished.
This is an island on which an advanced society had
flourished.
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Clauses with where
This is an island which an advanced society had
flourished on.
This is an island that an advanced society had
flourished on.
This is an island an advanced society had
flourished on.
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Clauses with where
 Nonrestrictive clauses with where, or which:
This is Easter island.
An advanced society had flourished here.
This is Easter island, where an advanced society had
flourished.
This is Easter island, on which an advanced society had
flourished.
This is Easter island, which an advanced society had
flourished on.
Practice 1, p. 179
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Restrictive clauses modifying people
Subject
object
object of preposition
Who
That
prep + whom
whom + prep
who + prep
that + prep
Ø + prep
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whom
who
that
Ø
Nonrestrictive clauses modifying people
Subject
object
object of preposition
Who
prep + whom
whom + prep
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whom
who
Restrictive clauses modifying things and animals
Subject
object
object of preposition
which
That
prep + which
which+ prep
that + prep
Ø + prep
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which
that
Ø
nonrestrictive clauses describing things and animals
Subject
object
object of preposition
which
which
prep + which
which+ prep
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Nonrestrictive Adjective Clauses
and Expressions of Quantity
Expressions such as one of, some of, all of,
none of , each of, both of, the rest of, either of and
neither of may be used to begin nonrestrictive
adjective clauses.
These clauses must include whom and which,
depending on whether an object or person is being
described. These clauses must be preceded and/or
followed by commas.
(table 4.12, p. 180)
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Nonrestrictive Adjective Clauses
and Expressions of Quantity
Sailors attacked the islanders.
Three of the islanders were killed.
Sailors attacked the islanders, three of whom were killed.
These statues are world famous.
Many of them weigh over 20 tons.
These statues, many of which weigh over 20 tons, are
world famous.
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Nonrestrictive Adjective Clauses
and Expressions of Quantity
They sailed two ships.
Neither of the ships was safe.
Neither ship was safe.
They sailed two ships, neither of which was safe.
The citizens of Puerto Rico are well educated.
Ninety percent of them are literate.
The citizens of Puerto Rico, ninety percent of whom are
literate, are well educated.
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Nonrestrictive Adjective Clauses
and Expressions of Quantity
 She gave two answers.
 Both answers were incorrect.
She gave two answers, both of which were incorrect.
 The top students received scholarships.
 All of the students graduated with honors.
The top students, all of whom graduated with honors,
received scholarships.
Practice 2, p. 180
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Nonrestrictive Adjective Clauses
and Expressions of Quantity
 The top students received scholarships.
 The school awarded half of the top students.
 The top students, half of whom the school awarded,
received scholarships.
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Adjective Clauses and
Subject/Verb Agreement
The form of the verb in the adjective clause depends on
the noun being modified.
 Use a singular verb in an adjective clause that modifies a
singular noun.
 Use a plural verb in an adjective clause that modifies a
plural noun.
(table 4.13, p. 181).
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Adjective Clauses and
Subject/Verb Agreement
The islander who was kidnapped later died.
The islanders who were kidnapped later died.
The student who is working alone is a friend of
mine.
The students who are working together are friends
of mine.
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Adjective Clauses and Subject/Verb Agreement
Use plural verbs with adjective clauses that follow
one of the + plural noun. The clause modifies the
plural noun in the prepositional phrase. In
conversational English, a singular verb may sometimes
be used. (table 4.13, p. 181).
Example:
It is one of the islands that were formed by volcanoes.
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Adjective Clauses and Subject/Verb Agreement
Use a singular verb with the only one, even
though a plural noun follows in the prepositional
phrase. (table 4.13, p. 181).
Example:
It was the only one of the islands that was formed by
volcanoes.
Practice 3, p. 181
Practice 4, p. 182
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Adjective Clauses and
Subject/Verb Agreement
Compare:
It was the only one of the islands that was
formed by volcanoes.
It is one of the islands that were formed by
volcanoes.
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Part Five:
Adjective Clauses
to Phrase Reduction
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Adjective Clauses to Phrase Reduction
 Adjective clauses can be reduced to participial
phrases.
 A participial phrase is a phrase that contains a past
participle (eaten) or present participle(eating).
 Participial phrases can be formed from adjective
clauses if the relative pronoun is the subject of the
relative clause.
 The time of the phrase is determined by the verb of
the main clause or the general context.
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Reduction of Adjective Clauses
with Verbs in the Active Voice
 In adjective clauses with verbs in the active voice,
eliminate the connecting word (relative pronoun),
and use the present participle of the main verb.
 The present participle is used to replace the verbs in
variety of tenses.
 To form the negative, use (not) before the present
participle.
 If the adjective clause has commas, the participial
phrase has commas, too. (Table 4.14, p. 186)
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Reduction of Adjective Clauses
with Verbs in the Active Voice
 The Taj Mahal, which sits on the Yamuna River, is
one of the architectural wonders of the world.
 The Taj Mahal, sitting on the Yamuna River, is one
of the architectural wonders of the world.
 Shah Jahan’s son, who didn’t respect Jahan,
overthrew his father and placed him in prison.
 Shah Jahan’s son, not respecting Jahan, overthrew
his father and placed him in prison.
Eman Alkatheery
Reduction of Adjective Clauses
with Verbs in the Active Voice
 The emperor who ruled the Agra region of India at
that time was named Shah Jahan.
 The emperor ruling the Agra region of India at that
time was named Shah Jahan.
 The Taj Mahal was built by thousands of craftsmen
who worked day and night for 22 years.
 The Taj Mahal was built by thousands of craftsmen
working day and night for 22 years.
Practice 1, p. 186
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Reduction of Adjective Clauses
with Verbs in the Active Voice
 A woman who was hurrying to catch the bus tripped
and fell.
 A woman hurrying to catch the bus tripped and fell.
 Many students who study at this university are from
foreign countries.
 Many students studying at this university are from
foreign countries.
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Reduction of Adjective Clauses
with Verbs in the Passive Voice
 In adjective clauses with verbs in the passive voice,
eliminate the connecting word (relative pronoun) and
(is, was, were, are).
 Use the past participle of the main verb.
 To form the negative, use (not) at the beginning of the
adjective clause.
 If the passive verb is a continuous tense, being +past
participle.
 If the adjective clause has commas, the participial
phrase has commas, too. (Table 4.15, p. 188)
Eman Alkatheery
Reduction of Adjective Clauses
with Verbs in the Passive Voice
 The Taj Mahal, which was built by Shah Jahan, is
made of white marble.
 The Taj Mahal, built by Shah Jahan, is made of white
marble.
 The temples that were being built during this time
had a variety of designs.
 The temples being built during this time had a
variety of designs.
Eman Alkatheery
Reduction of Adjective Clauses
with Verbs in the Passive Voice
 Today tourists flock to Machu Picchu, which was
discovered by archeologists in 1911.
 Today tourists flock to Machu Picchu, discovered
by archeologists in 1911.
 Some cities that were not protected by walls fell
into invaders.
 Some cities not protected by walls fell into
invaders.
Eman Alkatheery
Reduction of Adjective Clauses
with Verbs in the Passive Voice
Research papers that are not handed in by Wednesday
will not be accepted.
Research papers not handed in by Wednesday will not be
accepted.
The languages that are spoken in Switzerland are
German, French, and Italian.
The languages spoken in Switzerland are German, French,
and Italian.
Practice 2, p. 188
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Reduction of Adjective Clauses
with Verbs in the Perfect Tense
 Adjective clauses with verbs in the present perfect or
the past perfect may be reduced into in two ways.
1. The verbs (have, has, had) can be changed to (
having) plus the past participle of the main verb.
2. The verbs ( have, has, had) are eliminated, and the
main verb is changed to the present participle.
However, this way does not stress the completion of
the action.
Eman Alkatheery
Reduction of Adjective Clauses
with Verbs in the Perfect Tense
 With clauses in the passive voice, (having + been +
past participle) ) are used.
 ( Not) for the negative and adverbs are place at the
beginning of the participial phrase.
 Punctuation of participial phrases depends on the
adjective clauses being reduced.
 If the adjective clause is nonrestrictive, then the
participial phrase is punctuated. Otherwise, it does
not. ( Table 4.16, p. 190)
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Reduction of Adjective Clauses
with Verbs in the Perfect Tense
Active voice:
The secrets of the universe, which have fascinated people
for centuries, are slowly being discovered.
The secrets of the universe, having fascinated people for
centuries, are slowly being discovered.
The workers, who had finally finished the temple,
returned to their villages.
The workers, finally having finished the temple, returned
to their villages.
Eman Alkatheery
Reduction of Adjective Clauses
with Verbs in the Perfect Tense
Passive voice:
There are new sections of the Great Wall that have
been discovered recently.
There are new sections of the Great Wall having been
discovered recently.
The president , who has been elected by the majority,
promised to make radical changes.
The president , having been elected by the majority,
promised to make radical changes.
Eman Alkatheery
Reduction of Adjective Clauses
with Verbs in the Perfect Tense
 Five workers, who had already been paid , left for
their villages.
 Five workers, already having been paid , left for their
villages.
 The workers who had not been paid refused to
continue on the project.
 The workers not having been paid refused to
continue on the project.
Practice 3, p. 190
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Placement of Nonrestrictive
Participial Phrases
 Nonrestrictive participial phrases are reduced from
nonrestrictive adjective clauses.
 If the nonrestrictive participial phrase modifies the
subject, it can be placed either before or after the
subject. (Table 4.17, p. 192)
 Occasionally, a nonrestrictive participial phrase is
placed at the end of the sentence only if there is no
confusion about which noun is being described.
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Placement of Nonrestrictive
Participial Phrases
Sarah, hurrying to catch the bus, tripped and fell.
Hurrying to catch the bus, Sarah tripped and fell.
Machu Picchu, which is located high in the Andes, was
constructed by the Incas.
Machu Picchu, located high in the Andes, was
constructed by the Incas.
Located high in the Andes, Machu Picchu was
constructed by the Incas.
Practice 4 , p. 192
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Appositives
 Adjective clauses with verb ( to be) can be reduced to
phrases by eliminating the relative pronoun and the
verb. These are called ( appositives).
 Commas are used with appositives. Also, word order
can often be changed in appositives.
Table 4.18, p. 193
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Appositives
 Shah Jahan, who was the fifth emperor of the Mogul
Empire, built the Taj Mahal.
 Shah Jahan, the fifth emperor of the Mogul Empire,
built the Taj Mahal. (after the subject
 The fifth emperor of the Mogul Empire, Shah Jahan,
built the Taj Mahal.
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Appositives
 George Washington, who was the first president of the
United States, was a General in the army.
 George Washington, the first president of the United
States, was a General in the army.
 The first president of the United States, George
Washington, was a General in the army.
 Paris , which is the capital of France, is an exciting city.
 Paris ,the capital of France, is an exciting city.
 The capital of France, Paris , is an exciting city.
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Adjective Clauses