Library Networks in
the New Millennium:
Emerging Trends
Dr. H. K. Kaul
Director, DELNET
Digital Resources
Growth of Information is Random
Some Global Estimates of Growth
The amount of new technical information is doubling every two years
The world’s total store of information is doubling every four years
Business information is doubling every eighteen months
Digitized information is doubling every 18 months
Human knowledge is doubling every year.
Medical knowledge is doubling every five years.
December 18, 2008
Growing Dimensions
Growth is inevitable
From tangible to intangible media
Sources of information and representations of knowledge on the INTERNET
From Books and Journals to services and databases
The knowledge packages are published and distributed on the INTERNET.
From buying to leasing
From ascertaining to using
New purposes of the catalogue. To help others to use knowledge packages
on the INTERNET.
December 18, 2008
Development of Digital Collection
Digital collections that are created. e.g. newspapers, e-journals, documents
in offices, MSS, publications etc
Digital documents converted from print to digital versions
Born Digital Publications
“Digital materials which are not intended to have an analogue equivalent, either
as the originating source or as a result of conversion to analogue form.”
Digital Preservation Coalition, U. K.
Born Digital Publications include:
Video Recordings; Sound Recordings; Podcasts; Mixed Media; Geographic
Information; Software programs; Blogs, Wikis;
December 18, 2008
Direct Access or Access Through Consortiums
Consortium approach has been tested. Helps to get access to commercially
available content at a low price.
The issues: Archiving licensed content for which one has paid.
Archiving content for which the permissions are not available.
Access should be possible to content for which payment has been
made even after the expiry of subscription.
Pricing should be affordable.
December 18, 2008
About 3,080,000 search results on the Google. December 12, 2008
About 78,500,000 search results on Google. December 12, 2008.
Institutional Repositories
Institutions such as universities, research organizations, Government
departments are now creating MSS in digital form
December 18, 2008
Accessing Digital Collections
Single search should give access to several related databases
Accessing Digital Collections in Other Languages
Access should be possible to non-English digital collections
With mechanical translations as far as possible.
December 18, 2008
Metadata with a digitized document.
Terminology which is globally comprehensible and standard
Access to content becomes possible through a variety of search engines.
Metadata would generally include author, file name, creation software
and version, creation date, modification date, subject, size, and any
additional pertinent information. Once the preservation process is done
the addition of metadata becomes necessary.
Dublin Core Metadata Initiative gives guidelines for creating
interoperable online metadata standards.
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Software Issues
The issues that are important to be looked into the software applications include
technical sustainability of the software, adoption of risk assessment procedure,
eligible for long term archiving; etc.
Types of Content to be Digitised
Printed Documents
Sound-recordings, such as oral history collections and music
Traditional heritage, cultural objects, medicines etc.
The catalogues act as metadata if they are in conformity with international
December 18, 2008
Digital Library
• Digital library technologies are also useful
for knowledge networks. Specialised tools
like SKOS (Specialised Knowledge
Organisation Systems) work in the area of
developing specifications and standards to
support the use of knowledge organisation
such as thesauri, classification schemes
and subject heading systems within the
framework of the Semantic Web are
becoming available for application in
knowledge networks.
December 18, 2008
December 18, 2008
Digital Library Technologies
Stanford Digital Libraries Technologies
Stanford University and Sun Microsystems developed several technologies for
developing digital library such as Digital Library Tool Kit, etc.comprise:
InterBib: - a tool for maintaining bibliographic information.
Capable of reading from and writing to many different
formats, it acts as a unified, searchable repository of
bibliographic records.
Archival Repositories: a Digital Library Repository (DLR) is
formed by a collection of independent but
collaborating sites. Each site manages a
collection of digital objects
Digital Wallets: - Focuses on bringing interoperability to the
electronic payments arena.”
December 18, 2008
December 18, 2008
Networking of Digital Resources
A Vision
Access any document
In any Language
In any format
Anywhere in the world
Any time as required
At a very low cost
Networked Digital Resources
A Vision
Linked to any institution in the world
December 18,
documents globally
Technology Issues
High-speed high-specification computer with multimedia and
telecommunication connectivity would be essential.
Over the past twenty years:
The processor speeds have increased from 10 MHz to 10,000 MHz.
The capacities of transistors per chip have increased from 275,000
to 250 million.
Basic disc capacity has increased from 20 MB to 250 GB.
Memory of chips has increased from 64 Kbits to 16 Gbits.
December 18, 2008
Technology Issues (contd.)
Wireless communication
Wireless connectivity, through radio waves has emerged as the
fastest mode of communication / Mobile Phones
High Speed Fibre Optics
Fibre optic cables can carry data at a far higher speed of 1Gb/s (
while as 100 Mb/s to 10Gb/s are also in use as backbone.
New Satellite System
Large streams of data can be processed through the new
satellite system. This multipurpose facility will use video, sound,
data for weather, intelligence etc. It is the best tool which is
emerging for networking of digital resources. The new satellite
system uses the Global Positioning System (GPS).
December 18, 2008
Technology Issues (contd.)
High Bandwidth
The speed of the network which is the rate of data transfer is known
as bandwidth. In the early 1990s the speed of the modems was
generally 56 Kbps. In 2008 the speed of modems has increased to
up-speed of 15-16 mbps and down-speed of 16-24 mbps. With the
transfer of images, sound and video recordings through digital
networks higher bandwidth speeds of upto 5 GB are available now.
Content Based Networking
A new concept has emerged in which a special communication
infrastructure which makes the messages to move by the content of
the messages. It is not driven by the addresses which are attached
to the mails. In this network the characteristics of the receivers of
messages attract the types of messages it is interested in. The
interests of receivers is noted by means of a description of interests
called predicates. In contrast to the previous method it is somewhat
semantic in nature.
December 18, 2008
Technology Issues (contd.)
The catalogues have remained important tools for searching
documents. Even today cataloging and authority control have
gained more significance in the online environment
Sharing Technologies
Cooperation with libraries and networks.
Use of knowledge tools., BMC Software, DCASoft, and Atlassian are
some of the software used for sharing knowledge.
December 18, 2008
Library Networks
National Overview
Global Issues
Future of Networked Digital Resources
Interactive network covers digital LAN signals, video, television signals,
local video, personal computers, television receivers, video cassette
recorders, printers, and video cameras. A television interface enables any
television in the network to receive and display local video output by a
personal computer or other device in the network and enables the television
to be used as a remote monitor for the computer.
Intuitive computing facilitates answers for all types of questions in a
given environment.
December 18, 2008
Future of Networked Digital Resources (contd.)
Provisional paths
In complex computing, mixed topologies will be used :e.g. a mix of
Bus topology; Ring topology; Star topology; Tree topology. Each time
a topology change is detected, the systems will create automatically
new subset topologies. Time taken for this job and the effectiveness
of the topologies will vary from system to system. It will be done
without affecting the users.
99% of the digital explosion on the Internet would be in Multimedia
format by 2012. Web 2.0 Multimedia Search: will provide new
opportunities for online advertising and applications. It is changing and
is not ever lasting. From fixed, permanent, formatted text collections
we are going to have fluid and transient multimedia resources
December 18, 2008
Future of Networked Digital Resources (contd.)
Complex relationships are going to be handled by computing models
which will revolutionize the networking requirements
We are going to have increasingly access to digital resources rather
than to collections as the scope of physical collections will gradually
Free, flexible, and virtual information Spaces
In place of static library facilities with fixed stacks we are going to have
access to free, flexible, and virtual information spaces.
December 18, 2008
Future of Networked Digital Resources (contd.)
Every document will get linked, for further explanation or reference, to
every other necessary documents through the hypertext. Very large
hypertexts and shared information spaces are going to emerge. The
authoring tools which are software and services that are used to
produce Web pages and Web content are going to advance the use of
hypertext in multiple applications.
More and more flexibility is getting developed for use in high power
computing services. New algorithms avoid large enumeration in
Contingency computing plans are going to cover major security
systems against attacks, thefts etc
December 18, 2008
Future of Networked Digital Resources (contd.)
Multiple online identities
A person can develop multiple identities, where each identity will
identify the person with a characteristics or a purpose. A person can
have multiple profiles and control access to them. Blogs are the
examples. For instance MySpace and Facebook allow people to
create a social network helping others to develop different identities/
Adaptability and ambiguity
Because of the turbulent and dynamic internal and external
environment, inherent flexibility of web based materials, item-wise
attention for hypermedia systems, etc adaptability in software
solutions would be a must. Also, it should be able to resolve
ambiguities arising because of speech, language, data etc.
December 18, 2008
Future of Networked Digital Resources (contd.)
Global vision of the world’s computational infrastructure is becoming
day by day necessary
Informal knowledge exchange and social relationships among likeminded individuals/ experts on the increase.
Imitation of real phenomenon with a set of mathematical formulas/
advanced computer programs is going to be on the increase
December 18, 2008
fixed, permanent, formatted text
static library facilities with fixed stacks
uniform sources, citations, references
services provided to individual readers
standard reference services
professionally provided services
locally owned permanent collections
centralized collections and services
hierarchical organizational structures
discipline specialization
generic user service
December 18, 2008
formal acquisitions
fluid and transient multimedia resources
free, flexible, and virtual information
customized annotations/transient works
tailored services to collaborative teams
personalized consulting and analysis
integrated service provision
holistic, integrated networked systems
distributed, decentralized global access
participative and collegial relationships
inter-, multi- and cross-disciplinary studies
user-/use-specific relevant services
policies integration of informal with
Networking for LMS
• Some libraries come together to acquire and use a library
management system (LMS).
• Sometimes national: e.g. COBISS network and software
used for many libraries in Slovenia, Macedonia, Serbia ,
Montenegro etc.
• Physical network issues
• Wi-Fi – wireless fidelity – for sending info. to/from wireless
local area networks that might be in a physical library.
December 18, 2008
• Networking knowledge - An essential activity
• Developing a case-based reasoning knowledge repository to
support learning
• Community would help library and knowledge networks.
Electronic Resources
• Provide shared electronic resources to users
• Network of ‘e-offerings’
Value Added Resources
• For creating value added products, knowledge servers,
with great features should be preferred.
• Package the content.
• Refinements to be made to the content have to be on a
regular basis.
• User-created content
December 18, 2008
Social Networking
Social networking services and libraries – Web 2.0
• The tools and techniques of social computing
providing new opportunities for the design and
delivery of library resources and services.
• Social networking has flourished due to the ease
of connecting on the Web.
December 18, 2008
• Sample blog entry: Lorcan Dempsey
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• A wiki is a page or collection of Web
pages designed to enable anyone
who accesses it to contribute or
modify content, using a simplified
markup language
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• RSS is a family of Web feed formats
used to publish frequently updated
works— such as blog entries, news
headlines, audio, and video—in a
standardized format
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• A podcast is a series of audio or
video digital-media files which is
distributed over the Internet by
syndicated download, through Web
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• Facebook is a social utility that
connects people with friends and
others who work, study and live
around them. People use Facebook
to keep up with friends
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• An international site that offers
email, a forum, communities, videos
and weblog space
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• Flickr is almost certainly the best
online photo management and
sharing application in the world.
Show off your favorite photos and
videos to the world, ...
December 18, 2008
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• “Libraries can now easily
collaborate and create online
communities, as well as explore
new ways in which to
communicate with, educate and
attract new users - and also to
market themselves” Phil Bradley
December 18, 2008
Knowledge Discovery
To facilitate the process of knowledge
discovery in databases, a wide variety of
methodologies including machine learning,
pattern recognition, artificial intelligence,
knowledge acquisition for expert systems,
etc are getting developed. The Knowledge
Discovery in Databases contains not only
the automated processes but also the
non-automated processes in order to cull
out the knowledge from the databases.
December 18, 2008
Retrieval and delivery of knowledge is
becoming a specialised art. The types of
experts who get involved with the work
include domain experts, computer
experts, training specialists and users who
look into all types of documents including
text documents, images, graphics, maps,
animations, video and audio recordings,
and combinations of them.
December 18, 2008
Retrieval (contd.)
• Semantic retrieval comprise techniques
that use semantic information and the
understanding of the language for
retrieval of subjects technically. The
retrieval of relational concepts from
massive text databases by using search
engines helps in collecting correlations for
research and reference. It improve
performance in retrieving more
information from complex documents.
December 18, 2008
Retrieval (contd.)
The retrieval of images either from
the Web or from databases by using
image and text recognition software
is beginning to be used. Actual
contents of the image are analyzed.
Research is continuing in this field
where artificial intelligence
approaches are being tested.
December 18, 2008
Retrieval (contd.)
• Partaking of knowledge for creation
and sharing is emerging as a useful
tool for knowledge networks.
• Knowledge sharing technologies are
used in organizations, and between
individuals and experts
•, BMC Software,
DCASoft, and Atlassian are some
December 18, 2008
Retrieval (contd.)
• The Knowledge Delivery Service
(KDS) is an infrastructure which
every Library Network should have.
It facilitates the transmission of
selected knowledge to each and
every node (a library) connected
with the library network and
interested in a specific knowledge.
December 18, 2008
Trends in Subject Gateways: The example from “Law”
Business & Regulation
Constitutional Law
Copyright and Intellectual Property
Courts & Tribunals
Criminal Law
Family Law
Gender and the Law
Health Law
Human Rights
Indigenous Law
Law reform
Legal Topics
Tax Law
Business & Regulation
December 18, 2008
Trends in Subject Gateways: The example from “Law” (contd.)
Australian Competition & Consumer Commission
Australian Securities and Investments Commission
Australian Taxation Office - ATO Legal Database
Business Law (Parliamentary library link)
Commonwealth Department of Treasury
Constitutional Law
A-Z Constitutions
Australian Constitution
Constitution Finder
Constitutional Law ( Charles Darwin University)
U.S. Constitution (Bill of Rights, Historical information)
Copyright and Intellectual Property
Australian Copyright Council
Copyright (National Library Guide)
Copyright Law Attorney-General's Department
Copyright Information (through Australian Library & Information Association)
Copyright & Intellectual Property (Parliamentary Library links)
Communications, Information Technology & the Arts (Commonwealth)
December 18, 2008
Trends in Subject Gateways: The example from “Law” (contd.)
Intellectual Property Law (Copyright (International resources)
Intellectual Property Rights and Developing Countries
IP Australia (Commonwealth)
U.K. Copyright (Patent Office)
U.S. Copyright Office (Library of Congress)
WIPO - World Intellectual Property Organization
World Trade Organization - World Trade Organization
TRIPS (Trade-related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights)
Courts & Tribunals:
December 18, 2008
Trends in Subject Gateways: The example from “Law” (contd.)
High Court of Australia (Latest High Court cases)
Family Court of Australia
Federal Court of Australia
Industrial Relations Court of Australia
Australian Industrial Relations Commission
Administrative Appeals Tribunal
Migration Review Tribunal
National Native Trial Tribunal
Refugee Review Tribunal
Social Security Tribunal
Superannuation Complaints Tribunal
December 18, 2008
Trends in Subject Gateways: The example from “Law” (contd.)
Australian States & Territories
A.C.T. Law Courts & Tribunals
A.C.T. Magistrates Court & Tribunals,
A.C.T. Supreme Court
N.S.W. Courts
Northern Territory. Department of Justice
Queensland Courts
S.A.Courts Administration
Tasmania Courts
Victoria. Department of Justice
W.A. Department of the Attorney General
December 18, 2008
Trends in Subject Gateways: The example from “Law” (contd.)
International Courts
International Court of Justice
European Court of Human Rights
Permanent Court of International Justice
International Courts & Tribunals
Project on International Courts and Tribunals
Criminal Law
Australasian Centre for Policing Research
Australian Bureau of Statistics Crime Statistics
Australian Crime Commission
Australian Institute of Criminology
Crime & Criminal Justice Statistics (AIC)
Criminal Justice (U.K. University of Kent)
Criminology Research Council
U.K. Judicial System (U.K. Government)
U.K. Metropolitan Police Service
18, 2008
Department of Justice - Office of Justice - Statistics
Trends in Subject Gateways: The example from “Law” (contd.)
Family Law
Australian Institute of Family Studies
Family Court of Australia
Family Law Online (Commonwealth Attorney General's Department)
Family Law Council
Islamic Family Law
Government Notices Gazettes (Cth Atorney-General's Department)
ACT Government Gazettes
ASIC Gazettes
Business Gazettes (ASIC)
Periodic Notices Gazettes
Public Service Gazettes
Special Notices Gazettes
Government Gazettes Online
December 18, 2008
Trends in Subject Gateways: The example from “Law” (contd.)
Gender and the Law
Australian Institute of Criminology: Women and the Law: Conference proceedings
Office for Women (Australia)
National Women's Justice Coalition
Health Law
Austlii Guide to Medicine & Health
Health Law (Weblaw)
Health Law (Parliamentary Library Guide)
December 18, 2008
Trends in Subject Gateways: The example from “Law” (contd.)
Human Rights
A.C.T. Human Rights Office
Australian Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission
Australian Human Rights Centre (University of New South Wales, Faculty of Law)
Columbia Law School - Human and Constitutional Rights
Commonwealth Department of Foreign Affairs & Trade Human Rights resources
Human Rights Council of Australia
Human Rights Library (University of Minnesota)
Human Rights Online
Interights (Commonwealth Human Rights Case Law Database)
Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (United Nations)
Parliamentary Library - Civil & Human Rights Guide
United Nations Human Rights information
Universal Declaration of Human Rights
U.S. Department of State. Human Rights reports
December 18, 2008
Trends in Subject Gateways: The example from “Law” (contd.)
Indigenous Law
Indigenous Law Centre
Indigenous Peoples & the Law (Parliamentary Library)
Indigenous Law Resources (Austlii)
National Native Title Tribunal
Timeline for Indigenous Legal Issues (Austlii)
WebLaw guide
High Court of Australia Justices (High Court of Australia)
Judges of A.C.T. Supreme Court
December 18, 2008
Trends in Subject Gateways: The example from “Law” (contd.)
Law reform
A.C.T. Law Reform Commission Reports
Australian Law Reform Commission
Law Reform Commission of Western Australia
N.S.W. Law Reform Commission
Queensland Law Reform Commission
Tasmanian Law Reform Institute
Victorian Law Reform Commission
Law Reform (World)
Legal topics
Austlii Hot Topics -online topics 1998-2004-Search within each issue.
APEC Competition Policy and Law Database (Asia-Pacific Economic Forum)
Australia's counter terrorism laws (Proposals...from Parliamentary Library)
European Law - Jean Monnet Project: European integration in Law, Economics, Political Science & Hist
JURIST - Current Awareness (University of Pittsburgh School of Law)
Law & Justice Foundation of New South Wales
Law Council of Australia
OECD Topics
Parliamentary Library - E-Briefs, & other Publications
Pandora Archive - National Library & Partners (select Law & Criminology or related topics)
December 18, 2008
Proceedings from the Old Bailey, London (1674-1834)
United Nations
Trends in Subject Gateways: The example from “Law” (contd.)
Tax Law
ACT Revenue Office
Australian Taxation Office
ATO Legal Database Collection of legal and policy information that is used by
the Australian Tax Office when making decisions. Find a Public Ruling, Public
Determination or a Bulletin. Reference Manual
Board of Taxation
Tax Law guide (Parliamentary Library)
Tax law guide (WebLaw Guide)
Australian Treaties Library (Austlii & DFAT)
European Treaties (Council of Europe-Legal Affairs)
Hague Conference on Private International Law
Multilateral Conventions (Fletcher-Ginn Multilateral Projects - Tufts University)
United Nations Treaty Collection
December 18, 2008
Trends in Subject Gateways: The example from “Law” (contd.)
Subject Gateways
Australian Law Online Entry point to Australian Government legal resources
Australian Law on the Internet National Library Guide
Australian Public Law (Charles Darwin University Law School)
JURIST (University of Pittsburgh, School of Law)
Lawlinks (U.K. University of Kent)
Legal Information Institute (Cornell University Law School) - Researching Australian Law
Parliamentary Library Guide to Law
SOSIG Social Science Information Gateway for Law - U.K.
WashLAW Web (Washburn University, School of Law Legal Information)
WebLaw Subject gateway to Internet resources for Australian legal researchers
December 18, 2008
The Human Network
Personal information strategies
Good communication
Enliven your network
Manage technology effectively
Be part of a high performance team
Make teams use technology
Develop a creative knowledge environment
December 18, 2008
The Human Network (contd.)
Inbuilt human traits are needed in networking of digital resources
Initiative taking
Network with any individual or institution that yield useful information
Self-management – manage time for fulfilling commitments
Effective team-workers
Demonstrate leadership
Supportive followers
Broad perspective- while initiating or executing jobs
Show and tell – ideas are presented persuasively
Organisation savvy – work keeping in view the interests and policies
of the organisation
December 18, 2008
The Human Network (contd.)
Good Communication
Conducive Environment
Introduce Yourself First
Method of Conveying Information
Method of Receiving Information
Summarise Action Points
Follow Through
December 18, 2008
The Human Network (contd.)
Enliven Your Network
Mapping the Network
New Inputs
Network Associates
Activating the Network
Can Network Function Without You?.
Reciprocity and Trust
December 18, 2008
• Library networks should introduce
online learning courses.
• Training to library staff and citizens
in using information resources.
December 18, 2008
• Develop digital archive of historical
and government documents,
photographs, maps, etc.
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• Interlibrary loan and document
delivery system to members.
• Providing services to communities,
including children in less developed
and rural communities.
• Equitable access to information
resources and library services
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Knowledge and Society