"Developments in Production
and management practices,
product standards, safety and
quality"
Emilio A. M. Suntay III
Managing Director
Suntay Aquaculture Pty. Ltd. Australia
&
F.A.R.M. Inc. Phils.
(Founding Member Global Aquaculture Alliance)
Director - Aquaculture Certification Council
Evolution of the Global
Aquaculture Alliance
George Chamberlain
President
Global Aquaculture Alliance
Topics to be Discussed
Emergence of Issues
• NGO movement
Role of GAA
• Gathering the Facts
• Setting Standards
• Establishing a Certification Entity ACC
• Organizing the annual Global Shrimp
Outlook
Emergence of Issues
The NGO movement
• Important contribution by alerting public to
•
•
hazards
Proliferation of groups competing for funding
Tendency to reduce facts to “soundbites.”
Building Pressure in 1996
• Indian Supreme Court Ruling
• NGOs hosted second Shrimp Tribunal at UN
• Threatened consumer boycots
• Calls for moratorium on permits and financing
Industry Response
Concerns
• Consumers need to know more about the
•
products they buy and the impacts of their
purchases.
Only one side of the story was being told.
Birth of GAA
• Conceptual Meeting in February, 97
• Non-profit trade association formed
• Membership by individuals, companies, and
•
associations
Dedicated to responsible aquaculture
The Mangrove Issue
Facts About Mangroves
GAA Study by Mangrove Experts in 1997
•
ALL shrimp farming area (1,372,800 ha in 1996)
amounts to only 7.6% of current mangrove area,
and < 5% of the historic resource.
GAA Initiated Responsible Aquaculture Program
•
Recommendations adopted as GAA Codes of
Practice for Responsible Shrimp Farming
Conservation Practices Are Working
•
•
Use of mangrove area for new shrimp farms has
essentially stopped.
Satellite imagery shows that forested mangrove area
is increasing in Honduras and Ecuador.
The
Fishmeal
Issue
Aquaculture is “a contributing factor to the collapse
of world fisheries.” (Science and Nature)
Facts about Fishmeal
19
99
19
96
•
Aquaculture
19
93
•
Fishmeal
19
90
•
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
19
87
•
16% of fishery stocks are
“overfished” and 6% are
“depleted”, but these are
high value bottom fish.
Fishmeal production is
stable at 6.5 million mt/year
Aquaculture is displacing
use for pigs, chickens, cattle.
As Aquaculture grows, its
share of fishmeal use is
expected to increase from
35% to 60%.
Fishmeal substitutes are
being developed.
19
84
•
The Effluent Issue
Chemical and biological pollution from disposal of
pond effluents and sludge causing “habitat
degradation” (Science)
Facts about Effluents
Variable
Median
Min.
Max.
Total nitrogen (mg/L)
2.04
0.02
2,600
Nitrite-nitrogen (mg/L)
0.05
0.0
0.91
Nitrate-nitrogen (mg/L)
0.30
0.001
7.00
Total ammonia N (mg/L)
0.38
0.01
7.87
Total phosphorus (mg/L)
0.26
0.01
110
Soluble reactive P(mg/L)
0.09
0.0
11.2
Dissolved oxygen (mg/L)
5.6
0.4
9.6
pH (standard units)
8.2
6.3
9.2
5-day BOD (mg/L)
8.9
1.3
50.7
Total suspended solids (mg/L)
108
10
3,671
Volatile suspended solids (mg/L)
43
8
713
Chlorophyll a (g/L)
67
1
694
Quantitative Effluent Standards
Variable
Initial
Standard
Target
Standard
pH (standard units)
6.0-9.5
6.0-9.0
Total suspended solids (mg/L)
100 or less
50 or less
Total phosphorus (mg/L)
0.5 or less
0.3 or less
Total ammonia nitrogen (mg/L)
5 or less
3 or less
5-d BOD (mg/L)
50 or less
30 or less
Dissolved oxygen (mg/L)
4 or more
5 or more
Sedimentation ponds and constructed
wetlands to treat effluent for reuse or
release
Salmonella
Issue
Antibiotic Residues
What is Chloramphenicol?
Description
•
•
•
Chloramphenicol is a broad spectrum antibiotic
used for human medicine
Originally isolated from Streptomyces venezuelae
Now produced synthetically
Clinical
•
•
Antibiotic of choice for treating typhoid fever, other
Salmonella infections, brain abscesses, etc.
Bacterial resistance develops quickly
Toxicity
•
Potentially lethal side effects such as aplastic anemia
and leukemia
GAA Responsible
Aquaculture Program
The Evolution
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•
•
Gathering Facts
Codes of Practice
Quantitative standards
External Review of Standards
•
•
2 year process
Industry, Regulators, Academia, NGOs
Next Step
•
Independent Body Needed to Conduct Certifications
- Shrimp farms
- Processing plants
- Feedmills
- Hatcheries
- Analytical labs
Aquaculture
Certification
Council
Limited Liability Company
•
Independent Board and Committees
Mission
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Third party certification of aquaculture facilities
Activities
•
•
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Train and accredit certifiers
Revise standards as needed
Establish and maintain traceability database
Governance
•
•
•
President Mr. William More
Board of Directors
Oversight Committee
Website
•
www.aquaculturecertification.org
Industry Support
Buyers
•
•
Confirmed: Darden Restaurants, Fishery Products
International, Whole Foods
Interested: Eastern Fish Company, Empress
International, Lyons Seafood (UK), and many more
Processors
•
30 expected first year
Farms
•
80 expected first year
Hatcheries
•
To be introduced in 2004
Feed Mills
•
To be introduced in 2004
Annual Market Meetings
Global Shrimp Outlook
•
•
•
Annually
Reduce price volatility
- Minimize surpluses and shortages
- Accurate market information & intelligence
Objectives
- Estimate supply from leading shrimp-producing
countries
- Estimate demand from leading markets
- Model the effect of supply and demand on
projected prices
- Evaluate obstacles to shrimp farming and
undertake solutions
Market Environment and
Implications to Asia and the
Philippines
Stricter Standards Imposed by Markets
• Food safety, Traceability
• Environmental Responsibility
•
•
•
Mangrove – no clearings
Effluent Discharge - minimize and later close
- Open (flow-through) to Closed (Recirculating)
Social Responsibility - Sustainability
Greater Competition
• Lower margins from more efficient production
• Higher production from more intensive and
sustainable technologies
Production Issues and New
Technologies
Rise in production = declining prices
•
•
Producers must stay competitive – continually reduce costs
Minimize economic loses from disease outbreaks – biosecurity
and sanitation
Efficient and Environmentally sustainable systems larger, consistent yields, faster & uniform growth
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Modern animal husbandry
Stricter control of sanitation
Sophisticated disease diagnosis
Selective breeding
Water reuse
Efficient feeds
Improved control of wastes
Continuing Developments
Health and Disease Management
•
•
Improved diagnostic screening for infected animals
Improved knowledge of viral life cycles
- Established control points such as filtration of carriers
from incoming water
- Sanitation to eliminate inadvertent transfer of disease
Breeding
•
Selective breeding is the most effective long-term means to
reduce production costs
- Avoiding infected wild stocks
- Rapid growth
- Disease resistance
New Pond Systems
•
•
•
High yields with “Little” or “No” water-exchange
- Relies on aeration
- Water circulation
- Aerobic bacteria
Highly Bio-secure
Environment-Friendly
Minimal-discharge or Zero WaterExchange Systems
Future Trends
Technological Developments
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•
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Inland development
Use of otherwise unproductive (un-arable, barren)
land
Greater mechanization
Greater recycling of water
Lower cost of postlarvae and feeds
Consolidation of Industry
What is required?
Production – Paradigm shift
•
•
•
Phytoplankton dominated – Bacterial dominated
Manage and Feed the ecosystem, not only the
animal
Good husbandry – no substitute
Keep faith in P. Monodon, and indigenous species
•
•
Be patient as an industry
Work with government and other agencies to
develop species
GAA Call for Responsible
Aquaculture through Unity &
Higher Standards
Codes of Practice – FAO, GAA, and others
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•
GAA adopted by the Philippines
Australia and Thailand has similar
Unity among industry, academic sector and gov’t
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Stakeholders from hatchery to processing
Further and continually improve standards
Collaborate on common concerns
- Research on Diseases, Breeding and Genetics,
Production development
Keep Philippine Aquaculture Congress and
Exhibition going for years to come
•
Join the GAA as an umbrella organization
Conclusions
The GAA Responsible Aquaculture Program
• Used facts to correct misinformation
- Mangroves, Fishmeal, Effluents
• Codes of Practice, Quantitative Standards
Incorporated Food Safety Standards
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•
Salmonella contamination, Antibiotic residues
Includes FDA standards for Good Aquaculture
Practices
Aquaculture Certification Council
•
•
Independent body to conduct third party
certification
Process certification, Oriented to buyers
Global Shrimp Outlook
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Forum for suppliers and buyers
Advocate Magazine
•
Latest developments in production
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