Symposium:
Accessing the “political” in socio-historical context
Convenor:
Peter Weinreich
Emeritus Professor of Psychology, University of Ulster
Director, Identity Exploration Ltd, www.identityexploration.com
Conference:
Tearing Down the Walls: Rethinking the Political in Political Psychology
Centre for Research in Political Psychology, Queen's University Belfast
Thursday 15 April 2010
Trademark
Training, research and evaluation
Illustrating the use of ISA for
exploring the impact of antiracist and anti-sectarian work in
Northern Ireland
Dr Fiona Bloomer
Trademark
• an ethically based not for profit organisation
which works towards social change in which the
principles of social justice, equality, and
pluralism are actively pursued.
• an official partner of the ICTU
Trademark
• Academic and practitioner staff
• Ireland – North and South
• Core funding from Community Relations
Council
• Generate funds from grants and
commissions
Trademark
• Extensive experience in engaging directly with
issues of sectarianism, the conflict and dealing
with the legacy of the past, as well as racism
• critical engagement - breaking through the
denial, avoidance and politeness that often
characterises this type of work.
• challenging the myths, stereotypes and ‘cultural
blindness’ that often characterise ethnically
exclusive peace and reconciliation activities.
Trademark
• Research conducted for the Police
Ombudsman, Equality Commission,
Children and Young Peoples Commission,
Community Relations Council
• In-house research programme
Focus of This Paper
• Single identity work in a Loyalist estate on
an interface in Belfast
• Similar work with nationalist community
also carried out but will not be reported
here
The Highfield Project
Community Leadership and Political Education
Programme
• Participants -the Highfield Women’s Group.
• The training programme - funded by Belfast City
Council’s Good Relations programme.
• The research was funded through Trademark’s
own resources.
The Highfield Project
The training programme was designed to:
• Promote and develop respect for diversity in
one’s own, other and shared cultures, beliefs
and traditions.
• Develop opportunities which facilitate difficult
conversations in a safe environment which
challenge sectarianism and racism.
The Highfield Project
And to:
• Enable groups and communities to effectively
understand the dynamics of inter group
conflict.
• Increase understanding and co-operation
between different cultural and ethnonationalist community identities by building
capacity and supporting networks of
communication.
The Highfield Project
Accredited modules
• Human Rights and Equality
• Anti Sectarianism / Anti Racism
Non-accredited modules
• Feminism and Women’s rights
• History and Identity
• 20th century Irish politics
The Highfield Project
•
•
•
•
Delivered in workshop sessions
Guest speakers
Cross border study trips
Cross community engagement
The Highfield Project
• Highfield is an urban area close to Belfast
city centre
• Largely Protestant/ Unionist Loyalist
nature (PUL), surrounded by Catholic/
Nationalist/ Republican (CNR) West
Belfast.
• It has close connections with the Shankill
area nearby - Strongly PUL
The Highfield Project
• Area that witnessed significant conflict
• Interfaces and flashpoints during the
parading season.
• Intra community conflict has also occurred,
the most significant being the Shankill feud
in 2000
The Highfield Project
Key Facts
Northern
Ireland
Highfield
5310
Parliamentary
constituency
West Belfast
87610
Protestant and other Christian community
background (%)
Average health card registrations from
non-UK nationals (per 1,000 resident
population) (2006 and 2007)
Adults aged 16 to 74 years with degree
level or higher qualifications (%)
94.0
16.2
53.1
2
4
10
6.3
8.3
15.8
Post-primary school population (pupil
residence) with Free School Meals
Entitlement (%) (2007)
27.7
39.3
18.2
Claimant Count - Long Term Unemployed
(%) (2007)
27.8
[-]
20.9
People with limiting long-term illness (%)
25.8
26.8
20.4
Households with access to a car or van %)
58.8
49.1
73.7
Resident population
Ward
1685267
Datasets used: KS01 Usually Resident Population, KS07b Community Background (NISRA Census), Health Card
Registrations Annual Averages 2007 (Central Services Agency). KS13 Qualifications and Students (NISRA
Census), School Leavers Survey 2007, School Census Post Primary Free School Meals 2007 (Department of
Education). Census 2001:KS09a Economic Activity (NISRA Census), Claimant Count Annual Averages
2007,Claimant Count Annual Averages LTU 2007, KS17 Cars or Vans (NISRA Census), Car Registrations 2005
(Department of Regional Development).
Research Approach
1.
2.
3.
4.
Workshop sessions with staff
Focus groups with participants
Develop and test identity instrument
Participants completed instrument at start
of programme and again at end
5. Semi-strucrured interviews conducted
with participants
Why ISA?
• Its approach to identity development is interdisciplinary
• The ISA framework is sensitive to each applicable
context
• Its places importance on the history of communities and
biographical experiences
• All concepts used are fully operationalised i.e. they are
clearly defined and are measurable
• It considers the nature and range of identifications for
each respondent as an individual.
Why ISA?
• The study begins with the assumption that
changes in identity are likely to occur as a result
of participation in a community development and
political education project, and that these
changes, whether positive or negative, can be
determined through the application of ISA.
(Bloomer and Weinreich (2004) and Weinreich (2003)
ISA indices
•
•
•
•
Positive and negative role models
Empathetic identification
Identification conflict
Core values
Results from 2 cases studies will be
presented
Key Findings
• Idealistic-identification is the extent of
one’s desire to become like an aspirational
other, who represents qualities that have
become incorporated into one’s ideal selfimage.
Key Findings
• Idealistic-identification magnitude ranges
Above 0.70
High (person/group is a positive role model)
0.50 to 0.70
moderate
Below 0.50
low
Key Findings
Paula – aged 55
• Sibling – imprisoned for 13.5 years
• Hated paramilitaries
• Friends killed in Shankill bomb
• Women looked after family, men drank
• Open to BME community
• Hopeful for the future
Key Findings
Diana
• Area impacted by feuding
• Husband shot dead, brother in law unfairly
imprisoned
• Shankill bomb had impact on sectarianism
• Bad experiences working with black
person
• Women play traditional roles
• Not hopeful for the future
Paula - Idealistic Identification
Time 2
Time 1
0.88
Black and minority ethnic people
0.75
1
Feminists
0.88
0.88
Victims
0.63
0.63
Loyalists
0.5
0.63
Republicans
Ian Paisley
Gerry Adams
0.5
0.25
0.38
0.38
0.5
Diana - Idealistic Identification
Time 2
Black and minority ethnic people
Time 1
0.38
0.11
0.63
Feminists
0.22
0.75
Victims
0.56
0.38
0.44
Loyalists
0.63
Republicans
0.22
0.25
Ian Paisley
Gerry Adams
0.56
0.38
0.11
Key Findings
• Contra-identification with another is the
similarity between the qualities one
attributes to the other and those from
which one would wish to dissociate.
Paula - Contra Identification
Time 2
0.13
Black and minority ethnic people
Feminists
Victims
Time 1
0.25
0
0.13
0.13
0.38
Loyalists
0.38
Republicans
0.38
0.5
0.5
0.75
Ian Paisley
Gerry Adams
0.63
0.63
0.5
Diana - Contra Identification
Time 2
Time 1
0.68
Black and minority ethnic people
0.78
0.38
Feminists
Victims
0.56
0.25
0.33
0.63
Loyalists
Republicans
Ian Paisley
Gerry Adams
0.44
0.38
0.67
0.75
0.33
0.63
0.67
Key Findings
• Empathetic identification is the extent of
the similarities between the qualities one
attributes to the other, weather ‘good’ or
‘bad’ and those of the one’s current self
image.
Key Findings
• Empathetic-identification magnitude
ranges
Above 0.70
0.50 to 0.70
Below 0.50
High (see person/group
themselves)
moderate
low
as
similar
to
Paula - Empathetic Identification
Time 2
Time 1
0.63
0.63
Black and minority ethnic people
0.75
0.75
Feminists
0.88
Victims
0.75
Loyalists
0.63
0.63
Republicans
0.63
0.63
Ian Paisley
Gerry Adams
0.5
0.5
0.63
0.63
Diana - Empathetic Identification
Time 2
Black and minority ethnic people
Feminists
Time 1
0.63
0.13
0.88
0.25
0.5
Victims
0.63
0.38
Loyalists
Republicans
0.5
0.63
0.25
0.5
Ian Paisley
Gerry Adams
0.38
0.63
0.25
Key Findings
• Conflicted identification with the other is
the extent to which one’s current
empathetic identification overlaps with
one’s contra-identification
Key Findings
• Conflicted-identification magnitude ranges
Above 0.35
High
(see
person/group
as
similar
to
themselves but do not want to be like them)
0.20 to 0.34
moderate
Below 0.20
low
Paula - Conflicted Identification
Time 2
0.28
Black and minority ethnic people
Feminists
Victims
Loyalists
Republicans
Ian Paisley
Gerry Adams
Time 1
0.4
0
0.31
0.33
0.53
0.48
0.56
0.48
0.56
0.61
0.56
0.63
0.56
Diana - Conflicted Identification
Time 2
Black and minority ethnic people
Feminists
Victims
Time 1
0.63
0.31
0.57
0.37
0.35
0.46
Loyalists
0.48
0.47
Republicans
0.48
0.41
Ian Paisley
Gerry Adams
0.61
0.35
0.63
0.41
Key Findings
• Core values -the extent to which the
statements chosen by the participant are
used to judge the world around them. A
high core value for instance indicates that
the statement represents an issue which
the participant uses consistently to judge
the world around them.
Key Findings
Core values
Value
Above 95
50 to 95
20 to 49
-20 to +20
Categorisation Interpretation
Rigid
Values used in the most judgemental
fashion to appraise self and others,
being generally also ones most
resistant to change
Core evaluative In this case the values are observed
dimension of
as being central to the respondent’s
identity
identity and are foremost when
respondents evaluate self and others
Secondary
Used in a secondary manner when
evaluative
respondents evaluate self and others
dimension of
identity
Conflicted,
Conflicted dimensions of identity refer
inconsistently
to areas of stress in a respondent’s
or non
identity or those that do play a
evaluative
significant role in an individual's
dimension of
construal of self and others but should
identity
be considered in comparative terms
with the remaining dimensions.
Paula - Core Values
Time 2
Time 1
100
100
Women discriminated
Irish language is irrelevant
58.8
85.46
Irish language has a place in NI
Peace process brought positive changes
MW taking all our jobs
MW making valuable contribution
63.91
18.81
19.47
56.89
Diana - Core Values
Time 2
Time 1
Women have same chances as men
83.16
49.54
Women discriminated
Irish language is irrelevant
92.63
27.96
Irish language has a place in NI
34.88
Peace process has not delivered
MW taking all our jobs
MW making valuable contribution
83.16
64.21
2.58
Summary of Findings
• Open minded about issues related to
feminism
• Change in how identification BME
communities
• Change in her identification with
community leaders
Summary of Findings
• ISA was able to provide a quantitative
assessment of each participant’s starting
point and end point
• ISA was able to identify small changes
• ISA allowed trainers to target particular
issues
• ISA can be used as an evaluation tool
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