READING IN THE DIGITAL AGE
Framtidens Skolbibliotek
OBSl Ingen foranmalan
Malmo University
23 April 2009
Carol Gordon
Rutgers The State University of New Jersey
[email protected]
The Changing Role of the School Librarian
in Literacy






20th Century:
Recreational Reading
Library collection centered
Reading motivation
Broadening reading interests
Free Voluntary Reading (FVR)
Sustained Silent Reading
Summer Reading





21st Century:
Reading for Understanding
Digital reading environments,
Unmediated reading materials
Reading in the content areas
Strategic Reading
Standards for 21st Century Learning
Reading digital text
 Readers have developed new strategies for handling the huge volume of
information.
 The role of paper is changing.
 People have begun to read on their screens.
 Mobile devices provide a better medium for reading
 Reading is passive and less interactive.
Let them print!
Annotation
Gathering
Clipping
Sharing
Rules of Thumb
Never give a child something to read
that is at instructional or frustration
level if you expect him to read it
independently.
Children should only be given reading
materials at instructional level if:

They will be instructed during the
reading

They will be shown how to use
strategies

They will be instructed in the use of
strategies
Clues to Reading Levels
 Independent: Can read completely on
their own with 95%+ accuracy. Good
comprehension.
 Instructional: Can read 75%+ on their
own. Some comprehension.
 Frustration: Below 70% accuracy with
little or no comprehension.
How many words do they read
incorrectly?
How many do they stop and self-correct?
How long does it take to read?
What can they recall and discuss?
On-the-Fly Assessment
Strategic Reading: Raising
Consciousness about Comprehension
The first step is to make them
conscious. When
comprehension breaks down,
many students skip sections or
words that are confusing and
pick the text up again where
they can understand it. The
problem is, they have lost
valuable information and
opportunity to improve their
own reading.
Strategies That Work.
Goudvis & Harvey
LITERACY AND INQUIRY THROUGH THE INFORMATON
Information
Search
Process
SEARCH
PROCESS
Tasks
Initiation
Selection
Exploration Formulation
Collection
confusion
sense of
direction/
confidence
Presentation
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------→
Feelings uncertainly
(affective)
Thoughts
(cognitive)
optimism
doubt
clarity
frustration
satisfaction or
disappointment
vague---------------------------------------→focused
-----------------------------------------------→
increased interest
Actions
seeking relevant information----------------------------→seeking pertinent information
(physical)
exploring
documenting
Information-to-knowledge experience
Stages of the Information Search Process represent critical
Zones of Intervention
Feelings
Thoughts
Actions
Task Initiation
Task
Thoughts
Feelings
Actions
Interventions /Strategies
Prepare
for
selecting a
topic
Contemplate
assignment;
Comprehend
task; Consider
possible topics
Apprehension
Uncertainty
Talking
with
others
Browsing
library
collection
Brainstorming
Discussing
Contemplating possible
topics
Tolerating uncertainty
Interventions: Check for prior knowledge; Activate prior knowledge
K-W-L Charts; concept maps; visuals reflection sheet.
Other strategies:
Skimming books for headings, tables of content, glossaries, indexes, pictures
Reading selected passages to build background knowledge
Building motivation and engagement, but not the false confidence of surfing the
Net
Avoid information overload (Use print sources; webquests)
No note taking! Identifying personal interests. E-mails and blogs
Prior Knowledge
Research shows that there is no difference between the recall of good
and poor readers when their prior knowledge is the same. Therefore,
prior knowledge can be instrumental in improving reading comprehension.
Concept Mapping
Inspiration software: http://www.inspiration.com/
Activating Prior Knowledge
Before reading begins, it is essential to activate students’ prior knowledge to:
 Help them to focus on the topic
 Give them concrete information to begin researching
 Act as a tool to unravel confusion about the topic
 Provide a solid foundation for research
Activating Prior Knowledge Tool:
K-W-L Chart
17
Digital K-W-L
What I know
What I now want to learn
How can I find out?
What I learned
What can go into a terrarium?
How often should I water it?
Can insects live in them?
How can I use a digital camera in
my classroom?
Is it easy to use?
About my learning
She recorded her answers on pieces or paper and created a video from the pile of
cards by flipping them. She used a digital camera to photograph a series of chartpaper diagrams of a terrarium activity. Then the images were assembled into an
animation, suitable for presenting in PowerPoint, or over the web. In the original
presentation, our subject, Lia, had designed her presentation to be displayed in a
"flip-chart" manner. This is a great method for supporting student presentations in
an elementary school classroom -- whether or not the teacher uses the high-tech or
the low-tech method.
K-W-L will…
 Focus students on the topic and organize
the information that they already know.
 Raise questions generated by the student.
 Inspire confidence in student’s ability to
complete the project.
 Provide a starting point for strategic
research rather than unfocused searching.
Using Visuals to Assess Prior
Knowledge
Why pictures?
•They inspire questions and
interest.
•Provide a tangible element
when focus blurs and clarity
is elusive.
•Offer a starting point.
•Offer support of a group
working with similar themes,
situations.
Visuals
The Research Assignment
Topic: Battles of the U.S. Civil War
Questions:
What has emerged
for you as potential
interests and topics?
What connections
have you made?
What information
have you generated?
Reflection Sheet
What do you collectively
Know about the
American
Civil War?
As a group, share your
organizers and compile
a comprehensive list
Photographs: Which
One captures your
attention?
Share your photos and
Ideas/insights/imaginings
What have you learned?
Feelings
Task
Thoughts
Decide Weighing topics
on
against criteria:
topic
inter- est, requirements, info
available, time
Predicting outcome
of choices
Choosing topic with
potential success
Thoughts
Actions
Topic Selection
Feelings
Actions
Strategies/
Interventions
Confusion
Sometimes
anxiety
Brief elation
after
selection
Anticipation
of
prospective
task
Consulting
with info
mediators
Making
preliminary
searches
Using info
sources
Discussing
possible topics
Predicting outcome
of choices
Using general
sources for
overview of
possible topics
Interventions: Blogs, Wikis, Webquests
Other Strategies: Avoid information overload (Use print sources; webquests)
Identifying personal interests. E-mails and blogs; No note-taking; clearing up
misconceptions; anchor experiences; Helping students choose reading
materials (Picture books); Making inferences from book covers, illustrations; Mental
modeling; Thinking aloud; Tracking thinking; Sifting topic from details
Blogs
•Blogs are a social
networking tool that helps
student express their
thoughts in writing beyond
the wall os the school. They
encourage critical thinking
and social learning.
•Literature blogs can elevate
the quality of discussions
and elicit broader
participation from students
Add audio or video or both for
Multi-tasking
•Research blogs become a
forum for students to talk
about their progress and
difficulties during inquiry
units of study.
Peanut Butter Wiki
https://www.pbwiki.com
•Set up wikis for
collaborative group
projects with faculty
and students
•Students use wikis to
brainstorm ideas,
develop rough drafts
and peer edit (Writing
Process)
•The teacher posts
exemplars
•Experiment with blogs
and wikis to build a 24/7
readers’ advisory
What to do with
Wikipedia
•The teacher takes the class through a key
Wikipedia article on a topic related to the
course, pointing out its strengths and
weaknesses, and inviting the class to edit it
•Students use other sources to determine
accuracy of the facts in a Wikipedia article
•The teacher assigns groups of students to
evaluate Wikipedia articles, using research
from other sources as an evaluative tool
•The class takes on specific Wikipedia articles. The first group of students
creates the articles and successive groups update and expand them.
A collection of “teacher approved” articles can be produced in many subjects,
making Wikipedia better as time goes on.
http://webquest.org/index.php
More Sites
Literature Learning Ladders
http://eduscapes.com/ladders/themes/webquests.htm
San Diego City Schools: Literature-based Projects
http://eduscapes.com/ladders/themes/webquests.htm
Linda’s Links to Literature
http://www.lindaslinkstoliterature.com/lll/login.htm
Feelings
Thoughts
Actions
Focus
Formulation
Task
Thoughts
Feelings
Actions
Strategies/
Interventions
Form
ulate
a
focus
from
the
inform
ation
found
Predicting
outcome of
possible foci using
interest, requirements, availability, time
Identifying ideas in
info to form focus
Moment of insight
Optimism
Confidence
in ability to
complete
task
Reading
notes for
themes
Making a survey
of notes;
Listing possible
foci; Choosing a
focus, discarding
others; Combining
themes to form
focus
Interventions: Blogs, Wikis, Webquests; text-to-self connections
Other strategies: Identifying personal interests. E-mails, internet, blogs
Gradual release of responsibility; Pair/four-way shares; Keeping a journal
Text-to-self: Exploring the Self
A student will more readily
connect a text to herself
before connecting to other
outside influences like other
texts and the world around her.
This skill, when made conscious, creates empathy and critical
thinking. Students will make more specific choices about focus
and clarity of their project in a more independent fashion.
Feelings
Thoughts
Actions
Information
Collection
Task
Thoughts
Feelings
Actions
Strategies/
Interventions
Gather
info that
defines
extends,
supports
focus
Seek info to
support focus
Define &
extend focus
thru info
Gathering
Pertinent info
Organizing
info in notes
Realize extensive
work to be
done
Confidence in
ability
to complete task;
Increased
interest
Use library
to collect
pertinent
info
Request
specific
sources
from
librarian
Take notes
& citations
Using descriptors to
search out pertinent
info
Making
comprehensive
search of various
types of materials
Using indexes
Request help from
librarian
Interventions: Sticky Notes, Making connections text-to-text; text-to-world; selfmonitoring
Other strategies: Gradual release of responsibility; Reading between the lines (making
comparisons); coding text with sticky notes; Highlighting, Graphic organizers; concept
maps (note collection + analysis); Distinguishing important from less important ideas;
Drawing inferences; Blogs; emails; Zoomerang/Survey Monkey; Databases; Websites;
Info lit instruction for digital environments
Sticky Notes: Reading with a Pen
Take reading out of the
abstract realm
Allow students to
interact with the text
and have a record of
their questions and
ideas.
Gives voice to student
questions, concerns,
confusion and
vocabulary issues
Students begin to
color code their
notes. This is a prewriting process
Graphic Organizer: What’s a Workhouse?
Read the excerpt on Victorian workhouses and with a small group,
complete the modified KWL chart.
Making Connections as Strategy
When students can connect to a
work, idea, picture, it stimulates
the activation of prior knowledge
and their interest in the topic.
Types of connections:
 Text-to-text
 Text-to-self
 Text-to-world
Text-to-text
The Hero saves the day. If s/he can’t, supernatural forces do!
Good over comes evil
Text-to-World: The Connection
Scrooge rejects the idea of helping the poor. This comes back to haunt him
when he pleads for mercy from the ghost of Christmas Present. The
ghost throws Scrooge’s own words back at him: “Are there no
workhouses?”
Student Work
Dear Mr. Scrooge,
My name is Julia Rose. I’m the wife of Bret Rose. His name may sound
familiar to you because at one point in time he worked for you. My
husband has too much pride to ask for such a huge favor, but will you
please give him his job back, or at least consider it? The workhouses are a
terrible place to live and to try to raise children. Families are split up and
people are treated like the scum of a stray dog’s paw in this place.
My husband was sentenced to three weeks bread and water for meals just
for saying hello to me one day during lunch time. Everyday it’s the same
routine – get up at dawn and work until nightfall.
Our daughter has just turned 9 this past March and they have her out in the
fields picking and planting crops with her bare hands. I know you must
get many of these letters daily, but please, I beg of you, Mr. Scrooge, give
my husband his job back, or any job.
Sincerely, Julia Rose
Observations About Students’ Work
 What is most interesting about the letters students wrote was that they
involved children in some way. They identified with the material in an
elemental way and experienced it personally.
 From here, students were able to discuss the underlying reason for the
workhouses on their own – “they just hid the poor from the rich,” one
student said before a journal workshop.
 Students were able, on their own, to identify and discuss the political
nature of the workhouses and what purposes they truly served in the
19th century. They were able to achieve that critical analysis and
connection on their own.
Self Monitoring
Copy of text students are
reading/students record information
Student’s Interpretation
of the text completed
before class discussion or
reflection.
Revised Interpretations
that occur after
class discussion
or reflection.
Students interact with
Information to make
Meaning.
Feelings Thoughts
Actions
Presentation
Task
Thoughts
Feelings
Actions
Strategies/
Interventions
Conclude
information
search
Identifying
need for
additional info
Considering
time limit
Diminishing
relevance
Redundancy
Sense of
relief
Sometimes
satisfaction
Sometimes
disappointment
Rechecking
sources for
information
initially
overlooked
Confirming
information
and citations
Returning to library
to make summary
search
Keeping books until
completion of
writing (etc.) to
recheck information
Interventions: Authentic Learning Tasks, Formative Assessments (rubrics, journals,
checklists, portfolios, peer review of drafts, self-evaluations)
Making connections; Making inferences; Predicting; Analyzing; Synthesizing; Retelling to synthesize; Evolving thinking by summarizing + personal responses; Seeking
answers to questions that have none; Production tools-PowerPoint; Web design; Word
Processing to academic formats; Citation Machine; Word Processing (writing is
synthesis)
The Diary of Anne Frank… In Search
of Truth
You are an Investigative Reporter for
YTN (Youth Television Network). You
have been assigned the job of researching and writing a news story about
holocaust survivals. Your arch rival,
Mat Fritzlinger, from YBC (Youth
Broadcasting Company) recently
made a public statement denying
events recorded in The Diary of
Anne Frank. According to him the
diary is a hoax. He, along with many
others, believe none of these events,
or any events like them have ever taken
place. Your job is to gather and publish
data that will persuade Mat and his
followers to seriously question their beliefs.
http://projects.edtech.sandi.net/lewis/annefrank/t-index.htm
INQUIRY
THROUGH
INFORMATON
Information
SearchTHE
Process
SEARCH PROCESS
Tasks
Initiation
Selection
Exploration Formulation
Collection
confusion
sense of
direction/
confidence
Presentation
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------→
Feelings uncertainly
(affective)
Thoughts
(cognitive)
optimism
doubt
clarity
frustration
satisfaction or
disappointment
vague---------------------------------------→focused
-----------------------------------------------→
increased interest
Actions
seeking relevant information----------------------------→seeking pertinent information
(physical)
exploring
documenting
Information-to-knowledge experience
Stages of the Information Search Process represent critical
Zones of Intervention
Guided Inquiry for Knowledge
Construction
Guided Inquiry is carefully planned, closely supervised targeted intervention of
an instructional team of school librarians and teachers to guide students
through curriculum based inquiry units that build deep knowledge and
deep understanding of a curriculum topic, and gradually lead towards
independent learning.
Guided Inquiry is grounded in a constructivist approach to learning, based on
the Information Search Process developed by Kuhlthau, for developing
students’ competence with learning from a variety of sources while
enhancing their understanding of the content areas of the curriculum.
Vygotsky
Kuhlthau
Novice
Uncertainty
Constructivism
Expert
Meta-cognition
Zone of Proximal Development
Understanding
Zones of Intervention
Literacy Learning in the 21st
Century
Twenty-first century readers and writers need to be
able to:
Develop proficiency with the tools of technology;
Build relationships with others to pose and solve problems
collaboratively and cross-culturally;
Design and share information for global communities to meet a
variety of purposes;
Manage, analyze, and synthesize multiple streams of
simultaneous information;
Create, critique, analyze, and evaluate multi-media texts; and
Attend to the ethical responsibilities required by these complex
environments.
National Council of Teachers of English
http://www.ncte.org/library/NCTEFiles/Resources/Magazine/CC0183_Brief_Literacy.pdf
Research-based Practices for
Literacy Learning
Aligning literacy efforts in preschool
and early grades with middle and high
school assures a continuum of
instruction and learning.
Twenty-first century students need to
gather information from multiple
sources, evaluate their reliability, and
apply their findings effectively.
Twenty-first century technologies can
engage students in learning.
Twenty-first century assessment
be different because
of technology.
IMPLICATIONS: EARLY CHILDHOOD
LITERACY; PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT;
PERFORMANCE-BASED ASSESSMENT;
STRONG TECHNOLOGY INFRASTRUCTURE
IN SCHOOLS
Descargar

Reading in the Digital Age