Canada in the 1980s + 1990s The 1980s was about . . . The 1980s was also about . . . The 1990s was about . . . Smells Like Teen Spirit https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hTWKbfoikeg The 1990s was also about . . . And the 1990s was about . . . The 1980s + 1990s in Canada was about: French and English Relations Immigration + Multiculturalism Aboriginal Peoples American – Canadian Relations + the Economy Violence Against Women + Girls Healthcare Foreign Aid + Peacekeeping Do you think Quebec will want to separate from Canada in the future? Why or why not? What does multiculturalism mean to you? Does Canada Need a Multiculturalism Policy? What do you think of Canada’s relationship with the USA? What should change? What should remain the same? How can you help to stop violence against women and girls? What kind of healthcare system do you want to have in Canada? Do you think that foreign aid should be a priority for Canada? Should we increase or decrease our spending? What do you think of Canada’s role as a peacekeeper? Has it been effective? Why or why not? French and English Relations The Quebec Referendum, 1980 The Parti Quebecois organized a referendum on sovereignty-association for May 20, 1980. This meant political independence from Canada but the retention of close economic ties = sovereignty association. The Quebec Referendum, 1980 The campaign was very passionate and divisive. In the end 59% of Quebecers voted “NON”. They choose Canada but barely. Constitution Act, 1982 The BNA Act of 1967 was an act of British parliament. Trudeau wanted Canada’s constitution to belong to Canada = promised the Constitution Act of 1982. Constitution Act, 1982 Under this act, Canada’s constitution was repatriated = brought home to Canada. 10 premiers drafted the constitution in 1981 = they were all awakened in the middle of the night for revision . . . All premiers except Rene Levesque (Quebec)! Trudeau and the 9 premiers reached an agreement = Quebec felt betrayed and did not sign the new constitution of Canada. Charter of Rights and Freedoms The new constitution included an amending formula + a notwithstanding clause was added to the Charter. Allowed the federal government & provinces to opt out of some of the clauses in the Charter. Amending Formula = able to make changes to a document (the constitution). Charter of Rights and Freedoms The Constitution also included out Charter of Rights and Freedoms. Is a bill of rights entrenched in the Constitution of Canada = it forms the first part of the Constitution Act, 1982. The Charter guarantees certain political rights to Canadian citizens and civil rights of everyone in Canada from the policies and actions of all areas and levels of government. Charter of Rights and Freedoms The Charter and the Constitution Act was signed into law by Queen Elizabeth II of Canada on April 17, 1982. Meech Lake Accord, 1987 In the 1984 election campaign, Brain Mulroney promised to repair the damage done in 1982 by obtaining Quebec’s consent to the Constitution = he was elected as PM. In 1987, Mulroney and all 10 premiers (Quebec = Robert Bourassa) met at Meech Lake for a conference to change the Constitution to include Quebec. Meech Lake Accord, 1987 All 10 premiers reached a tentative agreement = this began a three year race to get unanimous consent from Ottawa and the other 9 provinces. The Meech Lake Accord included a clause to recognize Quebec as a “distinct society” = Aboriginal Peoples, women and English – Canadians had concerns as they were not given any special considerations + giving more power to the provinces = veto power. Meech Lake & Elijah Harper Manitoba, Newfoundland and PEI withheld their support. Manitoba, led by Elijah Harper (Cree NDP member of the Manitoba legislature), ultimately refused to sign the Meech Lake Accord and it disintegrated in June 1990. Many Quebeckers were dismayed and saw this as a rejection of Quebec itself, as a humiliation = support for separation grew to 64%. Charlottetown Accord, 1992 As a result of the Meech Lake Accord, Quebec was still not included in Canada’s Constitution = Mulroney believed he had to continue with the Constitution debate. In 1992, all leaders met again this time in Charlottetown to try an reach a new agreement/a new package of package of proposals = Charlottetown Accord. Charlottetown Accord, 1992 The Charlottetown Accord made provisions for Aboriginal self-government, Senate reform, universal health care, worker’s rights, and environmental protection. This round of negotiations was called the “Canada Round,” as the Accord included a Canada Clause in addition to the “distinct society” clause for Quebec. Opposition . . . Again The Canada Clause outlined values and characteristics that define all Canadians, including a commitment to the equality of men and women, and to the well being of all Canadians. Opposition . . . Again A referendum was held = only 4 of the 10 provinces approved, that is, 54% of Canadians rejected it. Opposition . . . Again Once more, Aboriginals and women and the Reform Party (emerged in 1993, 1997 became the official opposition, grew out of western discontent, antiQuebec/pro-West) rejected it = BC had the greatest opposition – they felt that the Accord too much power. Quebec felt that it did not give them enough power and they feared Aboriginal self-government because it would affect a large portion of Northern Quebec. Bloc Quebecois + Parti Quebecois Lucien Bouchard (Quebec) resigned in protest from Mulroney’s cabinet after the Meech Lake Accord and formed a federal party = Bloc Quebecois. In 1993, the Bloc became the Official Opposition in Canada. Bloc Quebecois + Parti Quebecois In 1994, the Parti Quebecois defeated the Liberals in the province of Quebec and Jacques Parizeau became the Premier of Quebec. Quebec Referendum, 1995 In 1995, Parizeau, Quebec Premier and leader of the Parti Quebecois (PQ) held another referendum on the question of Quebec’s sovereignty = whether or not to separate from the rest of Canada. The night the referendum votes were counted the nation held it breath . . . 49.4% had voted “yes” and 50.6% had voted “no” = the vote was so close that the country was in a state of shock. Quebec Referendum, 1995 Parizeau resigned and was replaced by Bouchard = would call another referendum under “winning conditions” = these never materialized. There was no permanent settlement was clear = the question remained: could Quebec legally separate from Canada on a unilateral basis, or did separation require the consent of all provinces? Calgary Declaration, 1997 + the Supreme Court diction, 1998 In 1997, as a gesture of good will, the Canadian government declared Quebec to be a “unique society” as part of the Calgary Declaration = Lucien Bouchard did not attend this meeting. Calgary Declaration, 1997 + the Supreme Court diction, 1998 In 1998, the Supreme Court of Canada ruled that Quebec did not have the right to unilaterally separate from Canada. To achieve independence Quebec would have to negotiate with the federal government, the 9 other provinces, Aboriginal Peoples living in Quebec, and any other minorities living there. Calgary Declaration, 1997 + the Supreme Court diction, 1998 There also had to be a “clear majority” that voted “yes” to a “clear question” in a referendum. Both sides supported the decision. Clarity Act, 1999 The Canadian government passed the Clarity Act (also called the Clarity Bill) in 1999. Clarity Act stated that in any future referenda Quebec must ask a clear questions and a substantial “yes” majority ( a clear majority) before Quebec’s could exit from Confederation could be negotiated. Future: Separatism? As the century closed there continued to be arguments for and against Quebec separation and discussions to the potential impact of separation for Quebec and for Canada. Support for separatism appeared to be declining and Quebec governments appeared to be working with Canada and the peoples of Quebec became more concerned with economic issues than sovereignty. Future: Separatism? In April of 2014, the PQ (who were again calling for Quebec sovereignty) faced a crushing defeat at the provincial election polls. Pauline Marois, the PQ leader, lost to the Quebec Liberals with federalist Philippe Couillard at the helm; it was the largest electoral defeat, in terms of the popular vote, in 44 years. As such, the sovereignty movement was pushed that much closer to obsolescence with the recent election. Future: Separatism? This Liberal win, like all Liberal wins past, means no serious talk of referendum, sovereignty or separation for four years at least. But sovereignty isn’t dead. Rather, Quebec’s sovereignty movement goes through fits and starts, peaks and valleys, a sleeping giant that can wake up and roar at a moment’s notice. Future: Separatism? In the meantime, the PQ MNAs will have to answer for the party’s so-called Quebec values charter, which many feel targeted Quebec’s religious minorities - and in all likelihood hurt the party’s chances of moving beyond its white, francophone base. All of this will take time, which isn’t on the PQ’s side. Do you think Quebec will want to separate from Canada in the future? Why or why not? Immigration + Multiculturalism Immigration to Canada By the 1980s, Canada had implemented human rights legislation. In 1982, the Charter of Rights and Freedom guaranteed equality for all. Immigration to Canada In 1996, visible minorities made up 11% of the total population of Canada = people from all over the world chose Canada as a place to live. Immigrants gravitated towards Toronto, Montreal and Vancouver. By 1999, more than half the immigrants came from Asian and Pacific regions: China, India, Pakistan, the Philippines, South Korea, Iran, the USA, Taiwan, Sri Lanka and the UK. Immigration to Canada Problems Immigrants Faced: underemployment poverty credential and education not recognized discrimination/prejudice language barriers Oath of Citizenship http://www.vsoul.com/onlinetest/citizenship_p ractice_test/ Old Oath (1977): I swear/affirm that I will be faithful and bear true allegiance to Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth the Second, Queen of Canada, Her Heirs and Successors, according to law and that I will faithfully observe the laws of Canada and fulfill my duties as a Canadian Citizen. Oath of Citizenship http://www.vsoul.com/onlinetest/citizenship_p ractice_test/ New Proposed Oath (1987/1994/1996/1999/2000/2002/as of December 2006, the Oath of Citizenship has not yet been changed): From this day forward, I pledge my loyalty and allegiance to Canada and Her Majesty Elizabeth the Second, Queen of Canada. I promise to respect our country’s rights and freedoms, to defend our democratic values, to faithfully observe our laws and fulfill my duties and obligations as a Canadian citizen. Refugees The UN High Commission for Refugees (UNHCR) = assists more then 22 million refugees and displaced people throughout the world. Refugees: People who have left their countries of origin for fear of persecution based on race/ethnicity, religion, nationality or political opinion = a refugee becomes and asylum seeker when he/she seeks refugee status in another country. Refugees Economic migrant: A person who has left his/her home because of poverty (not persecution), and seeks to moved to a new country for better economic opportunities. Refugees in Canada UN Convention of Refugees, 1951 (also called the Geneva Protocol) = Canada signed. Immigration Act, 1976 = incorporated the principles of the Geneva Convention into domestic law – adaptability not economic criteria resulted in a backlog of claims and fraudulent claims rose. Refugees in Canada Changes to the Canadian Refugee Law, 1989 = oral hearing within days to refugee claimants, punish those who assisted with undocumented passengers and who made fraudulent claims, harsh penalties on smugglers and severe fines = gave the Canadian refugee system credibility. Chinese Boat People, 1999 = from China’s Fujian province, 4 boats, seen as jumping the queue. Immigration and Refugees In 2001, Canada admitted more than 28,000 refugees although 45,000 refugee claims were made. Leading countries for refugee claims: Hungary, Pakistan, Sri Lank, Zimbabwe, China, Mexico, Colombia, Turkey, India, Argentina, Somalia, and Congo-Kinshasa. Immigration and Refugees In November of 2001 (took effect in June 2002), Canada enacted the Immigration and Refugee Protection Act (IRPA): Replaced all prior immigration and refugee legislation and made significant changes to asylum seekers – an immigration officer must refer and asylum seekers to the Refugee Protection Division within 3 days, will hold a hearing to determine admissibility, those with serious criminal charges will be suspended until the criminal court issues a judgement. Immigration and Refugees UN Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime = Canada signed in 2000, will change the way Canada responds to modern migration pressures from sophisticated people-smuggling organizations (aka human trafficking) . Multiculturalism Act • Canadian Multiculturalism Act: • Adopted in 1987 to “recognize all Canadians as full and equal participants in Canadian society”. • It ensures that “all citizens can keep their identities, can take pride in their ancestry and have a sense of belonging . . . Multiculturalism Act • Through multiculturalism, Canada recognizes the potential of all Canadians, encourages them to integrate into their society and take an active past in its social, cultural, economic and political affairs.” ~ (Dept. of Canadian Heritage) • This all began in 1971 under Trudeau. Multiculturalism Department Department of Multiculturalism and Citizenship established in 1988. Recognize the growth of Canada’s multicultural communities and worked to promote multiculturalism in all areas of government policy. Multiculturalism Department • Supporters = allows people of all ethnic, racial, religious, and cultural backgrounds to feel welcome and play a positive role in the development of the nation helps Canadian national unity by drawing all Canadians closer together in mutual respect. Multiculturalism Department • Opponents = preventing Canada from developing a common Canadian identity not a mosaic rather follow the “melting pot” idea of U.S. where groups were encouraged to assimilate—give us their identities and take on the mainstream culture. What does multiculturalism mean to you? Does Canada Need a Multiculturalism Policy? Aboriginal Peoples Aboriginal Peoples of Canada Aboriginal Peoples: Inuit, Métis and First Nations constitute Canada’s Aboriginal Peoples also known as First Peoples or Indigenous Peoples. There are over 1,400,685 (4.3% of Canada's population) Aboriginal People in Canada. Aboriginal Peoples of Canada Inuit = A group of culturally similar indigenous peoples inhabiting the Arctic regions of Canada. Inuit means “the People” in the Inuktitut language. An Inuk is an Inuit person. Formerly called “Eskimos” – not a proper term now. Today there are approximately 59,445 Inuit in Canada. Aboriginal Peoples of Canada Métis = Descendants of European fur traders and settlers who married/partnered with First Nations women. Means “mixed” in French. Today, there are approximately 451,795 Métis in Canada who continue to celebrate their unique culture. Aboriginal Peoples of Canada First Nations or Natives = First Nations people are descendants of the original inhabitants of Canada who lived here for many thousands of years before explorers arrived from Europe. Aboriginal Peoples of Canada First Nations people of Canada are the people who used to be called “Indians,” but this term is now considered incorrect. First Nations are divided into Status Indians and Non- Status Indians. There are over 615 First Nations communities in Canada; there are approximately 851,560 First Nations in Canada. The History of Aboriginal Peoples Royal Proclamation, 1763 - present. The Reserve System, 1830 - present. Assimilation, 1800s - present. The Indian Act, 1867 - present. Residential Schools, 1830s – 1996. The History of Aboriginal Peoples The Vote (federal suffrage), 1960. The White Paper, 1969. Land claims + self-government, 1970s - present. Oka Crisis/Standoff, 1999. The History of Aboriginal Peoples UN Declaration of Indigenous Rights, 2007. Apologies = Canada - 2008; The Vatican – 2009. Truth and Reconciliation Commission est. 2008 – 2015. The History of Aboriginal Peoples Idle No More, 2012 – present. Truth and Reconciliation Commission Final Report, 2015. A New Way Forward Together, TODAY/NOW. Educational Concerns • When residential schools were abandoned (1969) Aboriginal Peoples took over education in “band schools” could study own language and culture in elementary schools. • Secondary education was not available (1951) = “boarding home program” + attending schools in Vancouver and New Westminster which were far away from home communities = The 60s Scoop. Educational Concerns • In 1990, Phil Fontaine, a prominent Aboriginal chief and lawyer, fought to get some compensation for the abuses the Native children suffered in residential schools. • in 1998 $350 million healing fund was created. Aboriginal Rights 1980 = Assembly of First Nations formed to represent Aboriginal Peoples in their dealings with the federal government + pushed for the legal recognition of Aboriginal rights. Aboriginal Rights were entrenched in the Charter of Rights and Freedoms in 1982 when the Constitution was repatriated. Aboriginal Rights In 1985, Bill C-31 was passed by Parliament. Gave Aboriginal band councils the right to live on Aboriginal reserves, decide who were ban members, and fixed the gender/sexual discrimination that was inherent in the Indian Act. Land Claims Aboriginal land claims have been in two types: Specific Claims = were treaties between Aboriginal Peoples and the federal government have been signed, but there terms have not been kept. Comprehensive Claims = questions the ownership of land in large parts of Canada (BC, the North + Quebec) that were never surrendered by treaty. Environmental Involvement Aboriginal Peoples became concerned with the degradation of the land caused by the contraction of natural gas pipelines and hydroelectric dams = endanger their traditional activities of hunting, fishing, and trapping. Negotiations with the Aboriginal Peoples about financial compensation, self-government, and other issues. Environmental Involvement • In 1980’s~1990s, Cree residents of Northern Quebec halted the James Bay Hydro Project, which threatened to flood some of their ancestral territories. • By 2000, Aboriginal peoples were open to the idea of building a pipeline and stressed control and some ownership of the project. Self - Government Aboriginal Self-Government = governance and institutional capacity for Aboriginal communities to contribute to, and participate in, the decisions that affect their lives and carry out effective relationships with other governments. They also provide greater certainty over rights to natural resources, contributing to a more positive investment climate and creating greater potential for economic development, jobs and growth. Self - Government Canada has completed 17 self-government agreements involving 27 communities: These include 15 self-government agreements completed in conjunction with comprehensive land claims in Newfoundland and Labrador, British Columbia,Yukon and NWT, as well as two stand-alone self-government agreements with the Sechelt and Westbank First Nations in BC. Self – Government in Canada Manitoba: In the 1990s, Aboriginal Peoples took over the responsibilities of the Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development in Manitoba and assumed self – government. Self – Government in Canada The Nisga’a Treaty: In 1998 the Nisga’a of BC signed a very unique treaty with the provincial and federal governments – given power over issues of culture, language and family life and ownership of 1,922km of land, including resources, fishing and hunting rights, and $190 million dollars. Self – Government in Canada The Creation of Nunavut: In 1999, the new Canadian territory of Nunavut was created – given the right to self-government, control natural resources, education and justice systems. The Oka Standoff, 1990 Tensions between Aboriginal peoples and non-Aboriginal peoples flared up in Oka, Quebec in 1990. The government officials in Oka (mayor and council) decided to extend a 9-hole golf course, originally built in 1959, on land that the Mohawk Nation from the Kanesatake reserve had always claimed belonged to them = it was sacred burial land. The Oka Standoff, 1990 In response, the Mohawks set up blockades of major roads on the land = as a result, the mayor of Oka called in the Quebec provincial police to remove the blockades. On July 11, 1990, the police stormed the blockade and gunfire broke out on both sides = one officer was killed. Oka = A Fight for Rights • The police blockaded Kanesatake and the Mohawks from the nearby reserve blockaded the only road the Montreal - there were nightly violent confrontations. • In Montreal violent confrontations between Quebeckers, police and Mohawks ensued, and across Canada, other Aboriginal groups blockaded highways and railway tracks in support. Oka = A Fight for Rights The Canadian Army was called in by Premier Robert Bourassa and there was a tense stand-off that lasted 6 months between the army and the Mohawk warriors = troops with heavy weapons moved into the area. Oka = A Fight for Rights Negotiations to end the crisis were tense but by the end of September members of other bands persuaded the Mohawks to end the stand-off = disputed land was purchased by the federal government and given to Kanesatake. Oka was a wake-up call = Canada’s Aboriginal Peoples were prepared to fight for their rights. CBC Archives: Dramatic Showdown at Oka, 1990 Other Protests: Ipperwash Ipperwash, Ontario (a few hours outside of Hamilton; Ipperwash Provincial Park) = in 1995 Stoney Point Ojibway occupied land on a former army base that had been taken during WWII but never returned. Know as the Ipperwash Crisis; during a violent confrontation, the Ontario Provincial Police (OPP) killed unarmed protester Dudley George. Other Protests: Ipperwash Acting Sergeant Ken Deane (October 1961 – February 25, 2006) was convicted of criminal negligence causing death of Dudley George. A public inquiry was launched on November 12, 2003. On December 20, 2007, the Ontario Provincial government announced its intention to return the 56hectare Ipperwash Provincial Park to its original owners, the Chippewas of Kettle and Stony Point First Nation. Other Protests: Gustafsen Gustafsen Lake, BC (a few hours north of Kamloops) = Aboriginal people re-occupied land they claimed was sacred ground in 1995; the predominantly Indigenous occupiers believed that the privately owned ranch land on which they stood was both sacred space and part of a larger tract of unceded Shuswap territory. Other Protests: Gustafsen Know as the Gustafsen Lake Standoff, it was a confrontation between the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) and the Ts'peten Defenders in the interior of British Columbia, Canada, at Gustafsen Lake. Fourteen indigenous and four non-native people were charged following the siege, fifteen of whom were found guilty and sentenced to jail terms ranging from six months to eight years. Other Protests: Gustafsen Fourteen Indigenous and four non-Native people were charged following the siege, fifteen of whom were found guilty and sentenced to jail terms ranging from six months to eight years. Three of the defendants appealed the verdicts on the grounds that the Canadian courts have no jurisdiction over the lands where the Gustafsen Lake standoff took place, which they claimed remain unceded indigenous land the Supreme Court of BC refused to hear the appeal. Statement of Reconciliation In 1998, the federal government issued an official Statement of Reconciliation to the Aboriginal Peoples of Canada. This statement recognized that the policies which sought to assimilate Aboriginal People were not conducive to building a strong country. Reconciliation: Apology The federal government issued an official/formal apology to the Aboriginal Peoples of Canada for the residential school policy on behalf of the Canadian peoples in the House of Commons on June 11, 2008. Reconciliation: Apology PM Steven Harper apologized to Aboriginal Peoples in regards to residential schools: “Mr. Speaker, I stand before you today to offer an apology to former students of Indian residential schools. The treatment of children in Indian residential schools is a sad chapter in our history.” Reconciliation: Apology “Two primary objectives of the Residential Schools system were to remove and isolate children from the influence of their homes, families, traditions and cultures, and to assimilate them into the dominant culture. These objectives were based on the assumption Aboriginal cultures and spiritual beliefs were inferior and unequal. Indeed, some sought, as it was infamously said, "to kill the Indian in the child". Today, we recognize that this policy of assimilation was wrong, has caused great harm, and has no place in our country.” Reconciliation: TRC The Indian Residential Schools Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) was established on June 1, 2008, with a mandate of 5 years. As a component of the Indian Residential Schools Settlement Agreement, the TRC was an independent body that oversaw a process to provide former students and anyone who had been affected by the Indian Residential Schools legacy, with an opportunity to share their individual experiences in a safe and culturally appropriate manner. Reconciliation: TRC The work of the TRC further contributed to a forward looking process of truth, healing and reconciliation. On June 3, 2015, the TRC release its Final Report; there are 94 Calls to Action. The Legacy of Canadian Policy Towards Aboriginal Peoples As a result of the policies adopted by the federal and provincial governments in relation to Aboriginal People over the years, a massive state of inequality now exists. Forms of inequality from official policies: Inadequate living conditions, abject poverty, unemployment, lack of basic necessities, racism, high suicide rates, alcoholism and drug abuse, sexual abuse, domestic violence limited access to education. The Legacy of Canadian Policy Towards Aboriginal Peoples We must provide Aboriginal Peoples the equal resources and support systems to heal and resolve the above issues according to their determined needs. We must also understand, address, and take action against these inequalities, as they are our shared problems. Reconciliation: TRC This is our shared history and all peoples in Canada (Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal, new immigrant or long time settler) have to enter into a process of reconciliation and decolonization to we can move forward together. UN Declaration In 2007, the United Nations released the UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples affirming that Indigenous peoples are equal to all other peoples, while recognizing the right of all peoples to be different, to consider themselves different, and to be respected as such. 111 Idle No More Movement Idle No More (began in 2012) is an ongoing grassroots protest movement originating among the Aboriginal peoples in Canada comprising the First Nations, Métis and Inuit peoples and their non-Aboriginal supporters in Canada, and to a lesser extent, internationally. It has consisted of a number of political actions worldwide, inspired in part by the hunger strike of Attawapiskat Chief Theresa Spence and further coordinated via social media. Idle No More Movement A reaction to alleged abuses of indigenous treaty rights by the current federal government and the Crown, the movement takes particular issue with the recent omnibus bill Bill C-45 which threatens the environment. Idle No More Idle No More calls on all people to join in a peaceful revolution, to honour Indigenous sovereignty, and to protect the land and water. 114 American – Canadian Relations + the Economy The Canadian Economy Canada was in massive debt in the mid-1980s because increased federal spending. As a result, Canada began to practice a new economic approach: Neo-conservatism = reduce government interference, invoke government cut-backs + increase reliance on market forces of supply and demand. Canada – USA Relations: Trade In addition, in the 1980s PM Mulroney sought to create closer ties with the USA to help the Canadian economy. FTA (Free Trade Agreement) = 1989, first free trade agreement between Canada, USA and Mexico, to increase investment and trade = benefit Canadian businesses. Free Trade = a system of trading between countries without barriers such as tariffs (taxes) or quotas. Canada – USA Relations: Trade NAFTA (North American Free Trade Agreement) = 1994, free trade agreement between Canada, USA and Mexico. Pros = helped improve Canada’s economy by increasing trade with the USA – lead to an increase in American investment. Cons = Canadian jobs were lost due to relocation, some Canadian companies moved the USA or Mexico or were sold to American companies. Canada – USA Relations: Space Canadarm = in 1974 NASA awarded Canada the opportunity to design, develop and build the Shuttle Remote Manipulator System (SRMS). The result was the Canadarm = a 15-metre long robotic arm for which Canada invested $100 million. Canada – USA Relations: Space The Canadarm made its debut in November 1981 and is still in use today. It can life more than 30,000 kilograms on earth or 266,000 kg in space using less electricity than a toaster. It conducts search rescue missions - nudging satellites into orbit, loosening jammed solar panels and repairing shuttle exteriors. In December of 1988 the Canadarm played a critical role in the first assembly mission of the International Space Station. Canada gained world-wide recognition in robotics. Canada – USA Relations: Resources The Pacific Salmon Treaty, 1985. Disputes between Canada and the USA over who “owned” the fish off the West Coast and who was to blame for their depletion raged for decades until 1985 when all parties agreed to stop the “overfishing. and signed the Pacific Salmon Treaty. Canada – USA Relations: Resources The treaty was successful for 12 years, but in 1997 negotiators were unable to agree on quotas that satisfied all parties = each side was free to set their own limits. American fishing boats were seized and an Alaskan ferry was blockaded. Salmon Treaty Resolution, June 1999: Canada and the USA signed a new Pacific Salmon Treaty, signed by Ottawa, the US federal government, the states of Washington, Alaska and Oregon, along with representative from 24 Native tribes. But the government of BC was absent from the negotiations. Salmon Treaty Problem: There a not enough fish to support the once burgeoning industry – salmon stocks are in danger, many people are scared they will go the way of the cod fishery on the East Coast. Canada – USA Relations: Environment The Kyoto Protocol, 1997/2005: An international agreement linked to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Canada – USA Relations: Environment The major feature of the Kyoto Protocol is that it sets binding targets for 37 industrialized countries and the European community for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that cause global warming. These amount to an average of five per cent against 1990 levels over the five-year period 2008-2012. Kyoto: Success + Failure The Kyoto Protocol was adopted in Kyoto, Japan, on 11 December 1997 and entered into force on 16 February 2005. The detailed rules for the implementation of the Protocol were adopted at COP 7 in Marrakesh in 2001, and are called the “Marrakesh Accords.” Kyoto: Success + Failure Under President George W. Bush the USA withdrew support for the Protocol – never signed. Little action has been taken by Canada to reduce emissions – FAIL! Canada refused to re-sign the Kyoto Protocol in 2012! FAIL! Canada – USA Relations: War on Terror September 11, 2001: A commercial airplane crashed into the North Tower of the World Trade Centre in New York. Shortly after, a second plane hit the South Tower. Another commercial plane that hit the Pentagon, Washington, DC. A fourth plane was shot down in Somerset County, PA. Canada – USA Relations: War on Terror These attacks became known as Terrorist Attacks of 9/11 or just 9/11. They were a series of coordinated suicide attacks by Al-Qaeda (led by Osama bin Laden) upon the United States. Canada’s Response: War on Terror Operation Support: First provide for the passengers and crew of aircraft that was diverted to Canadian airfields; secondly to increase its level of emergency preparedness in order to respond to requests of humanitarian assistance. Also increased our commitment to NORAD by placing CF- 18 fighter jets at strategic locations throughout our country. Canada’s Response: War on Terror Operation Apollo: Canada’s military contribution to the “war on terror;” after 9/11, the UN issued a resolution the reaffirmed the right of member nations to individual and collective defence. Operation Apollo was set up to support the USA’s Operation Enduring Freedom = PM Jean Chretien promised air, land, and sea forces to the international campaign. War in Iraq As the fight against Al-Qaeda in Afghanistan was reaching a conclusion (Bin Laden - was shot to death on May 2, 2011 and the War in Afghanistan continues – the USA will pull out by 2014). President Bush declared that Iraq was also part of the “Axis of Evil” and that military action would also be directed toward ousting the regime of Saddam Hussein (was shot in killed by US forces on December 6, 2006). War in Iraq The War in Iraq/Iraq War began on March 20, 2003 – present. War in Afghanistan began on October 7, 2001 – present. Dec 15, 2011 last rotation of troops returns; March 31, 2014 – training mission ends. War in Iraq PM Chretien stated that Canada would join military action in Iraq if approved by the UN Security Council. By 2003 the Canadian government, France, and Germany recognized that the Bush administration would wage war with or without approval. Canada choose to provide humanitarian aid to Iraqis not military aid to the USA. Canada + Afghanistan Canada's role in the Afghanistan War began in late 2001. Canada sent it's first element of Canadian soldiers secretly in October 2001 from Joint Task Force 2, and the first contingents of regular Canadian troops arrived in Afghanistan in 2002. Canada + Afghanistan Canada took on a larger role starting in 2006 after the Canadian troops were redeployed to Kandahar province. There were 2,500 Canadian Forces (CF) personnel in Afghanistan in 2006, of which 1,200 comprised the combat battle group. Roughly 950 are currently deployed in Afghanistan as part of International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) = military trainers – ends March 31, 2014. Canada + Afghanistan Canada withdrew the bulk of its military troops from Afghanistan in Dec. of 2011. We are no longer doing combat mission but will be helping Afghans to rebuild Afghanistan via the education of children and youth (especially for women and girls), providing healthcare, training security forces, promoting regional diplomacy, and humanitarian aid. What do you think of Canada’s relationship with the USA? What should change? What should remain the same? Violence Against Women + Girls The Montreal Massacre, 1989 The Montréal Massacre of December 6, 1989, in which 14 women students at the École Polytechnique were systematically killed and 13 other students wounded by a lone gunman, is indelibly imprinted on the minds of Quebeckers and Canadians who struggled to comprehend the worst single-day massacre in Canadian history. The Montreal Massacre, 1989 Since the beginning of Québec's "Quiet Revolution" in the 1960s, women had been making increasing strides in non-traditional occupations and educational programs. Violence Against Women: Not Equal Yet In the 1970s and 1980s, growing numbers flocked to the École Polytechnique, the School of Engineering at the University of Montréal. While most men in Québec and elsewhere accepted and even welcomed these transformations, a minority felt themselves disadvantaged by attempts to encourage women's new roles and opportunities = Marc Lepine. Violence Against Women: Not Equal Yet The massacre is regarded by criminologists as an example of a hate crime against women, and by feminists and government officials as misogynist attack and an example of the larger issue/culture of violence against women and inequality (sexism and misogyny). The Women Murdered Geneviève Bergeron, 21 Maryse Leclair, 23 Hélène Colgan, 23 Annie St.-Arneault, 23 Nathalie Croteau, 23 Michèle Richard, 21 Barbara Daigneault, 22 Maryse Laganière, 25 Anne-Marie Edward, 21 Anne-Marie Lemay, 22 Maud Haviernick, 29 Sonia Pelletier, 28 Barbara Maria Klucznik, 31 Annie Turcotte, 21 2012: The Grim Facts Persist Globally, one in three women have experienced physical or sexual abuse by a man. Among women aged 15-44 years, gender-based violence accounts for the most deaths. The cost of violence in BC is about 1 billion dollars. The Blatant Truth Violence against women and girls is not just a women’s or girl’s problem = it is a boy’s and men’s problem too. IT IS EVERYONE’S PROBLEM! Violence Against Women + Girls Includes: physical, sexual, psychological and economic violence harassment or intimidation sexual abuse or rape, including martial rape battery domestic violence forced prostitution Trafficking in women and girls burning or acid throwing female genital mutilation female feticide and infanticide violence in armed conflict (as a weapon of war) systemic rape sexual slavery forced pregnancy forced marriage A Global Epidemic Violence against women is a gross violation of women’s human rights. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kSOqkU2KDR0 The Struggle for Equality The struggle for women's equality, including the simple right not be abused or murdered, continues. Equality for women and girls will exist when gender- based violence is eliminated. YOU CAN MAKE A DIFFERENCE! WE CAN STOP THE VIOLENCE! Healthcare Healthcare in Canada Canada’s Medicare is known as a publically funded medical system (pay through taxes/income tax) that until recently has been one of the best healthcare systems in the world. Tommy Douglas, 1961 - As leader of the Saskatchewan Co-operative Commonwealth Federation (CCF) from 1942 and the seventh Premier of Saskatchewan from 1944 to 1961, he led the first social-democratic government in North America and introduced single-payer health care to Canada. Healthcare in Canada Canada Health Act (CHA) = passed in 1984, Canada’s federal insurance legislation, determines guidelines that ensure that all Canadians have equal access to medically necessary services regardless of their ability to pay. Each province receives a transfer payment from the federal government to help pay for healthcare although it is the provincial government’s responsibility to manage healthcare; hospitals also received a lump sum from Ottawa to help run the hospital. Benefits and Drawbacks to Medicare Benefits = whether you are homeless of a millionaire, you can get the same level of care without paying out of pocket; there is no discrimination. Benefits and Drawbacks to Medicare Drawbacks = this system has become very expensive, as a result, service are deteriorating, new technologies are unaffordable or expensive to maintain, wait lists develop, no user fees mean people go to the doctor unnecessarily, people go to the USA or private clinics to pay for procedures, people have died waiting for medically necessary procedures. The Future of Healthcare in Canada Roy Romanow Commission, 2001-2002 = an attempt to establish guidelines for the future of Canada`s healthcare system. A Two-Tier System = American-style healthcare system with private and public doctor`s offices and hospitals. The Future of Healthcare in Canada A Two-Tier System: Pros = waiting list + expenses reduced, everyone would still have access to healthcare. Cons = potential for government to reduce the level of services at the public level causing the poor to receive lower quality healthcare. Privatization of Healthcare Privatization: The practice of laying off government employees and allowing private companies to come and provide the same services (potentially at a lover cost). Privatization of Healthcare Privatization: Pros = use less expensive employees thereby lowering some of the healthcare costs, able to pay for better equipment and more doctors and nurses. Cons = many jobs would be lost, employees would be less skilled/forced to receive less pay, quality of services would be compromised, healthcare in the hands of large companies not concerned with the well being of the people but in making a profit. How can you help to stop violence against women and girls? What kind of healthcare system do you want to have in Canada? Foreign Aid + Peacekeeping Canada and the World: Foreign Aid Official Development Assistance (ODA), 1969 = provided financial aid to countries in Africa, the Middle East, the Americas, Asia and some countries in Central and Eastern Europe via: Canada and the World: Foreign Aid Bilateral/Direct Assistance = government to government. NGOs (Non-governmental organizations). Private sector enterprises. Multilateral Institutions = UN, World Bank, La Francophonie. Canada and the World: Foreign Aid Canadian ODA is at a 30 year low. Canada has reduced its contributions by 34% + ranked 17th of 22 countries in regards to contributions. CIDA Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA), 1968. ODA is managed by CIDA, promotes sustainable development in developing countries. CIDA Has 7 priorities: Basic human needs, women in suitable development, infrastructure services, human rights, democracy and good governance, private sector development, the environment. Also has expanded 4 social development sectors: basic education, health and nutrition, HIV/AIDS, and child protection. Canada Fund for Africa + Human Rights Canada Fund for Africa, 2002: CIDA, establishment of $500 million to promote development on this continent, in response to a G8 Action Plan (G8 – Group of Eight, major economic nations), intended to recognize the right of Africans to take control and ownership of their own path to development. Canada Fund for Africa + Human Rights Linking Aid to Human Rights = based on the assumption that Canada has a responsibility to ensure that its development assistance is not used to support governments that deny citizens their basic economic, social and cultural rights. Canada’s actions have been punitive in nature in regards to human rights violations, reluctance to cut aid – sends an unclear message to the offender. Do you think that foreign aid should be a priority for Canada? Should we increase or decrease our spending? Peacekeeping Peacekeeping (est. 1948, first mission/Suez Crisis 1956) = a technique developed by the UN: "a unique and dynamic instrument developed by the Organization as a way to help countries torn by conflict create the conditions for lasting peace.” Peacekeeping Peacekeeping is distinguished from both peacebuilding and peacemaking. Peacekeepers = monitor and observe peace processes (they are not part of the conflict = observers) in post-conflict areas and assist ex-combatants in implementing the peace agreements they may have signed; recently peacekeeping is a matter of creating peace where non exists. The Changing Role of Peacekeepers In the past = tasks involved patrolling contested borders, and unarmed monitoring of ceasefires. Modern Peacekeeping = training and restructuring local police forces, de-mining, conducting elections, facilitating the return of refugees, monitoring human rights, demobilizing and reintegrating former soldiers, and promoting sustainable democracy and economic development, and humanitarian intervention. The Changing Role of Peacekeepers Modern Peacekeeping = Requires a diversity of skills: Work with police, governments, judges, lawyers, media, health, tax, and social policy advisors, child protection experts, infrastructure specialists and facilitator and mediators. Canadian Troops Overseas In the second half of the 20th Century, over 125,000 Canadians have served as peacekeepers under the auspices of the UN (50+ missions). In Canada`s peacekeeping history, over 130 Canadian have been killed. Canadian Troops Overseas Canadians have served in the following recent conflicts: The Persian Gulf War, 1990 Haiti, 1990 + El Salvador, 1991 Cambodia, 1991 + Yugoslavia (Bosnia), 1992 Somalia, 1992 Rwanda, 1994 NATO bombing of Kosovo, 1995 Kosovo, 1999 Afghanistan, 2001 – 2011+ Bosnia-Herzegovina, 2004 Gaza, 2005 Syria, 2015 International Law UN International Tribunals, 1993: Set up to try persons accused of war crimes during conflict, the establishment was sparked by the massive human rights violations in the former Yugoslavia, a second tribunal was wet up to hear cases from he Rwandan genocide in 1994. International Law International Criminal Court (ICC), 1998: Became possible to punish mass violations of human rights through the establishment of the ICC, the international community made it clear that those who committed horrible acts would not go unpunished, has jurisdiction over genocides, war crimes, crimes against humanity and aggression. The Future of NATO Since its first military intervention in 1995, NATO has been engaged in an increasingly diverse array of operations. Today, roughly 140 000 military personnel are engaged in NATO missions around the world, successfully managing complex ground, air and naval operations in all types of environment. The Future of NATO NATO is an active and leading contributor to peace and security on the international stage. Through its crisis management operations, the Alliance demonstrates both its willingness to act as a positive force for change and its capacity to meet the security challenges of the 21st century. NATO Missions NATO actions in the late 20th and early 21st Century: 1999 - carried a campaign against Serbia to prevent the ethnic cleansing of Albanians. 1999 – helped bring order to the new democracy of Macedonia. 1999 - Peacekeeping in Kosovo, Bosnia and Afghanistan. 2005 – helped to establish security forces in Iraq. 2007 – supporting the African Union’s peacekeeping mission in Africa. 2011 – Airstrikes in Libya. What do you think of Canada’s role as a peacekeeper? Has it been effective? Why or why not? What do you think Canada’s role will be on the international stage in the future? What do you think Canada needs to do here in our country so we can move forward together?