Canada in the 1980s + 1990s
The 1980s was about . . .
The 1980s was
also about . . .
The 1990s was about . . .
Smells Like Teen Spirit
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hTWKbfoikeg
The 1990s was also about . . .
And the 1990s was about . . .
The 1980s + 1990s in Canada was
about:
French and English Relations
Immigration + Multiculturalism
Aboriginal Peoples
American – Canadian Relations + the Economy
Violence Against Women + Girls
Healthcare
Foreign Aid + Peacekeeping
Do you think Quebec will want to
separate from Canada in the future?
Why or why not?
What does multiculturalism mean to
you?
Does Canada Need a Multiculturalism
Policy?
What do you think of Canada’s
relationship with the USA?
What should change?
What should remain the same?
How can you help to stop violence
against women and girls?
What kind of healthcare system do
you want to have in Canada?
Do you think that foreign aid should
be a priority for Canada?
Should we increase or decrease our
spending?
What do you think of Canada’s role
as a peacekeeper?
Has it been effective?
Why or why not?
French and English Relations
The Quebec Referendum, 1980
 The Parti Quebecois
organized a referendum on
sovereignty-association for
May 20, 1980.
 This meant political
independence from Canada
but the retention of close
economic ties = sovereignty
association.
The Quebec Referendum, 1980
 The campaign was very
passionate and divisive.
 In the end 59% of Quebecers
voted “NON”.
 They choose Canada but barely.
Constitution Act, 1982
 The BNA Act of 1967 was an act of British parliament.
 Trudeau wanted Canada’s constitution to belong to Canada =
promised the Constitution Act of 1982.
Constitution Act, 1982
 Under this act, Canada’s constitution was repatriated =
brought home to Canada.
 10 premiers drafted the constitution in 1981 = they
were all awakened in the middle of the night for revision
. . . All premiers except Rene Levesque (Quebec)!
 Trudeau and the 9 premiers reached an agreement =
Quebec felt betrayed and did not sign the new
constitution of Canada.
Charter of Rights and Freedoms
 The new constitution included an amending formula + a
notwithstanding clause was added to the Charter.
 Allowed the federal government & provinces to opt out of
some of the clauses in the Charter.
 Amending Formula = able to make changes to a
document (the constitution).
Charter of Rights and Freedoms
 The Constitution also included out Charter of Rights and
Freedoms.
 Is a bill of rights entrenched in the Constitution of Canada
= it forms the first part of the Constitution Act, 1982.
 The Charter guarantees certain political rights to
Canadian citizens and civil rights of everyone in Canada
from the policies and actions of all areas and levels of
government.
Charter of Rights and Freedoms
 The Charter and the Constitution Act was signed into law
by Queen Elizabeth II of Canada on April 17, 1982.
Meech Lake Accord, 1987
 In the 1984 election campaign, Brain Mulroney promised
to repair the damage done in 1982 by obtaining Quebec’s
consent to the Constitution = he was elected as PM.
 In 1987, Mulroney and all 10 premiers (Quebec = Robert
Bourassa) met at Meech Lake for a conference to change
the Constitution to include Quebec.
Meech Lake Accord, 1987
 All 10 premiers reached a tentative agreement = this began
a three year race to get unanimous consent from Ottawa and
the other 9 provinces.
 The Meech Lake Accord included a clause to recognize
Quebec as a “distinct society” = Aboriginal Peoples,
women and English – Canadians had concerns as they were
not given any special considerations + giving more power to
the provinces = veto power.
Meech Lake & Elijah Harper
 Manitoba, Newfoundland and PEI withheld their support.
 Manitoba, led by Elijah Harper (Cree NDP member of
the Manitoba legislature), ultimately refused to sign the
Meech Lake Accord and it disintegrated in June 1990.
 Many Quebeckers were dismayed and saw this as a
rejection of Quebec itself, as a humiliation = support
for separation grew to 64%.
Charlottetown Accord, 1992
 As a result of the Meech Lake Accord, Quebec was still
not included in Canada’s Constitution = Mulroney
believed he had to continue with the Constitution debate.
 In 1992, all leaders met again this time in
Charlottetown to try an reach a new agreement/a new
package of package of proposals = Charlottetown
Accord.
Charlottetown Accord, 1992
 The Charlottetown Accord made provisions for
Aboriginal self-government, Senate reform,
universal health care, worker’s rights, and
environmental protection.
 This round of negotiations was called the “Canada
Round,” as the Accord included a Canada Clause in
addition to the “distinct society” clause for
Quebec.
Opposition . . . Again
 The Canada Clause outlined values and
characteristics that define all Canadians, including a
commitment to the equality of men and women, and to the
well being of all Canadians.
Opposition . . . Again
 A referendum was held = only 4 of the 10 provinces
approved, that is, 54% of Canadians rejected it.
Opposition . . . Again
 Once more, Aboriginals and women and the Reform
Party (emerged in 1993, 1997 became the official
opposition, grew out of western discontent, antiQuebec/pro-West) rejected it = BC had the greatest
opposition – they felt that the Accord too much power.
 Quebec felt that it did not give them enough power and
they feared Aboriginal self-government because it would
affect a large portion of Northern Quebec.
Bloc Quebecois + Parti Quebecois
 Lucien Bouchard (Quebec) resigned in
protest from Mulroney’s cabinet after the
Meech Lake Accord and formed a federal
party = Bloc Quebecois.
 In 1993, the Bloc became the Official
Opposition in Canada.
Bloc Quebecois + Parti Quebecois
 In 1994, the Parti Quebecois defeated the
Liberals in the province of Quebec and
Jacques Parizeau became the Premier of
Quebec.
Quebec Referendum, 1995
 In 1995, Parizeau, Quebec Premier and leader of the Parti
Quebecois (PQ) held another referendum on the question
of Quebec’s sovereignty = whether or not to separate from
the rest of Canada.
 The night the referendum votes were counted the nation held
it breath . . . 49.4% had voted “yes” and 50.6% had voted
“no” = the vote was so close that the country was in a state of
shock.
Quebec Referendum, 1995
 Parizeau resigned and was replaced by Bouchard =
would call another referendum under “winning conditions” =
these never materialized.
 There was no permanent settlement was clear = the
question remained: could Quebec legally separate from Canada
on a unilateral basis, or did separation require the consent of all
provinces?
Calgary Declaration, 1997 + the
Supreme Court diction, 1998
 In 1997, as a gesture of good will, the Canadian government
declared Quebec to be a “unique society” as part of the
Calgary Declaration = Lucien Bouchard did not attend this
meeting.
Calgary Declaration, 1997 + the
Supreme Court diction, 1998
 In 1998, the Supreme Court of Canada ruled that
Quebec did not have the right to unilaterally
separate from Canada.
 To achieve independence Quebec would have to negotiate
with the federal government, the 9 other provinces, Aboriginal
Peoples living in Quebec, and any other minorities living
there.
Calgary Declaration, 1997 + the
Supreme Court diction, 1998
 There also had to be a “clear majority” that voted “yes” to a
“clear question” in a referendum.
 Both sides supported the decision.
Clarity Act, 1999
 The Canadian government passed the Clarity Act (also
called the Clarity Bill) in 1999.
 Clarity Act stated that in any future referenda Quebec must
ask a clear questions and a substantial “yes”
majority ( a clear majority) before Quebec’s could exit
from Confederation could be negotiated.
Future: Separatism?
 As the century closed there continued to be arguments for
and against Quebec separation and discussions to the
potential impact of separation for Quebec and for Canada.
 Support for separatism appeared to be declining and Quebec
governments appeared to be working with Canada and the
peoples of Quebec became more concerned with economic
issues than sovereignty.
Future: Separatism?
 In April of 2014, the PQ (who were again calling for Quebec
sovereignty) faced a crushing defeat at the provincial election
polls.
 Pauline Marois, the PQ leader, lost to the Quebec Liberals
with federalist Philippe Couillard at the helm; it was the
largest electoral defeat, in terms of the popular vote, in 44
years.
 As such, the sovereignty movement was pushed that much
closer to obsolescence with the recent election.
Future: Separatism?
 This Liberal win, like all Liberal wins past, means no serious
talk of referendum, sovereignty or separation for four years
at least.
 But sovereignty isn’t dead.
 Rather, Quebec’s sovereignty movement goes through fits
and starts, peaks and valleys, a sleeping giant that can wake
up and roar at a moment’s notice.
Future: Separatism?
 In the meantime, the PQ MNAs will have to answer for the
party’s so-called Quebec values charter, which many feel
targeted Quebec’s religious minorities - and in all likelihood
hurt the party’s chances of moving beyond its white,
francophone base.
 All of this will take time, which isn’t on the PQ’s side.
Do you think Quebec will want to
separate from Canada in the future?
Why or why not?
Immigration + Multiculturalism
Immigration to Canada
 By the 1980s, Canada had implemented human rights
legislation.
 In 1982, the Charter of Rights and Freedom
guaranteed equality for all.
Immigration to Canada
 In 1996, visible minorities made up 11% of the total
population of Canada = people from all over the world
chose Canada as a place to live.
 Immigrants gravitated towards Toronto, Montreal and
Vancouver.
 By 1999, more than half the immigrants came from Asian
and Pacific regions: China, India, Pakistan, the
Philippines, South Korea, Iran, the USA, Taiwan, Sri Lanka
and the UK.
Immigration to Canada
 Problems Immigrants Faced:
 underemployment
 poverty
 credential and education not recognized
 discrimination/prejudice
 language barriers
Oath of Citizenship
http://www.vsoul.com/onlinetest/citizenship_p
ractice_test/
 Old Oath (1977):
 I swear/affirm that I will be faithful and bear true allegiance to
Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth the Second, Queen of Canada, Her
Heirs and Successors, according to law and that I will faithfully
observe the laws of Canada and fulfill my duties as a Canadian
Citizen.
Oath of Citizenship
http://www.vsoul.com/onlinetest/citizenship_p
ractice_test/
 New Proposed Oath
(1987/1994/1996/1999/2000/2002/as of December 2006,
the Oath of Citizenship has not yet been changed):
 From this day forward, I pledge my loyalty and allegiance to
Canada and Her Majesty Elizabeth the Second, Queen of
Canada. I promise to respect our country’s rights and freedoms, to
defend our democratic values, to faithfully observe our laws and
fulfill my duties and obligations as a Canadian citizen.
Refugees
 The UN High Commission for Refugees (UNHCR) =
assists more then 22 million refugees and displaced people
throughout the world.
 Refugees:
 People who have left their countries of origin for fear of
persecution based on race/ethnicity, religion, nationality
or political opinion = a refugee becomes and asylum
seeker when he/she seeks refugee status in another
country.
Refugees
 Economic migrant:
 A person who has left his/her home because of poverty
(not persecution), and seeks to moved to a new country
for better economic opportunities.
Refugees in Canada
 UN Convention of Refugees, 1951 (also called the
Geneva Protocol) = Canada signed.
 Immigration Act, 1976 = incorporated the principles of the
Geneva Convention into domestic law – adaptability not
economic criteria resulted in a backlog of claims and fraudulent
claims rose.
Refugees in Canada
 Changes to the Canadian Refugee Law, 1989 = oral
hearing within days to refugee claimants, punish those who
assisted with undocumented passengers and who made
fraudulent claims, harsh penalties on smugglers and severe fines
= gave the Canadian refugee system credibility.
 Chinese Boat People, 1999 = from China’s Fujian
province, 4 boats, seen as jumping the queue.
Immigration and Refugees
 In 2001, Canada admitted more than 28,000 refugees
although 45,000 refugee claims were made.
 Leading countries for refugee claims: Hungary, Pakistan, Sri
Lank, Zimbabwe, China, Mexico, Colombia, Turkey, India,
Argentina, Somalia, and Congo-Kinshasa.
Immigration and Refugees
 In November of 2001 (took effect in June 2002), Canada
enacted the Immigration and Refugee Protection Act
(IRPA):
 Replaced all prior immigration and refugee legislation and
made significant changes to asylum seekers – an immigration
officer must refer and asylum seekers to the Refugee
Protection Division within 3 days, will hold a hearing to
determine admissibility, those with serious criminal charges
will be suspended until the criminal court issues a
judgement.
Immigration and Refugees
 UN Convention Against Transnational Organized
Crime = Canada signed in 2000, will change the way Canada
responds to modern migration pressures from sophisticated
people-smuggling organizations (aka human trafficking) .
Multiculturalism Act
• Canadian Multiculturalism Act:
• Adopted in 1987 to “recognize all Canadians as full and equal
participants in Canadian society”.
• It ensures that “all citizens can keep their identities, can take
pride in their ancestry and have a sense of belonging . . .
Multiculturalism Act
• Through multiculturalism, Canada recognizes the potential
of all Canadians, encourages them to integrate into their
society and take an active past in its social, cultural,
economic and political affairs.”
~ (Dept. of Canadian Heritage)
• This all began in 1971 under Trudeau.
Multiculturalism Department
 Department of Multiculturalism and Citizenship
established in 1988.
 Recognize the growth of Canada’s multicultural communities
and worked to promote multiculturalism in all areas of
government policy.
Multiculturalism Department
• Supporters = allows people of all ethnic, racial, religious, and
cultural backgrounds to feel welcome and play a positive role
in the development of the nation  helps Canadian national
unity by drawing all Canadians closer together in mutual
respect.
Multiculturalism Department
• Opponents = preventing Canada from developing a common
Canadian identity  not a mosaic rather follow the “melting
pot” idea of U.S. where groups were encouraged to
assimilate—give us their identities and take on the mainstream
culture.
What does multiculturalism mean to
you?
Does Canada Need a Multiculturalism
Policy?
Aboriginal Peoples
Aboriginal Peoples of Canada
 Aboriginal Peoples:
 Inuit, Métis and First Nations constitute Canada’s Aboriginal
Peoples also known as First Peoples or Indigenous Peoples.
 There are over 1,400,685 (4.3% of Canada's population)
Aboriginal People in Canada.
Aboriginal Peoples of Canada
 Inuit = A group of culturally similar indigenous peoples
inhabiting the Arctic regions of Canada.
 Inuit means “the People” in the Inuktitut language.
 An Inuk is an Inuit person.
 Formerly called “Eskimos” – not a proper term now.
 Today there are approximately 59,445 Inuit in Canada.
Aboriginal Peoples of Canada
 Métis = Descendants of European fur traders and settlers
who married/partnered with First Nations women.
 Means “mixed” in French.
 Today, there are approximately 451,795 Métis in Canada
who continue to celebrate their unique culture.
Aboriginal Peoples of Canada
 First Nations or Natives = First Nations people are
descendants of the original inhabitants of Canada who lived
here for many thousands of years before explorers arrived
from Europe.
Aboriginal Peoples of Canada
 First Nations people of Canada are the people who used to
be called “Indians,” but this term is now considered
incorrect.
 First Nations are divided into Status Indians and Non-
Status Indians.
 There are over 615 First Nations communities in Canada;
there are approximately 851,560 First Nations in Canada.
The History of Aboriginal Peoples
 Royal Proclamation, 1763 - present.
 The Reserve System, 1830 - present.
 Assimilation, 1800s - present.
 The Indian Act, 1867 - present.
 Residential Schools, 1830s – 1996.
The History of Aboriginal Peoples
 The Vote (federal suffrage), 1960.
 The White Paper, 1969.
 Land claims + self-government, 1970s - present.
 Oka Crisis/Standoff, 1999.
The History of
Aboriginal Peoples
 UN Declaration of Indigenous Rights, 2007.
 Apologies = Canada - 2008; The Vatican – 2009.
 Truth and Reconciliation Commission est. 2008 – 2015.
The History of
Aboriginal Peoples
 Idle No More, 2012 – present.
 Truth and Reconciliation Commission Final Report, 2015.
 A New Way Forward Together, TODAY/NOW.
Educational Concerns
• When residential schools were abandoned (1969) Aboriginal
Peoples took over education in “band schools”  could
study own language and culture in elementary schools.
• Secondary education was not available (1951) =
“boarding home program” + attending schools in
Vancouver and New Westminster which were far away
from home communities = The 60s Scoop.
Educational Concerns
• In 1990, Phil Fontaine, a prominent Aboriginal chief and
lawyer, fought to get some compensation for the abuses the
Native children suffered in residential schools.
•  in 1998 $350 million healing fund was created.
Aboriginal Rights
 1980 = Assembly of First Nations formed to represent
Aboriginal Peoples in their dealings with the federal
government + pushed for the legal recognition of Aboriginal
rights.
 Aboriginal Rights were entrenched in the Charter
of Rights and Freedoms in 1982 when the Constitution
was repatriated.
Aboriginal Rights
 In 1985, Bill C-31 was passed by Parliament.
 Gave Aboriginal band councils the right to live on Aboriginal
reserves, decide who were ban members, and fixed the
gender/sexual discrimination that was inherent in the Indian
Act.
Land Claims
 Aboriginal land claims have been in two types:
 Specific Claims = were treaties between Aboriginal
Peoples and the federal government have been signed, but
there terms have not been kept.
 Comprehensive Claims = questions the ownership of
land in large parts of Canada (BC, the North + Quebec)
that were never surrendered by treaty.
Environmental Involvement
 Aboriginal Peoples became concerned with the
degradation of the land caused by the contraction
of natural gas pipelines and hydroelectric dams =
endanger their traditional activities of hunting,
fishing, and trapping.
 Negotiations with the Aboriginal Peoples about financial
compensation, self-government, and other issues.
Environmental Involvement
• In 1980’s~1990s, Cree residents of Northern Quebec
halted the James Bay Hydro Project, which threatened to
flood some of their ancestral territories.
• By 2000, Aboriginal peoples were open to the idea of
building a pipeline and stressed control and some
ownership of the project.
Self - Government
 Aboriginal Self-Government = governance and
institutional capacity for Aboriginal communities to contribute
to, and participate in, the decisions that affect their lives and
carry out effective relationships with other governments.
 They also provide greater certainty over rights to natural
resources, contributing to a more positive investment climate
and creating greater potential for economic development,
jobs and growth.
Self - Government
 Canada has completed 17 self-government agreements
involving 27 communities:
 These include 15 self-government agreements completed in
conjunction with comprehensive land claims in
Newfoundland and Labrador, British Columbia,Yukon and
NWT, as well as two stand-alone self-government agreements
with the Sechelt and Westbank First Nations in BC.
Self – Government in Canada
 Manitoba:
 In the 1990s, Aboriginal Peoples took over the
responsibilities of the Department of Indian Affairs and
Northern Development in Manitoba and assumed self –
government.
Self – Government in Canada
 The Nisga’a Treaty:
 In 1998 the Nisga’a of BC signed a very unique treaty with
the provincial and federal governments – given power over
issues of culture, language and family life and ownership of
1,922km of land, including resources, fishing and hunting
rights, and $190 million dollars.
Self – Government in Canada
 The Creation of Nunavut:
 In 1999, the new Canadian territory of Nunavut was created
– given the right to self-government, control natural
resources, education and justice systems.
The Oka Standoff, 1990
 Tensions between Aboriginal peoples and non-Aboriginal
peoples flared up in Oka, Quebec in 1990.
 The government officials in Oka (mayor and council)
decided to extend a 9-hole golf course, originally built
in 1959, on land that the Mohawk Nation from the
Kanesatake reserve had always claimed belonged to them
= it was sacred burial land.
The Oka Standoff, 1990
 In response, the Mohawks set up blockades of major
roads on the land = as a result, the mayor of Oka called in
the Quebec provincial police to remove the blockades.
 On July 11, 1990, the police stormed the blockade
and gunfire broke out on both sides = one officer
was killed.
Oka = A Fight for Rights
• The police blockaded Kanesatake and the Mohawks from the
nearby reserve blockaded the only road the Montreal - there
were nightly violent confrontations.
• In Montreal violent confrontations between
Quebeckers, police and Mohawks ensued, and
across Canada, other Aboriginal groups blockaded
highways and railway tracks in support.
Oka = A Fight for Rights

The Canadian Army was called in by Premier
Robert Bourassa and there was a tense stand-off that
lasted 6 months between the army and the Mohawk
warriors = troops with heavy weapons moved into the area.
Oka = A Fight for Rights
 Negotiations to end the crisis were tense but
by the end of September members of other
bands persuaded the Mohawks to end
the stand-off = disputed land was
purchased by the federal government
and given to Kanesatake.
 Oka was a wake-up call = Canada’s
Aboriginal Peoples were prepared to fight
for their rights.
CBC Archives: Dramatic Showdown at Oka, 1990
Other Protests:
Ipperwash
 Ipperwash, Ontario (a few hours outside of Hamilton;
Ipperwash Provincial Park) = in 1995 Stoney Point
Ojibway occupied land on a former army base that had
been taken during WWII but never returned.
 Know as the Ipperwash Crisis; during a violent
confrontation, the Ontario Provincial Police (OPP) killed
unarmed protester Dudley George.
Other Protests:
Ipperwash
 Acting Sergeant Ken Deane (October 1961 – February 25,
2006) was convicted of criminal negligence causing death
of Dudley George.
 A public inquiry was launched on November 12, 2003.
 On December 20, 2007, the Ontario Provincial
government announced its intention to return the 56hectare Ipperwash Provincial Park to its original owners,
the Chippewas of Kettle and Stony Point First Nation.
Other Protests:
Gustafsen
 Gustafsen Lake, BC (a few hours north of Kamloops) =
Aboriginal people re-occupied land they claimed was
sacred ground in 1995; the predominantly Indigenous
occupiers believed that the privately owned ranch land on
which they stood was both sacred space and part of a larger
tract of unceded Shuswap territory.
Other Protests:
Gustafsen
 Know as the Gustafsen Lake Standoff, it was a
confrontation between the Royal Canadian Mounted Police
(RCMP) and the Ts'peten Defenders in the interior of
British Columbia, Canada, at Gustafsen Lake.
 Fourteen indigenous and four non-native people were
charged following the siege, fifteen of whom were found
guilty and sentenced to jail terms ranging from six months
to eight years.
Other Protests:
Gustafsen
 Fourteen Indigenous and four non-Native people were
charged following the siege, fifteen of whom were found
guilty and sentenced to jail terms ranging from six months
to eight years.
 Three of the defendants appealed the verdicts on the
grounds that the Canadian courts have no jurisdiction over
the lands where the Gustafsen Lake standoff took place,
which they claimed remain unceded indigenous land the Supreme Court of BC refused to hear the appeal.
Statement of Reconciliation
 In 1998, the federal government issued an official
Statement of Reconciliation to the Aboriginal Peoples of
Canada.
 This statement recognized that the policies which
sought to assimilate Aboriginal People were not
conducive to building a strong country.
Reconciliation: Apology
 The federal government issued an official/formal
apology to the Aboriginal Peoples of Canada for the
residential school policy on behalf of the Canadian
peoples in the House of Commons on June 11, 2008.
Reconciliation: Apology
 PM Steven Harper apologized to Aboriginal Peoples in
regards to residential schools:
 “Mr. Speaker, I stand before you today to offer an apology
to former students of Indian residential schools. The
treatment of children in Indian residential schools is a sad
chapter in our history.”
Reconciliation: Apology
 “Two primary objectives of the Residential Schools system
were to remove and isolate children from the influence of
their homes, families, traditions and cultures, and to
assimilate them into the dominant culture. These
objectives were based on the assumption Aboriginal
cultures and spiritual beliefs were inferior and unequal.
Indeed, some sought, as it was infamously said, "to kill the
Indian in the child". Today, we recognize that this policy of
assimilation was wrong, has caused great harm, and has no
place in our country.”
Reconciliation: TRC
 The Indian Residential Schools Truth and
Reconciliation Commission (TRC) was established on
June 1, 2008, with a mandate of 5 years.
 As a component of the Indian Residential Schools Settlement
Agreement, the TRC was an independent body that oversaw
a process to provide former students and anyone who had
been affected by the Indian Residential Schools legacy, with
an opportunity to share their individual experiences in a safe
and culturally appropriate manner.
Reconciliation: TRC
 The work of the TRC further contributed to a forward
looking process of truth, healing and
reconciliation.
 On June 3, 2015, the TRC release its Final Report; there
are 94 Calls to Action.
The Legacy of Canadian Policy
Towards Aboriginal Peoples
 As a result of the policies adopted by the federal and
provincial governments in relation to Aboriginal People over
the years, a massive state of inequality now exists.
 Forms of inequality from official policies:
 Inadequate living conditions, abject poverty,
unemployment, lack of basic necessities, racism, high
suicide rates, alcoholism and drug abuse, sexual abuse,
domestic violence limited access to education.
The Legacy of Canadian Policy
Towards Aboriginal Peoples
 We must provide Aboriginal Peoples the equal resources
and support systems to heal and resolve the above
issues according to their determined needs.
 We must also understand, address, and take action against
these inequalities, as they are our shared problems.
Reconciliation: TRC
 This is our shared history and all peoples in Canada
(Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal, new immigrant or long
time settler) have to enter into a process of
reconciliation and decolonization to we can move
forward together.
UN Declaration
 In 2007, the United Nations released the UN
Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous
Peoples affirming that Indigenous peoples are equal
to all other peoples, while recognizing the right of
all peoples to be different, to consider themselves
different, and to be respected as such.
111
Idle No More Movement
 Idle No More (began in 2012) is an ongoing grassroots
protest movement originating among the Aboriginal
peoples in Canada comprising the First Nations, Métis and
Inuit peoples and their non-Aboriginal supporters in Canada,
and to a lesser extent, internationally.
 It has consisted of a number of political actions worldwide,
inspired in part by the hunger strike of Attawapiskat
Chief Theresa Spence and further coordinated via social
media.
Idle No More Movement
 A reaction to alleged abuses of indigenous treaty rights
by the current federal government and the Crown, the
movement takes particular issue with the recent omnibus bill
Bill C-45 which threatens the environment.
Idle No More
 Idle No More calls on all people to join in a peaceful
revolution, to honour Indigenous sovereignty, and
to protect the land and water.
114
American – Canadian Relations
+ the Economy
The Canadian Economy
 Canada was in massive debt in the mid-1980s because
increased federal spending.
 As a result, Canada began to practice a new economic
approach:
 Neo-conservatism = reduce government interference,
invoke government cut-backs + increase reliance on market
forces of supply and demand.
Canada – USA Relations: Trade
 In addition, in the 1980s PM Mulroney sought to create
closer ties with the USA to help the Canadian economy.
 FTA (Free Trade Agreement) = 1989, first free trade
agreement between Canada, USA and Mexico, to increase
investment and trade = benefit Canadian businesses.
 Free Trade = a system of trading between countries
without barriers such as tariffs (taxes) or quotas.
Canada – USA Relations: Trade
 NAFTA (North American Free Trade Agreement) = 1994,
free trade agreement between Canada, USA and Mexico.
 Pros = helped improve Canada’s economy by increasing
trade with the USA – lead to an increase in American
investment.
 Cons = Canadian jobs were lost due to relocation, some
Canadian companies moved the USA or Mexico or were
sold to American companies.
Canada – USA Relations: Space
 Canadarm = in 1974 NASA awarded Canada the
opportunity to design, develop and build the Shuttle
Remote Manipulator System (SRMS).
 The result was the Canadarm = a 15-metre long robotic arm
for which Canada invested $100 million.
Canada – USA Relations: Space
 The Canadarm made its debut in November 1981
and is still in use today.
 It can life more than 30,000 kilograms on earth or 266,000 kg
in space using less electricity than a toaster.
 It conducts search rescue missions - nudging satellites into
orbit, loosening jammed solar panels and repairing shuttle
exteriors.
 In December of 1988 the Canadarm played a critical role in the
first assembly mission of the International Space Station.
 Canada gained world-wide recognition in robotics.
Canada – USA Relations:
Resources
 The Pacific Salmon Treaty, 1985.
 Disputes between Canada and the USA over who “owned”
the fish off the West Coast and who was to blame for their
depletion raged for decades until 1985 when all parties
agreed to stop the “overfishing. and signed the Pacific
Salmon Treaty.
Canada – USA Relations:
Resources
 The treaty was successful for 12 years, but in 1997
negotiators were unable to agree on quotas that satisfied
all parties = each side was free to set their own limits.
 American fishing boats were seized and an Alaskan ferry
was blockaded.
Salmon Treaty
 Resolution, June 1999:
 Canada and the USA signed a new
Pacific Salmon Treaty, signed by
Ottawa, the US federal government,
the states of Washington, Alaska and
Oregon, along with representative
from 24 Native tribes.
 But the government of BC was
absent from the negotiations.
Salmon Treaty
 Problem:
 There a not enough fish to support
the once burgeoning industry –
salmon stocks are in danger, many
people are scared they will go the
way of the cod fishery on the East
Coast.
Canada – USA Relations:
Environment
 The Kyoto Protocol, 1997/2005:
 An international agreement linked to the United Nations
Framework Convention on Climate Change.
Canada – USA Relations:
Environment
 The major feature of the Kyoto Protocol is that it sets binding
targets for 37 industrialized countries and the
European community for reducing greenhouse gas
(GHG) emissions that cause global warming.
 These amount to an average of five per cent against 1990 levels
over the five-year period 2008-2012.
Kyoto: Success + Failure
 The Kyoto Protocol was adopted in
Kyoto, Japan, on 11 December 1997
and entered into force on 16
February 2005.
 The detailed rules for the
implementation of the Protocol were
adopted at COP 7 in Marrakesh in
2001, and are called the “Marrakesh
Accords.”
Kyoto: Success + Failure
 Under President George W. Bush
the USA withdrew support for
the Protocol – never signed.
 Little action has been taken by
Canada to reduce emissions –
FAIL!
 Canada refused to re-sign the
Kyoto Protocol in 2012! FAIL!
Canada – USA Relations: War on Terror
 September 11, 2001:
 A commercial airplane crashed into the
North Tower of the World Trade
Centre in New York.
 Shortly after, a second plane hit the
South Tower.
 Another commercial plane that hit the
Pentagon, Washington, DC.
 A fourth plane was shot down in
Somerset County, PA.
Canada – USA Relations: War on Terror
 These attacks became known as
Terrorist Attacks of 9/11 or just 9/11.
 They were a series of coordinated
suicide attacks by Al-Qaeda (led by
Osama bin Laden) upon the United
States.
Canada’s Response:
War on Terror
 Operation Support:
 First provide for the passengers and crew of aircraft that was
diverted to Canadian airfields; secondly to increase its level
of emergency preparedness in order to respond to requests
of humanitarian assistance.
 Also increased our commitment to NORAD by placing CF-
18 fighter jets at strategic locations throughout our country.
Canada’s Response:
War on Terror
 Operation Apollo:
 Canada’s military contribution to the “war on terror;” after
9/11, the UN issued a resolution the reaffirmed the right of
member nations to individual and collective defence.
 Operation Apollo was set up to support the USA’s
Operation Enduring Freedom = PM Jean Chretien
promised air, land, and sea forces to the international
campaign.
War in Iraq
 As the fight against Al-Qaeda in Afghanistan was
reaching a conclusion (Bin Laden - was shot to death on May
2, 2011 and the War in Afghanistan continues – the USA will
pull out by 2014).
 President Bush declared that Iraq was also part of the
“Axis of Evil” and that military action would also be
directed toward ousting the regime of Saddam
Hussein (was shot in killed by US forces on December 6,
2006).
War in Iraq
 The War in Iraq/Iraq War began on March 20, 2003
– present.
 War in Afghanistan began on October 7, 2001 –
present.
 Dec 15, 2011 last rotation of troops returns; March 31,
2014 – training mission ends.
War in Iraq
 PM Chretien stated that Canada would join military action in
Iraq if approved by the UN Security Council.
 By 2003 the Canadian government, France, and Germany
recognized that the Bush administration would wage war with
or without approval.
 Canada choose to provide humanitarian aid to Iraqis
not military aid to the USA.
Canada + Afghanistan
 Canada's role in the Afghanistan War began in late
2001.
 Canada sent it's first element of Canadian soldiers secretly in
October 2001 from Joint Task Force 2, and the first
contingents of regular Canadian troops arrived in
Afghanistan in 2002.
Canada + Afghanistan
 Canada took on a larger role starting in 2006 after the
Canadian troops were redeployed to Kandahar province.
 There were 2,500 Canadian Forces (CF) personnel in
Afghanistan in 2006, of which 1,200 comprised the combat
battle group.
 Roughly 950 are currently deployed in Afghanistan as
part of International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) =
military trainers – ends March 31, 2014.
Canada + Afghanistan
 Canada withdrew the bulk of its military troops from
Afghanistan in Dec. of 2011.
 We are no longer doing combat mission but will be helping
Afghans to rebuild Afghanistan via the education of
children and youth (especially for women and girls),
providing healthcare, training security forces, promoting
regional diplomacy, and humanitarian aid.
What do you think of Canada’s
relationship with the USA?
What should change?
What should remain the same?
Violence Against Women + Girls
The Montreal Massacre, 1989
 The Montréal Massacre of December 6, 1989, in
which 14 women students at the École Polytechnique
were systematically killed and 13 other students
wounded by a lone gunman, is indelibly imprinted on the
minds of Quebeckers and Canadians who struggled to
comprehend the worst single-day massacre in Canadian
history.
The Montreal Massacre, 1989
 Since the beginning of Québec's "Quiet Revolution" in
the 1960s, women had been making increasing
strides in non-traditional occupations and
educational programs.
Violence Against Women:
Not Equal Yet
 In the 1970s and 1980s, growing numbers flocked to
the École Polytechnique, the School of Engineering at
the University of Montréal.
 While most men in Québec and elsewhere
accepted and even welcomed these transformations, a
minority felt themselves disadvantaged by attempts
to encourage women's new roles and opportunities =
Marc Lepine.
Violence Against Women:
Not Equal Yet
 The massacre is regarded by criminologists as an example of
a hate crime against women, and by feminists and
government officials as misogynist attack and an example of
the larger issue/culture of violence against women and
inequality (sexism and misogyny).
The Women
Murdered
Geneviève Bergeron, 21
Maryse Leclair, 23
Hélène Colgan, 23
Annie St.-Arneault, 23
Nathalie Croteau, 23
Michèle Richard, 21
Barbara Daigneault, 22
Maryse Laganière, 25
Anne-Marie Edward, 21
Anne-Marie Lemay, 22
Maud Haviernick, 29
Sonia Pelletier, 28
Barbara Maria Klucznik, 31
Annie Turcotte, 21
2012: The Grim Facts Persist
 Globally, one in three women have experienced physical or
sexual abuse by a man.
 Among women aged 15-44 years, gender-based violence
accounts for the most deaths.
 The cost of violence in BC is about 1 billion dollars.
The Blatant Truth
 Violence against women and girls is not just a
women’s or girl’s problem = it is a boy’s and
men’s problem too.
 IT IS EVERYONE’S PROBLEM!
Violence Against Women + Girls
Includes:
 physical, sexual, psychological and
economic violence
 harassment or intimidation
 sexual abuse or rape, including martial
rape
 battery
 domestic violence
 forced prostitution
 Trafficking in women and girls
 burning or acid throwing
 female genital mutilation
 female feticide and infanticide
 violence in armed conflict (as a
weapon of war)
 systemic rape
 sexual slavery
 forced pregnancy
 forced marriage
A Global Epidemic
 Violence against women is a gross violation of
women’s human rights.
 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kSOqkU2KDR0
The Struggle for Equality
 The struggle for women's equality, including the
simple right not be abused or murdered, continues.
 Equality for women and girls will exist when gender-
based violence is eliminated.
 YOU CAN MAKE A DIFFERENCE!
 WE CAN STOP THE VIOLENCE!
Healthcare
Healthcare in Canada
 Canada’s Medicare is known as a publically funded
medical system (pay through taxes/income tax) that
until recently has been one of the best healthcare systems in
the world.
 Tommy Douglas, 1961 - As leader of the Saskatchewan
Co-operative Commonwealth Federation (CCF) from
1942 and the seventh Premier of Saskatchewan from 1944
to 1961, he led the first social-democratic government in
North America and introduced single-payer health
care to Canada.
Healthcare in Canada
 Canada Health Act (CHA) = passed in 1984, Canada’s
federal insurance legislation, determines guidelines that
ensure that all Canadians have equal access to medically
necessary services regardless of their ability to pay.
 Each province receives a transfer payment from the
federal government to help pay for healthcare although it
is the provincial government’s responsibility to manage
healthcare; hospitals also received a lump sum from
Ottawa to help run the hospital.
Benefits and Drawbacks to Medicare
 Benefits = whether you are homeless of a millionaire, you
can get the same level of care without paying out of pocket;
there is no discrimination.
Benefits and Drawbacks to Medicare
 Drawbacks = this system has
become very expensive, as a result,
service are deteriorating, new
technologies are unaffordable or
expensive to maintain, wait lists
develop, no user fees mean people go
to the doctor unnecessarily, people go
to the USA or private clinics to pay
for procedures, people have died
waiting for medically necessary
procedures.
The Future of Healthcare in
Canada
 Roy Romanow Commission, 2001-2002 = an attempt
to establish guidelines for the future of Canada`s healthcare
system.
 A Two-Tier System = American-style healthcare system
with private and public doctor`s offices and hospitals.
The Future of Healthcare in
Canada
 A Two-Tier System:
 Pros = waiting list + expenses reduced, everyone would
still have access to healthcare.
 Cons = potential for government to reduce the level of
services at the public level causing the poor to receive
lower quality healthcare.
Privatization of Healthcare
 Privatization:
 The practice of laying off government employees and
allowing private companies to come and provide the same
services (potentially at a lover cost).
Privatization of Healthcare
 Privatization:
 Pros = use less expensive employees thereby lowering
some of the healthcare costs, able to pay for better
equipment and more doctors and nurses.
 Cons = many jobs would be lost, employees would be
less skilled/forced to receive less pay, quality of services
would be compromised, healthcare in the hands of large
companies not concerned with the well being of the
people but in making a profit.
How can you help to stop violence
against women and girls?
What kind of healthcare system do
you want to have in Canada?
Foreign Aid + Peacekeeping
Canada and the World:
Foreign Aid
 Official Development Assistance (ODA), 1969 =
provided financial aid to countries in Africa, the Middle East,
the Americas, Asia and some countries in Central and Eastern
Europe via:
Canada and the World:
Foreign Aid
 Bilateral/Direct Assistance = government to
government.
 NGOs (Non-governmental organizations).
 Private sector enterprises.
 Multilateral Institutions = UN, World Bank, La
Francophonie.
Canada and the World:
Foreign Aid
 Canadian ODA is at a 30 year low.
 Canada has reduced its contributions by 34% + ranked 17th of
22 countries in regards to contributions.
CIDA
 Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA),
1968.
 ODA is managed by CIDA, promotes sustainable development
in developing countries.
CIDA
 Has 7 priorities: Basic human needs, women in suitable
development, infrastructure services, human rights, democracy
and good governance, private sector development, the
environment.
 Also has expanded 4 social development sectors: basic
education, health and nutrition, HIV/AIDS, and child
protection.
Canada Fund for Africa
+ Human Rights
 Canada Fund for Africa, 2002:
 CIDA, establishment of $500 million to promote
development on this continent, in response to a G8 Action
Plan (G8 – Group of Eight, major economic nations),
intended to recognize the right of Africans to take control
and ownership of their own path to development.
Canada Fund for Africa
+ Human Rights
 Linking Aid to Human Rights = based on the
assumption that Canada has a responsibility to ensure that its
development assistance is not used to support governments
that deny citizens their basic economic, social and cultural
rights.
 Canada’s actions have been punitive in nature in regards to
human rights violations, reluctance to cut aid – sends an
unclear message to the offender.
Do you think that foreign aid should
be a priority for Canada?
Should we increase or decrease our
spending?
Peacekeeping
 Peacekeeping (est. 1948, first mission/Suez Crisis
1956) = a technique developed by the UN:
 "a unique and dynamic instrument developed by the
Organization as a way to help countries torn by
conflict create the conditions for lasting peace.”
Peacekeeping
 Peacekeeping is distinguished from both peacebuilding and
peacemaking.
 Peacekeepers = monitor and observe peace
processes (they are not part of the conflict = observers)
in post-conflict areas and assist ex-combatants in
implementing the peace agreements they may have signed;
recently peacekeeping is a matter of creating peace where
non exists.
The Changing Role of
Peacekeepers
 In the past = tasks involved patrolling contested borders,
and unarmed monitoring of ceasefires.
 Modern Peacekeeping = training and restructuring local
police forces, de-mining, conducting elections, facilitating
the return of refugees, monitoring human rights,
demobilizing and reintegrating former soldiers, and
promoting sustainable democracy and economic
development, and humanitarian intervention.
The Changing Role of
Peacekeepers
 Modern Peacekeeping = Requires a diversity of
skills:
 Work with police, governments, judges, lawyers, media,
health, tax, and social policy advisors, child protection
experts, infrastructure specialists and facilitator and
mediators.
Canadian Troops Overseas
 In the second half of the 20th
Century, over 125,000 Canadians
have served as peacekeepers under
the auspices of the UN (50+
missions).
 In Canada`s peacekeeping history,
over 130 Canadian have been
killed.
Canadian Troops Overseas
 Canadians have served in the
following recent conflicts:
 The Persian Gulf War,
1990
 Haiti, 1990 +
 El Salvador, 1991
 Cambodia, 1991 +
 Yugoslavia (Bosnia), 1992
 Somalia, 1992
 Rwanda, 1994
 NATO bombing of
Kosovo, 1995
 Kosovo, 1999
 Afghanistan, 2001 –
2011+
 Bosnia-Herzegovina,
2004
 Gaza, 2005
 Syria, 2015
International Law
 UN International Tribunals, 1993:
 Set up to try persons accused of war crimes during conflict,
the establishment was sparked by the massive human rights
violations in the former Yugoslavia, a second tribunal was
wet up to hear cases from he Rwandan genocide in 1994.
International Law
 International Criminal Court (ICC), 1998:
 Became possible to punish mass violations of human rights
through the establishment of the ICC, the international
community made it clear that those who committed
horrible acts would not go unpunished, has jurisdiction over
genocides, war crimes, crimes against humanity and
aggression.
The Future of NATO
 Since its first military intervention in 1995, NATO has been
engaged in an increasingly diverse array of operations.
 Today, roughly 140 000 military personnel are engaged in
NATO missions around the world, successfully managing
complex ground, air and naval operations in all types of
environment.
The Future of NATO
 NATO is an active and leading contributor to peace and
security on the international stage.
 Through its crisis management operations, the Alliance
demonstrates both its willingness to act as a positive force
for change and its capacity to meet the security challenges
of the 21st century.
NATO Missions
 NATO actions in the late 20th and early 21st Century:
 1999 - carried a campaign against Serbia to prevent the ethnic
cleansing of Albanians.
 1999 – helped bring order to the new democracy of
Macedonia.
 1999 - Peacekeeping in Kosovo, Bosnia and Afghanistan.
 2005 – helped to establish security forces in Iraq.
 2007 – supporting the African Union’s peacekeeping mission in
Africa.
 2011 – Airstrikes in Libya.
What do you think of Canada’s role
as a peacekeeper?
Has it been effective?
Why or why not?
What do you think Canada’s role
will be on the international stage in
the future?
What do you think Canada needs
to do here in our country so we can
move forward together?
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