```Chapter 1: Introduction: Some
Background Basics
FELLMANN & GETIS
Direction with respect to cardinal
east, west, north, and south
reference points
Absolute direction
Direction with respect to cardinal
east, west, north, and south
reference points
The shortest-path separation
between two places measured on a
standard unit of length
Absolute distance
The shortest-path separation
between two places measured on a
standard unit of length
The exact position of an object or place
stated in spatial coordinates on a grid
system designed for locational purposes. In
geography, the reference system is the globe
grid of parallels and meridians.
Absolute location
The exact position of an object or place
stated in spatial coordinates on a grid
system designed for locational purposes. In
geography, the reference system is the globe
grid of parallels and meridians.
The relative ease with which a destination
may be reached from other locations; the
relative opportunity for spatial interaction.
May be measured in geometric, social, or
economic terms.
Accessibility
The relative ease with which a destination
may be reached from other locations; the
relative opportunity for spatial interaction.
May be measured in geometric, social, or
economic terms.
The spread of something over a given
area.
Concentration
The spread of something over a given
area.
The directness of routes linking pairs of places; an
indication of the degree of internal connection in a
transport network. Generally, all of the tangible and
intangible means of connection and communication
between places.
Connectivity
The directness of routes linking pairs of places; an
indication of the degree of internal connection in a
transport network. Generally, all of the tangible and
intangible means of connection and communication
between places.
The natural landscape as modified by
human activities and bearing the
imprint of culture group or society, the
built environment.
Cultural landscape
The natural landscape as modified by
human activities and bearing the
imprint of culture group or society, the
built environment.
The quantity of anything per unit
area.
Density
The quantity of anything per unit
area.
Dispersion
In spatial distributions, a statement of the amount of
spread of a phenomenon over area or around a central
location. Dispersion in this sense represents a
continuum from clustered, concentrated, or
agglomerated to dispersed or scattered.
In spatial distributions, a statement of the amount of
spread of a phenomenon over area or around a central
location. Dispersion in this sense represents a
continuum from clustered, concentrated, or
agglomerated to dispersed or scattered.
A region distinguished by a uniformity of
one or more characteristics that can serve as
the basis for a real generalization and of
Formal Region
A region distinguished by a uniformity of
one or more characteristics that can serve as
the basis for a real generalization and of
A region differentiated by what occurs
within it rather than by a homogeneity
of physical or cultural phenomena.
Functional Region
A region differentiated by what occurs
within it rather than by a homogeneity
of physical or cultural phenomena.
A computer system that stores,
organizes, analyzes and displays
geographic data.
Geographic Information System
A computer system that stores,
organizes, analyzes and displays
geographic data.
Actions or processes that involve the
entire world and result in making
something worldwide in scope.
Globalization
Actions or processes that involve the
entire world and result in making
something worldwide in scope.
An internal representation of a portion of
earth’s surface based on what an individual
knows about a place, containing personal
impressions of what is in a place and where
places are located.
Mental Map
An internal representation of a portion of
earth’s surface based on what an individual
knows about a place, containing personal
impressions of what is in a place and where
places are located.
An idealized representation, abstraction, or simulation
of reality. It is designed to simplify real world
complexity and eliminate extraneous phenomena in
order to isolate for detailed study casual factors and
interrelationships of spatial systems.
Model
An idealized representation, abstraction, or simulation
of reality. It is designed to simplify real world
complexity and eliminate extraneous phenomena in
order to isolate for detailed study casual factors and
interrelationships of spatial systems.
The physical environment unaffected by
human activities. The duration and near
totality of human occupation of the earth’s
surface assure that little or no “natural
landscape” so defined remains intact.
Natural Landscape
The physical environment unaffected by
human activities. The duration and near
totality of human occupation of the earth’s
surface assure that little or no “natural
landscape” so defined remains intact.
A region differentiated by what occurs
within it rather than by a homogeneity
of physical or cultural phenomena.
(Same as Functional Region)
Nodal Region
A region differentiated by what occurs
within it rather than by a homogeneity
of physical or cultural phenomena.
(Same as Functional Region)
The geometric or regular
arrangement of something in a study
area.
Pattern
The geometric or regular
arrangement of something in a study
area.
A region perceived to exist by its inhabitants
or the general populace. Also known as
Vernacular or Popular Region, is has an
element of pop or folk culture represented
in the mental maps of average people.
Perceptual Region
A region perceived to exist by its inhabitants
or the general populace. Also known as
Vernacular or Popular Region, is has an
element of pop or folk culture represented
in the mental maps of average people.
The system used to transfer locations
from earth’s surface to that of a flat
map.
Projection
The system used to transfer locations
from earth’s surface to that of a flat
map.
An area distinguished by a unique
combination of trends and features.
Region
An area distinguished by a unique
combination of trends and features.
The view that physical and cultural
phenomena on the surface of the earth are
rationally arranged by complex, diverse but
comprehensible interrelated spatial
processes.
Regional Concept
The view that physical and cultural
phenomena on the surface of the earth are
rationally arranged by complex, diverse but
comprehensible interrelated spatial
processes.
A cultural based locational reference
as the Far West, the Old South, or the
Middle-East.
Relative Direction
A cultural based locational reference
as the Far West, the Old South, or the
Middle-East.
A transformation of absolute
distance into such relative measures
as time or monetary costs.
Relative distance
A transformation of absolute
distance into such relative measures
as time or monetary costs.
The location of a place in relation to
other places or activities.
Relative location
The location of a place in relation to
other places or activities.
The relationship of between the
portion of earth being studies and
earth as a whole.
Scale
The relationship of between the
portion of earth being studies and
earth as a whole.
The physical character of a place.
Site
The physical character of a place.
The location of a place relative to
other places.
Situation
The location of a place relative to
other places.
The spread or movement of a
phenomena over space or through
time.
(same as diffusion)
Spatial Diffusion
The spread or movement of a
phenomena over space or through
time.
The arrangement of things on earth’s
surface.
Spatial Distribution
The arrangement of things on earth’s
surface.
The movement of goods between
different places; an indication if
interdependence between different
geographic locations or areas.
Spatial Interaction
The movement of goods between
different places; an indication if
interdependence between different
geographic locations or areas.
The arrangement and integrated
operation of phenomena produced by
or responding to spatial processes on
earth’s surface.
Spatial system
The arrangement and integrated
operation of phenomena produced by
or responding to spatial processes on
earth’s surface.
A region distinguished by a uniformity of
one or more characteristics that can serve as
the basis for a real generalization and of
contrast with adjacent areas. (same as
formal region)
Uniform Region
A region distinguished by a uniformity of
one or more characteristics that can serve as
the basis for a real generalization and of
contrast with adjacent areas. (same as
formal region)
Chapter 2: Roots and Meaning of
Culture
Fellmann and Getis
Cultural Modification or change that results
when one culture group or individual adopts
traits from a dominant host or host society.
Acculturation
Cultural Modification or change that
results when one culture group or
dominant host or host society.
The material manifestations of culture,
including tools, housing, systems of land use,
clothing and the like.
Artifact
The material manifestations of
culture, including tools, housing,
systems of land use, clothing and the
like.
The maximum population numbers that an
area can support on a continuing basis
without experiencing unacceptable
deterioration.
Carrying Capacity
The maximum population numbers
that an area can support on a
continuing basis without experiencing
unacceptable deterioration.
The tendency for cultures to become more
alike as they increasingly share technology
and organizational structures in a modern
world united by improved transportation and
communication.
Cultural Convergence
The tendency for cultures to become
more alike as they increasingly share
technology and organizational
structures in a modern world united by
improved transportation and
communication.
The likelihood or tendency for cultures to
become increasingly dissimilar with the
passing of time.
Cultural Divergence
The likelihood or tendency for
cultures to become increasingly
dissimilar with the passing of time.
The study of interactions between society’s
and the natural environment.
Cultural Ecology
The study of interactions between
society’s and the natural environment.
The interconnectedness of all aspects of a
culture, no part can be altered without
creating an impact on other components of
the culture.
Cultural Integration
The interconnectedness of all aspects
of a culture, no part can be altered
without creating an impact on other
components of the culture.
The retention of established culture traits
despite changing circumstances rendering
them inappropriate.
Cultural Lag
The retention of established culture
traits despite changing circumstances
rendering them inappropriate.
The natural landscape as modified by human
activities and bearing the imprint of a culture
group or society, the built environment.
Cultural Landscape
The natural landscape as modified by
human activities and bearing the
imprint of a culture group or society,
the built environment.
A society’s collective beliefs, symbols, values,
forms of behavior, and social organizations,
together with its tools, structures, and
artifacts created according to the group’s
conditions of life; transmitting as a heritage to
succeeding generations and undergoing
adaptations, modifications, and changes in the
process.
Culture
A society’s collective beliefs, symbols,
values, forms of behavior, and social
organizations, together with its tools,
structures, and artifacts created according to the
group’s conditions of life; transmitting as a
heritage to succeeding generations and
changes in the process.
A related set of culture traits descriptive of
one aspect of a society’s behavior.
Culture Complex
A related set of culture traits
descriptive of one aspect of a society’s
behavior.
A nuclear area within which an advanced and
distinctive set of culture traits ideas, and
technologies develops and from which there is
diffusion of those characteristics and the
cultural characteristics and complexes.
Culture Hearth
A nuclear area within which an
advanced and distinctive set of culture
traits ideas, and technologies develops
and from which there is diffusion of
those characteristics and the cultural
characteristics and complexes.
A collective of culture regions sharing related
culture systems.
Culture Realm
A collective of culture regions sharing
related culture systems.
A formal or functional region within which
common cultural characteristics prevail.
Culture Region
A formal or functional region within
which common cultural characteristics
prevail.
A single distinguishing feature of regular
occurrence within a culture.
Culture Trait
A single distinguishing feature of
regular occurrence within a culture.
The spread or movement of a phenomenon
over a space or through time.
Diffusion
The spread or movement of a
phenomenon over a space or through
time.
Any condition that hinders the flow of
information, the movement of people, or the
Diffusion Barrier
Any condition that hinders the
flow of information, the movement of
people, or the spread of innovation.
The view that the physical environment,
particularly climate, controls human action,
molds human behavior, and conditions
cultural development.
Environmental Determinism
The view that the physical
environment, particularly climate,
controls human action, molds human
behavior, and conditions cultural
development.
The spread of ideas, behaviors, or articles
through a culture area or from one culture to
a neighboring area through contact and
exchange of information.
Expansion Diffusion
The spread of ideas, behaviors, or
articles through a culture area or from
one culture to a neighboring area
through contact and exchange of
information.
An economic and social system based
primarily or exclusively on the hunting of wild
animals and the gathering of food, fiber, and
other materials from uncultivated plants.
Hunter-Gatherer
An economic and social system
based primarily or exclusively on the
hunting of wild animals and the
gathering of food, fiber, and other
materials from uncultivated plants.
The complex of ideas, beliefs, knowledge, and
means of their communication that
characterize a culture.
Ideological Subsystem
The complex of ideas, beliefs,
knowledge, and means of their
communication that characterize a
culture.
Innovations developed in two or more
unconnected locations by individuals or
groups acting independently.
Independent Invention
Innovations developed in two or more
unconnected locations by individuals
or groups acting independently.
Introduction of new ideas, practices, and
objects; usually, an alteration of custom or
culture that originates with the social group
itself.
Innovation
Introduction of new ideas,
practices, and objects; usually, an
alteration of custom or culture that
originates with the social group itself.
The central, enduring elements of a culture
expressing its values and beliefs; including
and the like.
Mentifact
The central, enduring elements of a
culture expressing its values and
beliefs; including language, religion,
like.
A concept of independent but parallel cultural
Julian Steward.
Multilinear Evolution
A concept of independent but parallel
anthropologist Julian Steward.
The philosophical viewpoint that the physical
environment offers human beings a set of
opportunities from which people may choose
to according to their cultural needs and
technological awareness.
Possibilism
The philosophical viewpoint that
the physical environment offers
human beings a set of opportunities
from which people may choose to
according to their cultural needs and
technological awareness.
The transfer of ideas, behaviors, or articles
from one place to another through migration
of those possessing the feature transported.
Relocation Diffusion
The transfer of ideas, behaviors, or
articles from one place to another
through migration of those possessing
the feature transported.
The institutions and links between individuals
and groups that unite a culture, including
family structure, and political structure.
Sociofact
individuals and groups that unite a
culture, including family structure, and
political structure.
The totality of expected and accepted
patterns of interpersonal relations common to
a culture or a subculture.
Sociological Subsystem
The totality of expected and accepted
patterns of interpersonal relations
common to a culture or a subculture.
The development of a new form of culture
trait by the fusion of two or more distinct
parental elements.
Syncretism
The development of a new form of
culture trait by the fusion of two or
more distinct parental elements.
The complex of material objects together with
the objects together with the techniques of
their use by the means of which people carry
Technological Subsystem
The complex of material objects
together with the objects together
with the techniques of their use by the
means of which people carry out
Chapter 3: Spatial Interaction
and Spatial Behavior
Fellmann And Getis
The area within which people move freely on
their rounds of regular activity.
Activity Space
The area within which people move freely on
their rounds of regular activity.
Locations or places about which an individual
has knowledge even.
Awareness Space
Locations or places about which an individual
has knowledge even.
The process by which migration movements
from a common home area to a specific
destination are sustained by links of friendship
or kinship between first movers and later
followers.
Chain Migration
The process by which migration movements
from a common home area to a specific
destination are sustained by links of friendship
or kinship between first movers and later
followers.
The tendency for migration to flow between
areas that are socially and economically allied
by past migration patterns, by economic and
trade connections, or by some other affinity.
Channelized Migration
The tendency for migration to flow between
areas that are socially and economically allied
by past migration patterns, by economic and
trade connections, or by some other affinity.
The return of migrants to the regions from
which they earlier emigrated.
Counter Migration
The return of migrants to the regions from
which they earlier emigrated.
The actual or potential relationship two places
or regions that each produce different goods
or services for which the other has an efficient
demand, resulting in an exchange between
the locales.
Complementarily
The actual or potential relationship two places
or regions that each produce different goods
or services for which the other has an efficient
demand, resulting in an exchange between
the locales.
The distance beyond which cost, effort, and/or
means play a determining role in the
willingness of people to travel.
Critical Distance
The distance beyond which cost, effort, and/or
means play a determining role in the
willingness of people to travel.
The declining intensity of any activity, process,
or function with increasing distance from its
point of origin.
Distance Decay
The declining intensity of any activity, process,
or function with increasing distance from its
point of origin.
A measure of the retarding or restricting effect
of distance on spatial interaction. Generally,
the greater the distance, the greater the
“Friction” and the less the interaction or
exchange, or the greater the cost of achieving
the exchange.
Friction of Distance
A measure of the retarding or restricting effect
of distance on spatial interaction. Generally,
the greater the distance, the greater the
“Friction” and the less the interaction or
exchange, or the greater the cost of achieving
the exchange.
A mathematical prediction of the interaction
between two places as a function of their size
and of the distance separating them. Based
on Newton’s law the model states that
attraction is proportional to the product of the
masses of two places and inversely
proportional to the square of the distance
between two points on the earth’s surface.
Gravity Model
A mathematical prediction of the interaction
between two places as a function of their size
and of the distance separating them. Based
on Newton’s law the model states that
attraction is proportional to the product of the
masses of two places and inversely
proportional to the square of the distance
between two points on the earth’s surface.
The concept that closer opportunities will
materially reduce the attractiveness of
interaction with more distant-even slightly
better-alternatives; a closer alternative source
of supply between a demand point and the
original source of supply.
Intervening Opportunity
The concept that closer opportunities will
materially reduce the attractiveness of
interaction with more distant-even slightly
better-alternatives; a closer alternative source
of supply between a demand point and the
original source of supply.
The permanent relocation of an individual or
group to a new, usually distant, place of
residence and employment.
Migration
The permanent relocation of an individual or
group to a new, usually distant, place of
residence and employment.
Any aggregate control on or regularity of
movement of people, commodities, or
communication.
Movement Bias
Any aggregate control on or regularity of
movement of people, commodities, or
communication.
The areal pattern of sets of places and the
routes connecting them along which
movement can take place.
Network
The areal pattern of sets of places and the
routes connecting them along which
movement can take place.
An area defined by the distribution of an
individual’s short-range informal
communications. The size and shape of the
field is defined by work, recreation, school,
and other regular contacts and are affected by
age, sex, employment, and other personal
characteristics.
Personal Communication Field
An area defined by the distribution of an
individual’s short-range informal
communications. The size and shape of the
field is defined by work, recreation, school,
and other regular contacts and are affected by
age, sex, employment, and other personal
characteristics.
An invisible, usually irregular area around a
person into which he or she does not willingly
admit others. The sense of personal space is a
situational and cultural variable.
Personal Space
An invisible, usually irregular area around a
person into which he or she does not willingly
admit others. The sense of personal space is a
situational and cultural variable.
The acquisition of information about a place
or thing through sensory means: the
subjective organization and interpretation of
acquired information in light of cultural
attitudes and individual preferences or
experiences.
Place Perceptive
The acquisition of information about a place
or thing through sensory means: the
subjective organization and interpretation of
acquired information in light of cultural
attitudes and individual preferences or
experiences.
• In human movement and migration studies, a
measure of individual’s perceived satisfaction
or approval of a place in its social, economic,
or environmental attributes.
• In economic geography, the value imparted to
goods or services by tertiary activities that
provide things needed in specific markets.
Place Utility
• In human movement and migration studies, a
measure of individual’s perceived satisfaction
or approval of a place in its social, economic,
or environmental attributes.
• In economic geography, the value imparted to
goods or services by tertiary activities that
provide things needed in specific markets.
A measurement of the total interaction
opportunities available under gravity model
assumptions to a center in a multicenter
system.
Potential Model
A measurement of the total interaction
opportunities available under gravity model
assumptions to a center in a multicenter
system.
Characteristics of a locale that act as attractive
forces, drawing migrants from other regions.
Pull Factor
Characteristics of a locale that act as attractive
forces, drawing migrants from other regions.
Unfavorable characteristics of a locale that
contribute to the dissatisfaction of its
residents and impel their emigration.
Push Factor
Unfavorable characteristics of a locale that
contribute to the dissatisfaction of its
residents and impel their emigration.
Return of migrants to regions from which the
earlier emigrated.
Return Migration
Return of migrants to regions from which the
earlier emigrated.
A diagram of the volume of space and the
length of time within which our activities are
confined by constraints of our bodily needs
and the means of mobility at our commands.
Space-time Prism
A diagram of the volume of space and the
length of time within which our activities are
confined by constraints of our bodily needs
and the means of mobility at our commands.
The movement between different places; an
indication of interdependence between
different geographic locations or areas.
Spatial Interaction
The movement between different places; an
indication of interdependence between
different geographic locations or areas.
The process by which individuals evaluate the
alternative locations to which they might
move.
Spatial Search
The process by which individuals evaluate the
alternative locations to which they might
move.
A migration in which an eventual longdistance relocation is undertaken in stage as ,
for example, from farm to village to small
town to city.
Step Migration
A migration in which an eventual longdistance relocation is undertaken in stage as ,
for example, from farm to village to small
town to city.
An individual or group attempt to identify and
establish control over a clearly defined
territory considered partly or wholly an
exclusive domain; the behavior associated
with the defense of the home territory.
Territoriality
An individual or group attempt to identify and
establish control over a clearly defined
territory considered partly or wholly an
exclusive domain; the behavior associated
with the defense of the home territory.
Acceptable costs of a spatial exchange; the
cost of moving a commodity relative to the
ability of the commodity to bear that cost.
Transferability
Acceptable costs of a spatial exchange; the
cost of moving a commodity relative to the
ability of the commodity to bear that cost.
Chapter: 4-Fellman & Getis
Population: World Patterns,
Regional Trends
The number of rural residents per unit
of agriculturally productive land.
Agricultural Density
The number of rural residents per unit of
agriculturally productive land.
The Number of people per unit area of
land.
Arithmetic Density
The Number of people per unit area of land.
The maximum population numbers
that an area.
Carrying Capacity
The maximum population numbers that an area
A population group unified by a
specific common characteristic, such
as age, and subsequently treated as a
Cohort
A population group unified by a specific
common characteristic, such as age, and
subsequently treated as a statistical unit
The ratio of the number of live births
during one year to the total
population, usually at the midpoint of
the same year, expressed as the
number of births per year per 1000
population.
Crude Birth Rate (CBR)
The ratio of the number of live births during one
year to the total population, usually at the
midpoint of the same year, expressed as the
number of births per year per 1000
population.
A mortality index usually calculated as
the number of deaths per year per
1000 population.
Crude Death Rate (CDR)
A mortality index usually calculated as the
number of deaths per year per 1000
population.
Then number of people per unit area
of land.
Crude Density
Then number of people per unit area of land.
A mathematical expression that
summarizes the contribution of
different demographic processes to
the population change of a given area
during a specified time period.
Demographic Equation
A mathematical expression that summarizes the
contribution of different demographic
processes to the population change of a given
area during a specified time period.
The tendency for population growth
to continue despite stringent family
planning programs because of a
relatively high concentration of people
in the childbearing years.
Demographic (population) Momentum
The tendency for population growth to
continue despite stringent family planning
programs because of a relatively high
concentration of people in the childbearing
years.
A model of the effect of economic
development on population growth.
Demographic Transition
A model of the effect of economic development
on population growth.
A model of the effect of economic
development on population growth.
Demography
The scientific study of population, with
particular emphasis upon quantitive aspects.
The number of dependents, old or
young, that each 100 persons in the
economically productive years must on
average support.
Dependency Ratio
The number of dependents, old or young, that
each 100 persons in the economically
productive years must on average support.
The time period required for any
beginning total experiencing a
compounding growth to double in size.
Doubling Time
The time period required for any beginning total
experiencing a compounding growth to
double in size.
The part of Earths surface Physically
Suitable for permanent human
settlements.
Ecumene
The part of Earths surface Physically Suitable for
permanent human settlements.
The application of the concept of
homeostasis, or relatively stable state
of equilibrium, to the balance between
population numbers and areal
resources.
Homeostatic Plateau
The application of the concept of homeostasis,
or relatively stable state of equilibrium, to the
balance between population numbers and
areal resources.
A curve shaped like the letter,
depicting exponential or geometric
growth.
J-Curve
A curve shaped like the letter, depicting
exponential or geometric growth.
Thomas R. Malthus (1766-1843).
English economist, demographer, and
cleric who suggested that unless self
control, war, or natural disaster checks
population, it will inevitably increase
faster than will the food supplies need
to sustain it.
Malthus
Thomas R. Malthus (1766-1843). English
economist, demographer, and cleric who
suggested that unless self control, war, or
natural disaster checks population, it will
inevitably increase faster than will the food
supplies need to sustain it.
A mortality index usually calculated as
the number of deaths per year per
1000 population.
Mortality Rate
A mortality index usually calculated as the
number of deaths per year per 1000
population.
The growth of population through
excess of births over deaths, excluding
the effects of immigration or
emigration.
Natural Increase
The growth of population through excess of
births over deaths, excluding the effects of
immigration or emmigration.
programs to preserve and improve
general national prosperity and wellbeing.
Neo-Malthusianism
The advocacy of population control programs to
preserve and improve general national
prosperity and well-being.
That portion of Earths surface that is
unhabited or only temporarily or
intermittently inhabited.
Nonecumene
That portion of Earths surface that is unhabited
or only temporarily or intermittently
inhabited.
A value judgment that the resources of
an area are insufficient to sustain
numbers.
Over Population
A value judgment that the resources of an area
are insufficient to sustain adequately its
present population numbers.
The number of persons per unit area
of cultivable land.
Physiological Density
The number of persons per unit area of
cultivable land.
A measurement of the numbers of
persons per unit area of land within
predetermined limits, usually political
or census boundaries.
Population Density
A measurement of the numbers of persons per
unit area of land within predetermined limits,
usually political or census boundaries.
A division of human geography
concerned with spatial variations in
distribution, composition, growth, and
movements of population and the
relationship of those with the
geographic character of areas.
Population Geography
A division of human geography concerned with
spatial variations in distribution, composition,
growth, and movements of population and
the relationship of those with the geographic
character of areas.
A statement of a populations future
size, age, and sex composition of a
population, usually a national one.
Population Projection
A statement of a populations future size, age,
and sex composition of a population, usually a
national one.
A bar graph in pyramid form showing
the age and sex composition of a
population, usually a national one.
Population Pyramid
A bar graph in pyramid form showing the age
and sex composition of a population, usually a
national one.
Birth rate minus the death rate,
suggesting the annual rate of
population growth without
considering net migration.
Rate of Natural Increase
Birth rate minus the death rate, suggesting the
annual rate of population growth without
considering net migration.
The frequency of events occurrence
during a specified time period.
Rate
The frequency of events occurrence during a
specified time period.
The number of children per woman
that will supply just enough births to
replace parents and compensate for
early deaths.
Replacement Level
The number of children per woman that will
supply just enough births to replace parents
and compensate for early deaths.
The horizontal bending, or leveling, of
an exponential or J-Curve.
S-Curve
The horizontal bending, or leveling, of an
exponential or J-Curve.
The average number of that would be
born to each woman if during her
childbearing years she bore Children at
the current years rate for women that
age.
Total Fertility Rate (TFR)
The average number of that would be born to
each woman if during her childbearing years
she bore Children at the current years rate for
women that age.
A term suggesting a population in
equilibrium, fully stable in numbers
with births (plus immigration) equaling
deaths (plus emigration).
Zero Population Growth (ZPG)
A term suggesting a population in equilibrium,
fully stable in numbers with births (plus
immigration) equaling deaths (plus
emigration).
Chapter 5
Language and Religion: Mosaics of Culture
Fellman and Getis
A belief that natural objects may be
the abode of dead people, spirits, of
gods who occasionally give the objects
the appearance of life.
Animism
Animism is the name given to a belief
that natural objects may be the
abode of dead people, spirits, of
gods who occasionally give the
objects the appearance of life.
A universalizing religion, primarily of
eastern and central Asia, based on
teachings of Siddhartha Gautama, the
Buddha, that suffering is inherent is all
life but can be relieved be mental and
moral self-purification
Buddhism
A universalizing religion, primarily of
eastern and central Asia, based on
teachings of Siddhartha Gautama,
the Buddha, that suffering is inherent
is all life but can be relieved be
mental and moral self-purification.
One of the hereditary social classes in
Hinduism that determines one’s
occupation and position in society.
Caste
One of the hereditary social classes in
Hinduism that determines one’s
occupation and position in society.
A monotheistic, universalizing religion
based pm the teachings of Jesus Christ
and of the Bible as sacred scripture.
Christianity
A monotheistic, universalizing religion
based pm the teachings of Jesus
Christ and of the Bible as sacred
scripture.
A Chinese value system and ethnic
religion emphasizing ethics, social
worship.
Confucianism
A Chinese value system and ethnic
religion emphasizing ethics, social
worship.
A language developed from a pidgin to
become the native tongue of a society.
Creole
A language developed from a pidgin to
become the native tongue of a
society.
A language variant marked by vocabulary,
grammar, and pronunciation differences
from other variants of the same common
language. When those variations are
spatial or regional, they are called
geographic ________; when they are
indicative of socioeconomic or educational
levels, they are called social ________.
Dialects
A language variant marked by vocabulary,
grammar, and pronunciation differences from
other variants of the same common language.
When those variations are spatial or regional,
they are called geographic dialects; when
they are indicative of socioeconomic or
educational levels, they are called social
dialects.
A religion identified with a particular
ethnic group and largely exclusive to it.
Such a religion does not seek converts.
Ethnic religion
A religion identified with a particular
ethnic group and largely exclusive to
it. Such a religion does not seek
converts.
A religion identified with a particular
ethnic group and largely exclusive to it.
Such a religion does not seek converts.
Ethnic religion
A religion identified with a particular
ethnic group and largely exclusive to
it. Such a religion does not seek
converts.
A type of dialect which contains spatial
or regional variations.
Geographic dialect
A type of dialect which contains spatial
or regional variations.
An ancient and now dominant value
system and religion of India, closely
identified with Indian culture but
without central creed, single doctrine,
or religious organization. Dharma
(customary duty and divine law) and
caste are uniting elements.
Hinduism
An ancient and now dominant value
system and religion of India, closely
identified with Indian culture but
without central creed, single
doctrine, or religious organization.
Dharma (customary duty and divine
law) and caste are uniting elements.
A monotheistic, universalizing religion
that includes belief in Allah as the sole
deity and in Mohammed as his
prophet completing the work of earlier
prophets of Judaism and Christianity.
Islam
A monotheistic, universalizing religion
that includes belief in Allah as the
sole deity and in Mohammed as his
prophet completing the work of
earlier prophets of Judaism and
Christianity.
A mapped boundary line marking the
limits of a particular linguistic feature.
Isogloss
A mapped boundary line marking the
limits of a particular linguistic
feature.
A monotheistic, ethnic religion first
developed among the Hebrew people
of the ancient Near East; its
determining conditions include
descent from Israel (Jacob), the Torah
Judaism
A monotheistic, ethnic religion first
developed among the Hebrew
people of the ancient Near East; its
determining conditions include
descent from Israel (Jacob), the
Torah (law and scripture), and
The system of words, their
pronunciation, and methods of
combination used and mutually
understood by a community of
individuals.
Language
The system of words, their
pronunciation, and methods of
combination used and mutually
understood by a community of
individuals.
A group of languages thought to have
descended from a single, common
ancestral tongue.
Language family
A group of languages thought to have
descended from a single, common
ancestral tongue.
Any of various auxiliary languages
used as common tongues among
people of an area where several
languages are spoken; literally,
“Frankish language.”
Lingua franca
Any of various auxiliary languages
used as common tongues among
people of an area where several
languages are spoken; literally,
“Frankish language.”
The study of local variations within a
speech area by mapping word choices,
pronunciations, or grammatical
constructions.
Linguistic geography
The study of local variations within a
speech area by mapping word
choices, pronunciations, or
grammatical constructions.
The belief that there is but a single
God.
Monotheism
The belief that there is but a single
God.
The common use of two or more
languages in a society or country.
Multilingualism
The common use of two or more
languages in a society or country.
A governmentally designated language
of instruction, or government, of the
court, and other official public and
private communication.
Official language
A governmentally designated language
of instruction, or government, of the
court, and other official public and
private communication.
An auxiliary language derived, with
reduced vocabulary and simplified
structure, from other languages. Not a
native tongue, it is used for limited
communication among people with
different languages.
Pidgin
An auxiliary language derived, with
reduced vocabulary and simplified
structure, from other languages. Not
a native tongue, it is used for limited
communication among people with
different languages.
Belief in or worship of many gods.
Polytheism
Belief in or worship of many gods.
An assumed, reconstructed, or
recorded ancestral language.
Protolanguage
An assumed, reconstructed, or
recorded ancestral language.
A personal or institutionalized system
of worship and of faith in the sacred
and divine.
Religion
A personal or institutionalized system
of worship and of faith in the sacred
and divine.
A rejection of or indifference to
religion and religious practice.
Secularism
A rejection of or indifference to
religion and religious practice.
A form of tribal religion based on
belief in a hidden world of gods,
ancestral spirits, and demons
responsive only to a shaman or
interceding priest.
Shamanism
A form of tribal religion based on
belief in a hidden world of gods,
ancestral spirits, and demons
responsive only to a shaman or
interceding priest.
The polytheistic, ethnic religion of
Japan that includes reverence of
deities of natural forces and
veneration of the emperor as
descendent of the sun-goddess.
Shinto
The polytheistic, ethnic religion of
Japan that includes reverence of
deities of natural forces and
veneration of the emperor as
descendent of the sun-goddess.
A type of dialect which contains
socioenomic or educational variations.
Social dialect
A type of dialect which contains
socioenomic or educational
variations.
A group of people having common
characteristic patterns of vocabulary,
word arrangement, and pronunciation.
Speech community
A group of people having common
characteristic patterns of vocabulary,
word arrangement, and
pronunciation.
A language substantially uniform with
respect to spelling, grammar,
pronunciation, and vocabulary and
representing the approved community
norm of the tongue.
Standard language
A language substantially uniform with
respect to spelling, grammar,
pronunciation, and vocabulary and
representing the approved
community norm of the tongue.
The development of a new form of
culture trait by the fusion of two or
more distinct parental elements.
Syncretism
The development of a new form of
culture trait by the fusion of two or
more distinct parental elements.
A Chinese value system and ethnic
religion emphasizing conformity to Tao
(Way), the creative reality ordering the
universe.
Taoism
A Chinese value system and ethnic
religion emphasizing conformity to
Tao (Way), the creative reality
ordering the universe.
A place name.
Toponym
A place name.
The place names of a region or,
especially, the study of place names.
Toponymy
The place names of a region or,
especially, the study of place names.
An ethnic religion specific to a small,
localized, preindustrial culture group.
An ethnic religion specific to a small,
localized, preindustrial culture group.
A religion that claims global truth and
applicability and seeks the conversion
of all humankind.
Universalizing religion
A religion that claims global truth and
applicability and seeks the
conversion of all humankind.
1: The nonstandard indigenous
language or dialect of a locality. 2: Of
or related to indigenous arts and
architecture, such as a vernacular
house. 3: Of or related to the
perceptions and understandings of the
general population, such as a
vernacular region.
Vernacular
1: The nonstandard indigenous
language or dialect of a locality. 2:
Of or related to indigenous arts and
architecture, such as a vernacular
house. 3: Of or related to the
perceptions and understandings of
the general population, such as a
vernacular region.
Chapter 6
Fellmann and Getis
Diversity
By: Eduardo Aceves
• Cultural modification or change that results
when one culture group or individual adopts
traits of a dominant or host society; cultural
development or change through “borrowing.”
Acculturation
• Cultural modification or change that results
when one culture group or individual adopts
traits of a dominant or host society; cultural
development or change through “borrowing.”
• Genetic modification making a population
more fit for existence under specific
environmental conditions; in immigration, the
term summarizes how individuals,
households, and communities respond and
adjust to new experiences and social and
cultural surroundings.
• Genetic modification making a population
more fit for existence under specific
environmental conditions; in immigration, the
term summarizes how individuals,
households, and communities respond and
adjust to new experiences and social and
cultural surroundings.
• In ethnic geography, the concept that
multiethnic societies become a merger of the
culture traits of their member groups.
Amalgamation Theory
• In ethnic geography, the concept that
multiethnic societies become a merger of the
culture traits of their member groups.
• A two-part behavioral and structural process
by which a minority population reduces or
loses completely its identifying cultural
characteristics and blends into the host
society.
Assimilation
• A two-part behavioral and structural process
by which a minority population reduces or
loses completely its identifying cultural
characteristics and blends into the host
society.
• The process of integration into a common
cultural life through acquisition of the
sentiments, attitudes, and experiences of
other groups.
Behavioral Assimilation
• The process of integration into a common
cultural life through acquisition of the
sentiments, attitudes, and experiences of
other groups.
• The process by which migration movements
from a common home area to a specific
destination are sustained by links of friendship
or kinship between first movers and later
followers.
Chain Migration
• The process by which migration movements
from a common home area to a specific
destination are sustained by links of friendship
or kinship between first movers and later
followers.
• In plural societies, the early arriving ethnic
group that created the first effective
settlement and established the recognized
cultural norms to which other, later groups are
expected to conform.
Charter Group
• In plural societies, the early arriving ethnic
group that created the first effective
settlement and established the recognized
cultural norms to which other, later groups are
expected to conform.
• A pattern of movement and settlement
resulting from the collective action of a
distinctive social or ethnic group.
Cluster Migration
• A pattern of movement and settlement
resulting from the collective action of a
distinctive social or ethnic group.
• In ethnic geography, an urban ethnic area
serving as point of entry and temporary
acculturation zone for a specific immigrant
group.
Colony
• In ethnic geography, an urban ethnic area
serving as point of entry and temporary
acculturation zone for a specific immigrant
group.
• The readoption by later generations of culture
traits and identities associated with immigrant
forebears or ancestral homelands.
Culture Rebound
• The readoption by later generations of culture
traits and identities associated with immigrant
forebears or ancestral homelands.
• A small area occupied by a distinctive minority
culture.
Ethnic Enclave
• A small area occupied by a distinctive minority
culture.
• The study of spatial ditribution and
interactions of ethnic groups and of the
cultural characteristics on which they are
based.
Ethnic Geography
• The study of spatial ditribution and
interactions of ethnic groups and of the
cultural characteristics on which they are
based.
• People sharing a distinctive culture, frequently
based on common national origin, religion,
language, or race.
Ethnicity
• People sharing a distinctive culture, frequently
based on common national origin, religion,
language, or race.
• A large territory, urban and rural, dominated
by or closely associated with a single ethnic
group.
Ethnic Province
• A large territory, urban and rural, dominated
by or closely associated with a single ethnic
group.
• Conviction of the evident superiority of one’s
own ethnic group.
Ethnocentrism
• Conviction of the evident superiority of one’s
own ethnic group.
• The influence that the characteristics of an
early dominant settlement group exert on the
later social and cultural geography of an area.
First Effective Settlement
• The influence that the characteristics of an
early dominant settlement group exert on the
later social and cultural geography of an area.
• The transfer of genes of one breeding
population into the gene pool of another
through interbreeding.
Gene Flow
• The transfer of genes of one breeding
population into the gene pool of another
through interbreeding.
• A chance modification of gene composition
occurring in an isolated population and
becoming accentuated through inbreeding.
Genetic Drift
• A chance modification of gene composition
occurring in an isolated population and
becoming accentuated through inbreeding.
• A forced or voluntarily segregated residential
area housing a racial, ethnic, or religious
minority.
Ghetto
• A forced or voluntarily segregated residential
area housing a racial, ethnic, or religious
minority.
• The established and dominant society within
which immigrant groups seek
accommodation.
Host Society
• The established and dominant society within
which immigrant groups seek
accommodation.
• The process resulting in the reproductive
success of individuals or groups best adapted
to their environment, leading to the
perpetuation of their genetic qualities.
Natural Selection
• The process resulting in the reproductive
success of individuals or groups best adapted
to their environment, leading to the
perpetuation of their genetic qualities.
• A subset of human population whose
members share certain distinctive, inherited
biological characteristics.
Race
• A subset of human population whose
members share certain distinctive, inherited
biological characteristics.
• A measure of the degree to which members of
a minority group are not uniformly distributed
among the total population.
Segregation
• A measure of the degree to which members of
a minority group are not uniformly distributed
among the total population.
• A measure of the perceived degree of social
separation between individuals, ethnic
groups, neighborhoods, or other groupings;
the voluntary or enforced segregation of two
or more distinct social groups for most
activities.
Social Distance
• A measure of the perceived degree of social
separation between individuals, ethnic
groups, neighborhoods, or other groupings;
the voluntary or enforced segregation of two
or more distinct social groups for most
activities.
• The distribution of immigrant ethnics among
the groups and social strata of a host society,
but without their full behavioral assimilation
into it.
Structural Assimilation
• The distribution of immigrant ethnics among
the groups and social strata of a host society,
but without their full behavioral assimilation
into it.
• The degree of neighborhood racial or ethnic
mixing that induces the former majority group
to move out rapidly.
Tipping Point
• The degree of neighborhood racial or ethnic
mixing that induces the former majority group
to move out rapidly.
Chapter 7:Folk and Popular
culture: Diversity and Uniformity
By: Martin Gordon
• Collective heritage of institutions
, customs, skills, dress, and way
of life of a small, stable, closely
knit, usually rural community.
Folk Culture
• Collective heritage of institutions ,
customs, skills, dress, and way of life
of a small, stable, closely knit,
usually rural community.
• Physical , visible things everything
from musical thing to buildings.
Material Culture
• Physical , visible things everything
from musical thing to buildings.
• The Landscape created by
humans .
Built Environment
• The Landscape created by
humans.
• In contrast, is the intangible part, the
mentifacts and sociofacts expressed in oral
tradition, folk song and folk story, and
customary behavior.
Non-material culture
• In contrast, is the intangible part, the
mentifacts and sociofacts expressed in oral
tradition, folk song and folk story, and
customary behavior.
• Repeated, characteristic acts, behavioral
regulating social life-and when those customs
and artifacts are distinctively identified with
any area long inhabited by a particular group.
Custom
• Repeated, characteristic acts, behavioral
conventions regulating social life-and
when those customs and artifacts are
distinctively identified with any area long
inhabited by a particular group.
• Oral tradition of a group
Folklore
• Oral tradition of a group
• The learned behavior shared a society that
prescribes accepted and common modes of
conduct-become those of the country as a
whole as a acculturation and popularization
dictated the ways of life of all.
Folkways
• The learned behavior shared a society that
prescribes accepted and common modes of
conduct-become those of the country as a
whole as a acculturation and popularization
dictated the ways of life of all.
• The general mass of people, primarily but not
conforming to, and quickly abandoning ever
changing common modes of behavior and
fads of material and on material culture.
Popular
• The general mass of people, primarily but not
conforming to, and quickly abandoning ever
changing common modes of behavior and
fads of material and on material culture.
• Part of fold culture rather than a political
imposition or scholarly constructs.
Vernacular Regions
• Part of fold culture rather than a
political imposition or scholarly
constructs.
Chapter 8
Livelihood and Economy: Primary
Activity
• The science and practice of farming including
cultivation of soil and raising of livestock
Agriculture
• The science and practice of farming including
cultivation of soil and raising of livestock
• Production and harvesting of fish and shellfish
in land-based ponds
Aquaculture
• Production and harvesting of fish and shellfish
in land-based ponds
• The view that population growth
independently forces a conversion from
extensive to intensive subsistence agriculture
Boserup Thesis
• The view that population growth
independently forces a conversion from
extensive to intensive subsistence agriculture
• A system of production of goods and services
for exchange in competitive markets where
price and availability are determined by
supply and demand forces
Commercial Economy
• A system of production of goods and services
for exchange in competitive markets where
price and availability are determined by
supply and demand forces
• The branch of systematic geography
concerned with how people support
themselves, with the spatial patterns of
production, distribution, and consumption of
goods and services, and with the areal
variation of economic activities over the
surface of Earth
Economic Geography
• The branch of systematic geography
concerned with how people support
themselves, with the spatial patterns of
production, distribution, and consumption of
goods and services, and with the areal
variation of economic activities over the
surface of Earth
• A crop or livestock system characterized by
low inputs of labor per unit area of land. It
may either be part of a subsistence or a
commercial economy
Extensive Agriculture
• A crop or livestock system characterized by
low inputs of labor per unit area of land. It
may either be part of a subsistence or a
commercial economy
• Primary activity involving the mining and
quarrying of nonrenewable metallic and
nonmetallic mineral resources
Extractive Industry
• Primary activity involving the mining and
quarrying of nonrenewable metallic and
nonmetallic mineral resources
• Primary activity involving the subsistence or
commercial Harvesting of renewable
resources of land or water. Primitive gathering
involves local collection of food and other
materials of nature, both plants and animals;
commercial gathering usually implies forestry
and fishing industries
Gathering Industry
• Primary activity involving the subsistence or
commercial Harvesting of renewable
resources of land or water. Primitive gathering
involves local collection of food and other
materials of nature, both plants and animals;
commercial gathering usually implies forestry
and fishing industries
• A term suggesting the great increases in food
production, primarily in subtropical areas,
accomplished by introduction of very high
yielding grain crops, particularly wheat, maize,
and rice
Green Revolution
• A term suggesting the great increases in food
production, primarily in subtropical areas,
accomplished by introduction of very high
yielding grain crops, particularly wheat, maize,
and rice
• Any agricultural system involving the
application of large amounts of capital and/or
labor per unit of cultivated land; this may be
part of either a subsistence or a commercial
economy
Intensive agriculture
• Any agricultural system involving the
application of large amounts of capital and/or
labor per unit of cultivated land; this may be
part of either a subsistence or a commercial
economy
• Maximum rate at which a renewable resource
can be exploited without impairing its ability
to be renewed or replenished
Maximum Sustainable Yield
• Maximum rate at which a renewable resource
can be exploited without impairing its ability
to be renewed or replenished
• A physically occurring item that a population
perceives to be necessary and useful to its
maintenance and well-being
Natural Resource
• A physically occurring item that a population
perceives to be necessary and useful to its
maintenance and well-being
• Migratory but controlled movement of
livestock solely dependent on natural forage
• Migratory but controlled movement of
livestock solely dependent on natural forage
• A natural resource that is not replenished or
replaced by natural processes or is used at a
rate that exceeds its replacement rate
Nonrenewable resource
• A natural resource that is not replenished or
replaced by natural processes or is used at a
rate that exceeds its replacement rate
• A system of production of goods and services,
usually consumed or distributed by
governmental agency, in quantities, at prices,
and in locations determined by governmental
programs
Planned Economy
• A system of production of goods and services,
usually consumed or distributed by
governmental agency, in quantities, at prices,
and in locations determined by governmental
programs
• A large agricultural holding, frequently foreign
owned, devoted to the production of a single
export crop
Plantation
• A large agricultural holding, frequently foreign
owned, devoted to the production of a single
export crop
• Those parts of the economy involved in
making natural resources available for use or
further processing; included are mining,
agriculture, forestry, fishing, and hunting, and
grazing
Primary Activity
• Those parts of the economy involved in
making natural resources available for use or
further processing; included are mining,
agriculture, forestry, fishing, and hunting, and
grazing
• Those parts of the economy concerned with
research, with the gathering and
dissemination of information, and with
subdivision of tertiary activity
Quaternary Activity
• Those parts of the economy concerned with
research, with the gathering and
dissemination of information, and with
subdivision of tertiary activity
• A sometimes separately recognized subsection
of tertiary activity management functions
involving highest level decision making in all
types of large organizations
Quinary Activity
• A sometimes separately recognized subsection
of tertiary activity management functions
involving highest level decision making in all
types of large organizations
• Natural resource that is potentially
inexhaustible because it is either constantly or
periodically replenished as long as its use does
not exceed its maximum sustainable yield
Renewable Resource
• Natural resource that is potentially
inexhaustible because it is either constantly or
periodically replenished as long as its use does
not exceed its maximum sustainable yield
• A physically occurring item that a population
perceives to be necessary and useful to its
maintenance and well-being
Resource
• A physically occurring item that a population
perceives to be necessary and useful to its
maintenance and well-being
• Those part of the economy involved in the
processing of raw materials derived from
primary activities and in altering or combining
materials to produce commodities of
enhanced utility and value; included
manufacturing, construction and power
generation
Secondary Activity
• Those part of the economy involved in the
processing of raw materials derived from
primary activities and in altering or combining
materials to produce commodities of
enhanced utility and value; included
manufacturing, construction and power
generation
• Crop production on tropical forest clearings
kept in cultivation until their quickly declining
fertility is lost. Cleared plots are then
abandoned and new sites are prepared
Shifting Cultivation
• Crop production on tropical forest clearings
kept in cultivation until their quickly declining
fertility is lost. Cleared plots are then
abandoned and new sites are prepared
• An economic system of relatively simple
technology in which people produce most or
all of the goods to satisfy their own and their
family’s needs; little or no exchange occurs
outside of the immediate or extended family
Subsistence Economy
• An economic system of relatively simple
technology in which people produce most or
all of the goods to satisfy their own and their
family’s needs; little or no exchange occurs
outside of the immediate or extended family
• The integrated system of knowledge, skills,
tools, and methods developed within or used
by a culture to successfully carry out
Technology
• The integrated system of knowledge, skills,
tools, and methods developed within or used
by a culture to successfully carry out
• Those part of the economy that fulfill the
exchange function, that provide market
availability of commodities, and that bring
together consumer and providers of services;
included are wholesale and retail trade,
associated transportational and governmental
services, and personal and professional
services of all kind
Tertiary Activity
• Those part of the economy that fulfill the
exchange function, that provide market
availability of commodities, and that bring
together consumer and providers of services;
included are wholesale and retail trade,
associated transportational and governmental
services, and personal and professional
services of all kind
• Observation that in the absence of collective
control over the use of the resource available
to all, it is to the advantage of all users to
maximize their separate shares even though
their collective pressures may diminish total
yield or destroy the resource all together
Tragedy of the Commons
• Observation that in the absence of collective
control over the use of the resource available
to all, it is to the advantage of all users to
maximize their separate shares even though
their collective pressures may diminish total
yield or destroy the resource all together
• Intensive production of fruits and vegetables
for market rather than for processing or
canning
Truck farm
• Intensive production of fruits and vegetables
for market rather than for processing or
canning
• Mineral deposits that have been identified
and can be recovered at current prices and
with current technology
Usable Reserves
• Mineral deposits that have been identified
and can be recovered at current prices and
with current technology
• The concentric zonal pattern of agricultural
land use around a single market center
Von Thunen model
• The concentric zonal pattern of agricultural
land use around a single market center
Chapter 9
Livelihood and Economy: From Blue
Collar to Gold Collar
The spatial grouping of people pr
activities for mutual benefit
Agglomeration
• The spatial grouping of people pr activities for
mutual benefit
• The savings to an individual enterprise derived
from locational association with a cluster of
other similar economic activities, such as
other factories or retail stores.
Agglomeration Economies
• The savings to an individual enterprise derived
from locational association with a cluster of
other similar economic activities, such as
other factories or retail stores.
• A location where goods are transferred from
one type of carrier to another
Break-of-bulk point
• A location where goods are transferred from
one type of carrier to another
• The principle that an area produces the items
for which it has the greatest ratio of
comparison to other areas, assuming free
• The principle that an area produces the items
for which it has the greatest ratio of
comparison to other areas, assuming free
• The process of deconcentration; the location
of industrial or other activities away from
established agglomerations in response to
growing costs of congestion, competition, and
regulation.
deglomeration
• The process of deconcentration; the location
of industrial or other activities away from
established agglomerations in response to
growing costs of congestion, competition, and
regulation.
• An activity cost that must be met without
regard to level of output; an input cost that is
spatially constant
Fixed costs
• An activity cost that must be met without
regard to level of output; an input cost that is
spatially constant
• A descriptive term applied to manufacturing
activities for which the cost of transporting
material or product is not important in
determining location of production; an
industry or firm showing neither market nor
material orientation
Footloose firm
• A descriptive term applied to manufacturing
activities for which the cost of transporting
material or product is not important in
determining location of production; an
industry or firm showing neither market nor
material orientation
• The manufacturing economy ad system
derived from assembly-line mass production
and the mass consumption of standardized
goods.
Fordism
• The manufacturing economy ad system
derived from assembly-line mass production
and the mass consumption of standardized
goods.
Freight rates
• The basic structure of services, instillations,
and facilities needed to support industrial,
agricultural, and other economic
development; included are transport and
communications, along wit water, power, and
other public utilities
infrastructure
• The basic structure of services, instillations,
and facilities needed to support industrial,
agricultural, and other economic
development; included are transport and
communications, along wit water, power, and
other public utilities
• The application of a single haul freight rate
from origin to destination even though the
shipment is halted for processing en route,
after which the journey is completed.
In-transit privilage
• The application of a single haul freight rate
from origin to destination even though the
shipment is halted for processing en route,
after which the journey is completed.
• The view that the optimum location of a
manufacturing establishment is at the place
where the costs of transport and labor and
deglomeration are most favorable
Least-cost theory
• The view that the optimum location of a
manufacturing establishment is at the place
where the costs of transport and labor and
deglomeration are most favorable
The costs involved in the actual physical
movement of goods haulage, excluding
terminal costs.
Line-haul costs
• The costs involved in the actual physical
movement of goods haulage, excluding
terminal costs.
• The circumstance under which the locational
decision of a particular firm is influenced by
the locations chosen by competitors.
Locational interdependence
• The circumstance under which the locational
decision of a particular firm is influenced by
the locations chosen by competitors.
• The point of intersection of demand and
supply curves of a given commodity; at
equilibrium the market is cleared of the
commodity
Market equilibrium
• The point of intersection of demand and
supply curves of a given commodity; at
equilibrium the market is cleared of the
commodity
• The tendency of an economic activity to locate
close to its market; a reflection of large and
variable distribution costs.
Market orientation
• The tendency of an economic activity to locate
close to its market; a reflection of large and
variable distribution costs.
• The tendency of an economic activity to locate
near or at its source of raw material; this is
experienced when material costs are highly
variable spatially and/ or represent a
significant share of total costs.
Material orientaion
• The tendency of an economic activity to locate
near or at its source of raw material; this is
experienced when material costs are highly
variable spatially and/ or represent a
significant share of total costs.
• The direct, indirect, and induced
consequences of change in an activity.
Multiplier effect
• The direct, indirect, and induced
consequences of change in an activity.
• Producing abroad parts or products for
domestic use or sale; subcontracting
production or services rather than performing
those activities “ in house”
Outsourcing
• Producing abroad parts or products for
domestic use or sale; subcontracting
production or services rather than performing
those activities “ in house”
• Those parts of the economy concerned with
research, with the gathering and
dissemination of information, and with
other economic activity levels.
Quaternary activities
• Those parts of the economy concerned with
research, with the gathering and
dissemination of information, and with
other economic activity levels.
• A sometimes separately recognized subsection
of tertiary activity management functions
involving highest-level decision making in all
types of jobs,
Quinary activities
• A sometimes separately recognized subsection
of tertiary activity management functions
involving highest-level decision making in all
types of jobs,
• A less-than-ideal best location, but one
providing an acceptable level of utility or
satisfaction
Satisficing location
• A less-than-ideal best location, but one
providing an acceptable level of utility or
satisfaction
• Those parts of the economy involved in the
processing of raw materials derived from
primary activities and in altering or combing
materials to produce commodities of
enhanced utility and value; include are
manufacturing, constructing, and power
generation
Secondary activities
• Those parts of the economy involved in the
processing of raw materials derived from
primary activities and in altering or combing
materials to produce commodities of
enhanced utility and value; include are
manufacturing, constructing, and power
generation
• An input in manufacturing that remains
constant wherever production is located
Spatially fixed costs
An input in manufacturing that remains constant
wherever production is located
• An input cost in manufacturing that changes
significantly from place to place in its amount
and its relative share of total costs.
Spatially variable costs
• An input cost in manufacturing that changes
significantly from place to place in its amount
and its relative share of total costs.
• The set of points delaminating the area within
which a firms’ profitable operation is possible.
Spatial margin of profitability
• The set of points delaminating the area within
which a firms’ profitable operation is possible.
• In industry, the tendency to substitute one
factor one factor of production for an other in
order to achieve optimum plant location
Substitution principle
• In industry, the tendency to substitute one
factor one factor of production for an other in
order to achieve optimum plant location
points and for paperwork involved
Terminal costs
points and for paperwork involved
• Those parts of the economy that fulfill the
exchange function, that provide market
availability of commodities and providers of
services.
Tertiary activities
• Those parts of the economy that fulfill the
exchange function, that provide market
availability of commodities and providers of
services.
• A large business organization operating in at
least two separate national economies; a form
of multinational corporation
Transnational corporation
• A large business organization operating in at
least two separate national economies; a form
of multinational corporation
• A market-oriented industry whose
establishments are distributed in direct
proportion to the distribution of population
Ubiquitous industry
• A market-oriented industry whose
establishments are distributed in direct
proportion to the distribution of population
• A hypothetical portion of the earth’s surface
assumed to be an unbounded, uniformly flat
plain with uniform and unvarying distribution
costs, accessibility, and the like.
Uniform plain
• A hypothetical portion of the earth’s surface
assumed to be an unbounded, uniformly flat
plain with uniform and unvarying distribution
costs, accessibility, and the like.
• The view that the optimum location of a
manufacturing establishment is at the place
where the costs of transport and labor and
deglomeration are most favorable
Weberian analysis
• The view that the optimum location of a
manufacturing establishment is at the place
where the costs of transport and labor and
deglomeration are most favorable
Chapter 10
Fellmann and Getis
Patterns of Development and Change
• A process that polarizes development and,
leads to a permanent division between
prosperous (and domination) cores and
depressed (and exploited) peripheral districts
that are milked of surplus labor, raw materials,
and profits.
Circular and Cumulative causation
• A process that polarizes development and,
leads to a permanent division between
prosperous (and domination) cores and
depressed (and exploited) peripheral districts
that are milked of surplus labor, raw materials,
and profits.
• Based on the observation that within many
spatial systems sharp territorial contrasts exist
growth– in “development”--between
economic heartlands and outlying subordinate
zones.
Core-periphery Models
• Based on the observation that within many
spatial systems sharp territorial contrasts exist
growth– in “development”--between
economic heartlands and outlying subordinate
zones.
• The increasing similarity in technologies and
ways of life among societies at the same levels
of development– does not as well unite the
Cultural Convergence
• The increasing similarity in technologies and
ways of life among societies at the same levels
of development– does not as well unite the
• The extent to which the resources of an area
or country have been brought into full
productive use.
Development
• The extent to which the resources of an area
or country have been brought into full
productive use.
• Distinctions between masculinity and
femininity.
Gender
• Distinctions between masculinity and
femininity.
• A commonly available statistic that reports the
total market value of goods and services
produced within an economy within a given
time period, usually a year.
Gross National Income
• A commonly available statistic that reports the
total market value of goods and services
produced within an economy within a given
time period, usually a year.
• The shadow or underground economy.
Informal Economy
• The shadow or underground economy.
• A monetary measurement which takes
account of what money actually buys in each
country.
• A monetary measurement which takes
account of what money actually buys in each
country.
• The diffusion outward of the benefits of
economic growth and prosperity from the
power center or core area to poorer districts
and people.
• The diffusion outward of the benefits of
economic growth and prosperity from the
power center or core area to poorer districts
and people.
• The integrated system of knowledge, skills,
tools, and methods developed within or used
by a culture successfully carry out purposeful
Technology
• The integrated system of knowledge, skills,
tools, and methods developed within or used
by a culture successfully carry out purposeful
• The contrast between the technology
available in developed core regions and that
present in peripheral areas of
underdevelopment.
Technology Gap
• The contrast between the technology
available in developed core regions and that
present in peripheral areas of
underdevelopment.
• The diffusion to or acquisition by one culture
or region of the technology possessed by
another, usually more developed society.
Technology Transfer
• The diffusion to or acquisition by one culture
or region of the technology possessed by
another, usually more developed society.
• Also known as the Spread Effect.
Trickle-Down Effect
• Also known as the Spread Effect.
• A level of economic and social achievement
below what could be reached—given the
natural and human resources of and are—
were necessary capital and technology
available.
Underdevelopment
• A level of economic and social achievement
below what could be reached—given the
natural and human resources of and are—
were necessary capital and technology
available.
• The value of the total output of goods and
services produced in a country in a given time
period (usually a year)
Gross Domestic Product
• The value of the total output of goods and
services produced in a country in a given time
period (usually a year)
Chapter 11
Felmann and Getis
Urban Systems and Urban Structures
Mark Barr
• A continuous extended urban area formed by
the growing together of several formerly
separate, expanding states.
Conurbation
• A continuous extended urban area formed by
the growing together of several formerly
separate, expanding states.
• A multifunctional nucleated settlement with a
central business district and both residential
and non residential land uses.
City
• A multifunctional nucleated settlement with a
central business district and both residential
and non residential land uses.
• A nucleated settlement that contains a central
business district but that is small and less
functionally complex than a city.
Town
• A nucleated settlement that contains a central
business district but that is small and less
functionally complex than a city.
• A functionally specialized segment of a large
urban complex located outside the boundaries
of the central city; usually, a relatively
homogeneous residential community
Suburb
• A functionally specialized segment of a large
urban complex located outside the boundaries
of the central city; usually, a relatively
homogeneous residential community
• The part of a metropolitan area contained
within the boundaries of the main city around
which suburbs have developed.
Central City
• The part of a metropolitan area contained
within the boundaries of the main city around
which suburbs have developed.
• A continuously built-up urban landscape
defined by building and population densities
with no reference to the political boundaries
of the city; it may contain a central city and
many contiguous towns, suburbs, and
unincorporated areas.
Urbanized area
• A continuously built-up urban landscape
defined by building and population densities
with no reference to the political boundaries
of the city; it may contain a central city and
many contiguous towns, suburbs, and
unincorporated areas.
• In the United States, a large functionally
integrated settlement area comprising one or
more whole country units and discontinuously
built up, it operates as a coherent economic
whole.
Metropolitan Area
• In the United States, a large functionally
integrated settlement area comprising one or
more whole country units and discontinuously
built up, it operates as a coherent economic
whole.
• Those products or services of an urban
economy that are exported outside the city
itself, earning income for the community.
Basic Sector
• Those products or services of an urban
economy that are exported outside the city
itself, earning income for the community.
• Those economic activities of an urban unit
that supply the resident population with
goods and services that have no “export”
implication.
Nonbasic sector/Service sector
• Those economic activities of an urban unit
that supply the resident population with
goods and services that have no “export”
implication.
• The direct, indirect, and induced consequences of
change in an activity. In industrial
agglomerations, the cumulative processes by
which a given change (such as a new plant
opening) sets in motion a sequence of further
industrial employment and infrastructure growth.
In urban geography, the expected addition of
nonbasic workers and dependents to a city’s total
employment and population that accompanies
new basic sector employment.
Multiplier effect
• The direct, indirect, and induced consequences of
change in an activity. In industrial
agglomerations, the cumulative processes by
which a given change (such as a new plant
opening) sets in motion a sequence of further
industrial employment and infrastructure growth.
In urban geography, the expected addition of
nonbasic workers and dependents to a city’s total
employment and population that accompanies
new basic sector employment.
• An observed regularity in the city size
distribution of some countries.
Rank Size Rule
• An observed regularity in the city size
distribution of some countries.
• A country’s leading city, disproportionately
larger and functionally more complex than any
other; a city dominating an urban hierarchy
composed of a base of small towns and an
absence of intermediate sized cities.
Primate City
• A country’s leading city, disproportionately
larger and functionally more complex than any
other; a city dominating an urban hierarchy
composed of a base of small towns and an
absence of intermediate sized cities.
• One of a small number of interconnected,
internationally dominant centers (e.g., New
York, London, Tokyo) that together control the
global systems of finance and commerce.
World City
• One of a small number of interconnected,
internationally dominant centers (e.g., New
York, London, Tokyo) that together control the
global systems of finance and commerce.
• An area outside of a city that is nevertheless
affected by a city.
Urban influence area
• An area outside of a city that is nevertheless
affected by a city.
• An urban or other settlement node whose
primary function is to provide goods and
services to the consuming population of it’s
area.
Central Place
• An urban or other settlement node whose
primary function is to provide goods and
services to the consuming population of it’s
area.
• A deductive theory formulated by Walter
Christaller (1893-1969) to explain the size and
distribution of settlements through reference
to competitive supply off goods and services
to dispersed rural populations.
Central Place Theory
• A deductive theory formulated by Walter
Christaller (1893-1969) to explain the size and
distribution of settlements through reference
to competitive supply off goods and services
to dispersed rural populations.
• Two or more nearby cities, potentially or
actually complementary in function, that
and communications infrastructure joining
them.
Network Cities
• Two or more nearby cities, potentially or
actually complementary in function, that
and communications infrastructure joining
them.
A ranking of cities based on their size and
functional complexity.
Urban Hierarchy
• A ranking of cities based on their size and
functional complexity.
• The nucleus or “Downtown” of a city, where
retail stores, offices, and cultural activities are
concentrated, mass transit systems converge,
and land values and building densities are
high.
Central Buisness District (CBD)
• The nucleus or “Downtown” of a city, where
retail stores, offices, and cultural activities are
concentrated, mass transit systems converge,
and land values and building densities are
high.
• A model describing urban land uses as a series
of circular belts or rings around a core central
business district, each ring housing a distinc
type of land use.
Concentric Zone Model
• A model describing urban land uses as a series
of circular belts or rings around a core central
business district, each ring housing a distinc
type of land use.
• The postulate that large cities develop by
peripheral spread not from one central
buisness district but from several nodes of
growth each of specialized use. The seperately
expanding use districts eventually coalesce at
their margins.
Multiple nuclei model
• The postulate that large cities develop by
peripheral spread not from one central
buisness district but from several nodes of
growth each of specialized use. The seperately
expanding use districts eventually coalesce at
their margins.
• A description of urban land uses as wedgeshaped sectors radiating outward from the
corridors. The radial access routes attract
particular uses to certain sectors, with high
status residential uses occupying the most
desirable wedges.
Sector Model
• A description of urban land uses as wedgeshaped sectors radiating outward from the
corridors. The radial access routes attract
particular uses to certain sectors, with high
status residential uses occupying the most
desirable wedges.
Chapter 12: The Political
Ordering of Space
Fellmann & Getis
• A boundary line established before the area in
question is well populated.
Antecedent Boundary
• A boundary line established before the area in
question is well populated.
• A boundary without obvious physical
geographic basis; often a section of a parallel
of latitude or a meridian of longitude.
Artificial (geometric) Boundary
• A boundary without obvious physical
geographic basis; often a section of a parallel
of latitude or a meridian of longitude.
• Movement by a dissident minority intent to
achieve partial or total independence of
territory if occupies form the state within
which it lies.
Autonomous Nationalism
• Movement by a dissident minority intent to
achieve partial or total independence of
territory if occupies form the state within
which it lies.
• 1: In urban geography, economic and social
outward form central and inner-city locations.
2: In political geography, forces of disruption
and dissolution threatening the unity of a
state.
Centrifugal Force
• 1: In urban geography, economic and social
outward form central and inner-city locations.
2: In political geography, forces of disruption
and dissolution threatening the unity of a
state.
• 1: In urban geography, a force attracting
establishments or activities to the center city.
2: In political geography, forces tending to
bind together the citizens of a state.
Centripetal Force
• 1: In urban geography, a force attracting
establishments or activities to the center city.
2: In political geography, forces tending to
bind together the citizens of a state.
• A state whose territory is nearly circular.
Compact State
• A state whose territory is nearly circular.
• A boundary line that coincides with some
cultural divide, such as religion or language.
Consequent (ethnographic) Boundary
• A boundary line that coincides with some
cultural divide, such as religion or language.
• A guiding principle of U.S. foreign policy
during the Cold War period: to prevent or
restrict the expansion of the Soviet Union’s
influence or control beyond its then existing
limits.
Containment
• A guiding principle of U.S. foreign policy
during the Cold War period: to prevent or
restrict the expansion of the Soviet Union’s
influence or control beyond its then existing
limits.
• 1: In economic geography, a “core region,” the
national or world districts of concentrated
economic power, wealth, innovation, and
2:In political geography, the heartland or
nucleus of a state, containing its most
developed area, greatest wealth, densest
populations, and clearest national identity.
Core area
• 1: In economic geography, a “core region,” the
national or world districts of concentrated
economic power, wealth, innovation, and
2:In political geography, the heartland or
nucleus of a state, containing its most
developed area, greatest wealth, densest
populations, and clearest national identity.
• The transfer of certain powers from the state
central government to separate political
subdivisions within the state’s territory.
Devolution
• The transfer of certain powers from the state
central government to separate political
subdivisions within the state’s territory.
• A geopolitics theory made part of American
containment (of the former Soviet Union)
policy beginning in the 1950s. The theory
maintained that if a single country fell under
Soviet influence or control, its neighbors
would likely follow, creating a ripple effect like
a line of toppling dominos.
Domino Theory
• A geopolitics theory made part of American
containment (of the former Soviet Union)
policy beginning in the 1950s. The theory
maintained that if a single country fell under
Soviet influence or control, its neighbors
would likely follow, creating a ripple effect like
a line of toppling dominos.
• The study of the geographical elements of the
organization and results of elections.
Electoral Geography
• The study of the geographical elements of the
organization and results of elections.
• A state whose territory is long and narrow.
Elongated State
• A state whose territory is long and narrow.
• A small bit of foreign territory lying within a
state but not under its jurisdiction.
Enclave
• A small bit of foreign territory lying within a
state but not under its jurisdiction.
• An economic association established in 1957
by a number of Western European countries
to promote free trade among members; often
called the Common Market.
European Union (EU)
• An economic association established in 1957
by a number of Western European countries
to promote free trade among members; often
called the Common Market.
• A portion of a state that is separated from the
main territory and surrounded by another
country.
Exclave
• A portion of a state that is separated from the
main territory and surrounded by another
country.
• As established in the United Nations
Convention on the Law of the Sea, a zone of
exploitation extending 200 nautical miles (370
km) seaward from a coastal state that has
exclusive mineral and fishing rights over it.
Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ)
• As established in the United Nations
Convention on the Law of the Sea, a zone of
exploitation extending 200 nautical miles (370
km) seaward from a coastal state that has
exclusive mineral and fishing rights over it.
• A state whose territory contains isolated parts,
separated and discontinuous.
Fragmented State
• A state whose territory contains isolated parts,
separated and discontinuous.
• In political geography, a disagreement
between neighboring states over policies to
be applied to their common border; often
induced by differing customs regulation,
movement of nomadic groups, or illegal
immigration or emigration.
Functional Dispute
• In political geography, a disagreement
between neighboring states over policies to
be applied to their common border; often
induced by differing customs regulation,
movement of nomadic groups, or illegal
immigration or emigration.
• A boundary without obvious physical
geographic basis; often a section of a parallel
of latitude or a meridian of longitude.
Geometric Boundary
• A boundary without obvious physical
geographic basis; often a section of a parallel
of latitude or a meridian of longitude.
• That branch of political geography treating
national power, foreign policy, and
international relations as influenced by
geographic considerations of location, space,
resources, and demography.
Geopolitics
• That branch of political geography treating
national power, foreign policy, and
international relations as influenced by
geographic considerations of location, space,
resources, and demography.
• To redraw voting district boundaries in such a
way as to give one political party maximum
electoral advantage and to reduce that of
another party, to fragment voting blocks, or to
achieve other nondemocratic objectives.
Gerrymandering
• To redraw voting district boundaries in such a
way as to give one political party maximum
electoral advantage and to reduce that of
another party, to fragment voting blocks, or to
achieve other nondemocratic objectives.
• The belief of Halford Mackinder (1861-1947)
that the interior of Eurasia provided a likely
base for world conquest.
Heartland Theory
• The belief of Halford Mackinder (1861-1947)
that the interior of Eurasia provided a likely
base for world conquest.
• The policy of a state wishing to incorporate
within itself territory inhabited by people who
have ethnic or linguistic links with the country
but that lies within a neighboring state.
Irredentism
• The policy of a state wishing to incorporate
within itself territory inhabited by people who
have ethnic or linguistic links with the country
but that lies within a neighboring state.
• A culturally distinctive group of people
occupying a specific territory and bound
together by a sense of unity arising form
shared ethnicity, beliefs, and customs.
Nation
• A culturally distinctive group of people
occupying a specific territory and bound
together by a sense of unity arising form
shared ethnicity, beliefs, and customs.
• A sense of unity binding the people of a state
together; devotion to the interests of a
particular country or nation; and identification
with the state and an acceptance of national
goals.
Nationalism
• A sense of unity binding the people of a state
together; devotion to the interests of a
particular country or nation; and identification
with the state and an acceptance of national
goals.
• A state whose territory is identical to that
occupied by a particular ethnic group or
nation.
Nation-state
• A state whose territory is identical to that
occupied by a particular ethnic group or
nation.
• A boundary line based on recognizable
physiographic features, such as mountains or
rivers.
Natural Boundary
• A boundary line based on recognizable
physiographic features, such as mountains or
rivers.
• A state whose territory is interrupted
(“perforated”) by a separate, independent
state totally contained within its borders.
Perforated State
• A state whose territory is interrupted
(“perforated”) by a separate, independent
state totally contained within its borders.
• A boundary line based on recognizable
physiographic features, such as mountains or
rivers.
Physical (natural) Boundary
• A boundary line based on recognizable
physiographic features, such as mountains or
rivers.
• The study of the organization and distribution
of political phenomena, including their impact
on other spatial components of society and
culture.
Political Geography
• The study of the organization and distribution
of political phenomena, including their impact
on other spatial components of society and
culture.
• In political geography, disagreement about the
actual location of a boundary.
Positional Dispute
• In political geography, disagreement about the
actual location of a boundary.
• A state of basically compact form but with one
or more marrow extensions of territory.
Prorupt State
• A state of basically compact form but with one
or more marrow extensions of territory.
• In political geography, group-frequently ethnic
group-identification with a particular region
of a state rather than with the state as a
whole.
Regionalism
• In political geography, group-frequently ethnic
group-identification with a particular region
of a state rather than with the state as a
whole.
• A former boundary line that is still discernible
and marked by some cultural landscape
feature.
Relic Boundary
• A former boundary line that is still discernible
and marked by some cultural landscape
feature.
• In political geography, disagreement over the
control or use of shared resources, such as
boundary rivers or jointly claimed fishing
grounds.
Resource Dispute
• In political geography, disagreement over the
control or use of shared resources, such as
boundary rivers or jointly claimed fishing
grounds.
• The belief of Nicholas Spykman (1894-1943)
that domination of the coastal fringes of
Eurasia would provide a base for world
conquest.
Rimland Theory
• The belief of Nicholas Spykman (1894-1943)
that domination of the coastal fringes of
Eurasia would provide a base for world
conquest.
• Desired regional autonomy expressed by a
culturally distinctive group within a larger,
politically dominant culture.
Separatism
• Desired regional autonomy expressed by a
culturally distinctive group within a larger,
politically dominant culture.
• An independent political unit occupying a
defined, permanently populated territory and
having full sovereign control over its internal
and foreign affairs.
State
• An independent political unit occupying a
defined, permanently populated territory and
having full sovereign control over its internal
and foreign affairs.
• A boundary line that is established after the
area in question has been settled and that
considers the cultural characteristics of the
bounded area.
Subsequent Boundary
• A boundary line that is established after the
area in question has been settled and that
considers the cultural characteristics of the
bounded area.
• A boundary line placed over and ignoring an
existing cultural pattern.
Superimposed Boundary
• A boundary line placed over and ignoring an
existing cultural pattern.
• Term applied to associations created by three
or more states for their mutual benefit and
achievement of shared objectives.
Supranationalism
• Term applied to associations created by three
or more states for their mutual benefit and
achievement of shared objectives.
• In political geography, disagreement between
states over the control of surface area.
Territorial Dispute
• In political geography, disagreement between
states over the control of surface area.
• Systematic open and covert action employing
fear and terror as a means of political
coercion.
Terrorism
• Systematic open and covert action employing
fear and terror as a means of political
coercion.
• Any of several devices federating or
consolidating city governments.
Unified Government
• Any of several devices federating or
consolidating city governments.
• A code of maritime law approved by the
United Nations in 1982 that authorizes,
among other provisions, territorial waters
extending 12 nautical miles (22 km) from
shore and 200-mautical-mile-wide (370-kmwide) exclusive economic zones.
United Nations Convention on the Law
of the Sea (UNCLOS)
• A code of maritime law approved by the
United Nations in 1982 that authorizes,
among other provisions, territorial waters
extending 12 nautical miles (22 km) from
shore and 200-mautical-mile-wide (370-kmwide) exclusive economic zones.
Chapter 13: Human Impacts on
Natural Systems
Fellmann & Getis
Precipitation that is unusually acidic;
created when oxides of sulfur and nitrogen
change chemically as they dissolve in water
earth as acidic rain, snow, or fog.
Acid Rain
Precipitation that is unusually acidic; created
when oxides of sulfur and nitrogen change
chemically as they dissolve in water vapor in
rain, snow, or fog.
A porous, water-bearing layer of rock,
sand, or gravel below ground level.
Aquifer
A porous, water-bearing layer of rock, sand, or
gravel below ground level.
A major ecological community,
including plants and animals, occupying
an extensive earth area.
Biome
A major ecological community, including
plants and animals, occupying an extensive
earth area.
The thin film of air, water, and earth within
which we live, including the atmosphere,
surrounding and subsurface waters, and
the upper reaches of the earth’s crust.
Biosphere
The thin film of air, water, and earth within
which we live, including the atmosphere,
surrounding and subsurface waters, and the
upper reaches of the earth’s crust.
Extension of desert like landscapes as a
result of overgrazing, destruction of the
forests, or other human-induced
changes, usually in semiarid regions.
Desertification
Extension of desert like landscapes as a
result of overgrazing, destruction of the
forests, or other human-induced changes,
usually in semiarid regions.
A population of organisms existing
together in a small, relatively
homogenous area (pond, forest, small
island), together with the energy, air,
water, soil, and chemicals upon which it
depends.
Ecosystem
A population of organisms existing together
in a small, relatively homogenous area
(pond, forest, small island), together with
the energy, air, water, soil, and chemicals
upon which it depends.
Surroundings; the totality of things that in
any way may affect an organism, including
both physical and cultural conditions; a
region characterized by a certain set of
physical conditions.
Environment
Surroundings; the totality of things that in any
way may affect an organism, including both
physical and cultural conditions; a region
characterized by a certain set of physical
conditions.
The introduction into the biosphere of
materials that because of their quantity,
chemical nature, or temperature have a
negative impact on the ecosystem or that
cannot be readily disposed of by natural
recycling processes.
Environmental Pollution
The introduction into the biosphere of
materials that because of their quantity,
chemical nature, or temperature have a
negative impact on the ecosystem or that
cannot be readily disposed of by natural
recycling processes.
The practice of allowing plowed or
cultivated land to remain (rest)
uncropped or only partially cropped for
one or more growing seasons.
Fallowing
The practice of allowing plowed or cultivated
land to remain (rest) uncropped or only
partially cropped for one or more growing
seasons.
Heating of the earth’s surface as
shortwave solar energy passes through
the atmosphere, which is transparent to it
but opaque to reradiated long –wave
terrestrial energy; also, increasing the
opacity of the atmosphere through
addition of increased amounts of carbon
dioxide and other gases that trap heat.
Greenhouse Effect
Heating of the earth’s surface as shortwave
solar energy passes through the atmosphere,
which is transparent to it but opaque to
reradiated long –wave terrestrial energy; also,
increasing the opacity of the atmosphere
through addition of increased amounts of
carbon dioxide and other gases that trap heat.
material that poses a substantial
threat to human health or to the
environment when improperly
disposed of or stored.
Hazardous Waste
material that poses a substantial threat
to human health or to the environment
when improperly disposed of or stored.
The natural system by which water is
continuously circulated through the
biosphere by evaporation,
condensation, and precipitation.
Hydrologic Cycle
The natural system by which water is
continuously circulated through the
biosphere by evaporation, condensation,
and precipitation.
The tendency for certain kinds of air
pollutants to lower temperatures on
earth by reflecting incoming sunlight
back into space and thus preventing it
from reaching (and heating) the earth.
Icebox Effect
The tendency for certain kinds of air
pollutants to lower temperatures on
earth by reflecting incoming sunlight
back into space and thus preventing it
from reaching (and heating) the earth.
The distribution of an organism or the
structure of an ecosystem can be
explained by the control exerted by the
single factor (such as temperature, light,
water) that is most deficient, that is,
that falls below the levels required.
Limiting Factor Principle
The distribution of an organism or the
structure of an ecosystem can be explained
by the control exerted by the single factor
(such as temperature, light, water) that is
most deficient, that is, that falls below the
levels required.
A gas molecule consisting of three atoms of
oxygen formed when diatomic oxygen is
exposed to ultraviolet radiation. In the upper
atmosphere it forms a normally continuous,
thin layer that blocks ultraviolet light; in the
lower atmosphere it constitutes a damaging
component of photochemical smog.
Ozone
A gas molecule consisting of three atoms of
oxygen formed when diatomic oxygen is
exposed to ultraviolet radiation. In the upper
atmosphere it forms a normally continuous,
thin layer that blocks ultraviolet light; in the
lower atmosphere it constitutes a damaging
component of photochemical smog.
The annual alternation of crops
alternation of crops that differential
demands on contributions to soil
fertility.
Rotation
The annual alternation of crops
alternation of crops that differential
demands on contributions to soil fertility.
The complex mixture of loose material
including minerals, organic and
inorganic compounds, living organisms,
air, and water found at the earth’s
surface and capable of supporting plant
life.
Soil
The complex mixture of loose material
including minerals, organic and inorganic
compounds, living organisms, air, and
water found at the earth’s surface and
capable of supporting plant life.
The wearing away and removal of
rock and soil particles from
exposed surfaces by agents such
as moving water, wind or ice.
Soil Erosion
The wearing away and removal of rock
and soil particles from exposed surfaces
by agents such as moving water, wind or
ice.
The practice of planting crops on
steep slopes that have been
converted into a series of horizontal
steplike level plots.
Terracing
The practice of planting crops on steep
slopes that have been converted into a
series of horizontal steplike level plots.
that can cause serious illness or
death.
Toxic Waste
can cause serious illness or death.
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