MIT5312: Professor Kirs
Information Processing & IS Types
Slide 1
An Overview of
Information Processing
and
Information System Types
MIT5312: Professor Kirs
Information Processing & IS Types
Slide 2
In Order to fully appreciate how to develop
Information Systems, we need to understand the
history of Information Systems, why they were
developed, and how they fit in the general scheme of
things
?? Why ??
We don’t need to know all the specifics, BUT
• We need to understand why there are such things
as Information Systems and why they were
developed
• To do that, we need to understand the past, and
how they were developed
• We can then get a feel for where we are going
(Besides, it’s interesting and it’s something you should know)
MIT5312: Professor Kirs
Information Processing & IS Types
Slide 3
?? How do we do that ??
We need to briefly overview the evolution of
Computers and Management Information
Systems
?? Starting When ??
We will discuss the pre-electronic eras of
computers, BUT ….
Our major emphasis will start with the first
generation of Computers …..
1951
MIT5312: Professor Kirs
Information Processing & IS Types
Slide 4
??? Why Do We Need Computers ???
 Humans have always been interested in calculations
 Cavemen would count items with simple ‘counters’:
||||
slashes might be made on a wall to count 4 items
 Simple systems frequently became overwhelming
|||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||
slashes might indicate 49 items
 There was a need to develop better systems
|||| |||| |||| |||| |||| |||| |||| |||| |||| ||||
Was a quicker method for interpreting the value 49
MIT5312: Professor Kirs
Information Processing & IS Types
Slide 5
The Romans Developed the first widely used
Numbering System
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
= I
13
15
= II
20
= III
25
= IV
= V
50
= VI
64
76
= VII
= VIII 89
94
= IX
100
= X
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
XIII
118
XV
161
XX
200
XXV
359
L
500
LXIV
694
LXXVI
729
LXXXIX 799
954
XCIV
C
1,000
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
CXVIII
1,590 = MDXC
CLXI
1,976 = MCMLXXVI
CC
2,000 = MM
CCCLIX
D
DCXCIV
DCCXXIX
DCCXCIX
CMLIV
M
BUT, the system did NOT allow for calculations to be made
MIT5312: Professor Kirs
Information Processing & IS Types
Early Devices
 The Chinese Developed the Abacus to make calculations
approximately 5,000 Years ago
As recently as the early 1940's, a skilled user of the abacus
could outperform mechanical adding machines
Slide 6
MIT5312: Professor Kirs
Information Processing & IS Types
Slide 7
The Slide Ruler
 Edmund Gunther, early 1600’s
 Based on the concept of Logarithms
 Multiple Calculations
Multiplication
Reciprocals
Division
Logs
Exponentiation
Trigonometric Functions
BUT, a slide ruler could NOT add or subtract
 Preferred tool by scientists until the 1970’s
 The last manufacturer of slide rulers went out of business in
the 1980’s.
MIT5312: Professor Kirs
Information Processing & IS Types
The Pascaline
 Blaise Pascal (1623-1662)
 Developed the Pascaline in 1642
 Considered the 1st Mechanical Calculator
(addition and subtraction)
Based on an Ancient Greek design which calculated the distance
traveled by a carriage
Slide 8
MIT5312: Professor Kirs
Information Processing & IS Types
Slide 9
??? But how did it work ???
• It is based on the idea of 10’s Compliment:
• The compliment of 7 is 3 (since 10 – 7 = 3)
• The compliment of 82 is 18 (since 100 – 82 = 18)
• The compliment of 127 is 873 (since 1000 – 127 = 873)
• Rather than subtracting 2 numbers, we only need to add a
number’s compliment
• For example, to subtract: 723 – 435 (= 288)
We need only add:
723 + 565 (The complement of 435)
1
723
+ 565
1 288
Carry-Over
The Compliment of 435 since 1000 – 435 = 565
The final Carry-Over is dropped
MIT5312: Professor Kirs
Information Processing & IS Types
??? Was it a Success ???
No --- Pascal Encountered Problems
 The technology used was beyond its time
 The machine cost more than the people it
replaced
 The machine was prone to break-downs
 Only Pascal knew how to repair it
 Social Acceptance
 Clerks feared the loss of their jobs
 “The Devil’s tool”
 First recorded case of ‘Technophobia’
Slide 10
MIT5312: Professor Kirs
Information Processing & IS Types
Gottfried Liebniz
 Developed the 'Leibniz
Wheel’ (c 1690)
 An improvement over
the Pascaline
because the Leibniz
wheel could also:
 Multiply
 Calculate Square Roots
 Although only about 50 years after the Pascaline, the
Liebniz Wheel was better accepted
Slide 11
MIT5312: Professor Kirs
Information Processing & IS Types
Slide 12
Charles Xavier Thomas de Colmar
 The Arithometer
(c. 1820)
 Performed all the
functions of the
previous devices
 Remained in use
until WWI
The Problem with All of these devices was that they
relied on fixed wheels
 Operations could not be changed unless the machine was
physically altered
MIT5312: Professor Kirs
Information Processing & IS Types
Joseph Jacquard
 Devised a method for
automating the weaving loom
(c. 1800)
 Pre-determined patterns and
colors could be ‘programmed’
into the loom
 The patterns could be changed WITHOUT physically
altering the machine
 The first ‘variable input’ machine
 Because this occurred during the industrial revolution,
Jacquard’s invention was widely accepted and Jacquard
himself honored
Slide 13
MIT5312: Professor Kirs
Information Processing & IS Types
Slide 14
The ‘Difference Engine’ (c. 1822)
 Charles Babbage (1791-1871)
 The Father of Modern Computing
 Annoyed by time required and numerous
human errors made in calculating
Logarithms
Note the Time Period and Location:
 War in Europe (Babbage proposed his ideas in 1812)
 ‘Britannia Rules the Waves’
The Royal Navy used logarithms to produce astronomical
tables for navigational purposes.
 Babbage received a grant to develop a device which
would quickly and accurately calculate logarithmic tables
MIT5312: Professor Kirs
Information Processing & IS Types
Slide 15
It sounds good, but …..
 The Machine was steam
Powered
 Like the Pascaline:
 Prone to breakdowns
 Expensive
 The biggest Problem:
IT DIDN’T WORK!!!
MIT5312: Professor Kirs
Information Processing & IS Types
Slide 16
Did our hero give up ???
No! In 1833, Babbage proposed the ANALYTICAL ENGINE
The Analytical Engine Consisted of 5 basic components:
 A Variable Input Device
 Two ‘cards’ were used
 One to indicate the operations to be performed
 One to specify the data to be used
 A ‘Mill’, or device to process the commands and data
 A ‘Store’, or internal memory to hold commands and
data
 A ‘Controller’, or device which determined how to
process commands
 An Output Device to display results
MIT5312: Professor Kirs
Information Processing & IS Types
Slide 17
??? So ???
Babbage’s concepts formed the basis of
modern day computer design
 A ‘Controller’, or device which
determined how to process commands
 A ‘Store’, or internal memory to hold commands and
data
 A ‘Mill’, or device to process the commands and data
Central Processing Unit (CPU)
Control Unit (CU)
Internal
Arithmetic-Logic
Storage (IS)
Unit (ALU)
Variable Input
Output Device
MIT5312: Professor Kirs
Information Processing & IS Types
Slide 18
?? Did The Analytical Engine Ever Work ??
Not Really --- However -- In 1855, George Scheutz, a Swedish Printer, constructed
the first functional Difference Engine.
 Babbage's son, Henry, did manage to develop a functional
Mill portion of the Analytical Engine in the 1880's.
Babbage also influenced one additional development
Programming
MIT5312: Professor Kirs
Information Processing & IS Types
Ada Augusta Lovelace
 The First Programmer
 Lord Byron’s Daughter
 In Reviewing Babbage’s article
on the Analytical Engine, she
compiled some notes which
became the first Program
 The U.S. Department of Defense
named their programming
language (ADA) after her
Slide 19
MIT5312: Professor Kirs
Information Processing & IS Types
Slide 20
Herman Hollerith (1860-1929)
 1880: Census Clerk, Buffalo, NY
 The U.S. Constitution Requires a Census
Every 10 years
 The U.S. is experiencing a period of mass
immigration
 It was taking more than 7 years to process and interpret the
information
 The Census Department held a competition to reduce
collection and compilation time
 All entries were considered
 ‘Color Coding’ was a leading contender
 Guess who won?? ---- Yup ---- It was Herman !!!!
??? So, what was so special ???
MIT5312: Professor Kirs
Information Processing & IS Types
Slide 21
Hollerith’s Tabulating Machine
 Relied on ‘punched
cards’
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 Wires passing through
holes in the card would
close a circuit
The System Consisted of three Components
 A Punch to create the cards
 A Tabulator to process the cards
 A Sorter to organize the cards by categories
MIT5312: Professor Kirs
Information Processing & IS Types
Slide 22
?? Was the System Successful ??




The 1890 population count was completed in 6 months
All census data was compiled 2 years later
The total cost was $5 Million below forecasts
Later refinements allowed for additional data processing
?? What happened to Herman ??
 In 1896 Hollerith founded the Tabulating Machine Company to
build Electronic Accounting Machines (EAMs)
 The Tabulating Machine Company became the Computer
Tabulating Recording Company (CTR)
 In 1924 CTR changed its name to IBM (Hollerith retired in
1921)
 Hollerith’s coding scheme for the basis of the EBCDIC
coding scheme still used by IBM
MIT5312: Professor Kirs
Information Processing & IS Types
Slide 23
Konrad Zuse
 Between 1936 and 1941, Zuse built Four
machines
 The Z1 through the Z4
?? So ??
 Until Zuse’s machines, calculators were based on decimal
 Zuse’s machines, were based on binary
?? So ??
 As it turns out, binary was a more efficient system for
computers processing
 The Computer as we know it would not exist without
Zuse’s approach
MIT5312: Professor Kirs
Information Processing & IS Types
Slide 24
?? So Zuse Developed the 1st Computer ??
Well … Not Quite … Zuse’s Machines used a series of
mechanical (NOT electronic) Relays
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MIT5312: Professor Kirs
Information Processing & IS Types
The First Computers
 1939: Atanansoff &
Berry (Iowa State)
 The ABC Machine
 Funded by Department
of War
 1944: Howard Aiken (Harvard University)
 The MARK I
 Also Funded by the Department of War
 VERY FAST: 3 Seconds/Multiplication !!!
Slide 25
MIT5312: Professor Kirs
Information Processing & IS Types
Slide 26
 1946: Eckert & Mauchley (University of Pennsylvania)
 ENIAC
Electronic Numerical
Integrator And
Calculator
 Large:




30 Tons
1,500 Square Feet
19,000 Vacuum Tubes
When in Operation, Caused a ‘Brown-out’ in
Philadelphia
MIT5312: Professor Kirs
Information Processing & IS Types
Slide 27
??? So which was the 1st Real Computer ???
 The ABC Machine used electromagnetic relays, and was
really more of a prototype
 The MARK I was fully functional, but also relied on
Electromechanical Parts
 ENIAC had NO moving parts
??? So ENIAC was the 1st Real Computer ???
 The Issue was Contested
 In 1973, A federal Court awarded credit for the 1st
computer to John Vincent Atanasoff and his assistant,
Clifford Berry (The ABC Machine)
 Some still feel that ENIAC was the 1st Computer
MIT5312: Professor Kirs
Information Processing & IS Types
Slide 28
??? Did the 1st Generation of computers begin
with the ABC Machine or ENIAC ???
Neither
 Eckert & Mauchly (from U.P.) went on to form the
Remington-Rand Corporation
 In 1951, Remington-Rand Produced (and sold) the 1st
Commercially available Machine
 The UNIVAC I
??? So What ???
The 1st Generation of Computers Begins with the Sale of the
UNIVAC
MIT5312: Professor Kirs
Information Processing & IS Types
Slide 29
The 1st Generation of Computers (1951 - 58)
Onset:
• Sale of the first UNIVersal
Automatic Computer
(UNIVAC)
• An extension of the
ENIAC
Cost: $500K to $30M
Major Uses:
• Government
• The 1st machine was
sold to the US
Census Department
• Military
• Scientific Applications
MIT5312: Professor Kirs
Information Processing & IS Types
Slide 30
The 1st Generation of Computers (1951 - 58)
Technology:
• Vacuum Tubes
• Approx. 19,000 needed
• Large
(Up to 6’ Tall)
• Expensive
• Fragile
• Prone to Breakdowns and burn-outs (Debugging)
• Used An enormous amount of electricity (Brownouts)
• Gave off an enormous amount of heat (AC Needed)
MIT5312: Professor Kirs
Information Processing & IS Types
Slide 31
The 1st Generation of Computers (1951 - 58)
Speed: 2,000 – 3,000 Instructions per second
• By 1999, Most PCs were running at about 9 MIPS
• In 2000, A Germany company developed a computer running at 51 BIPS
Size:
• The UNIVAC took up 1,500 square feet of space
• IBM AN/FSQ-7 built for the US Air Force weighed 30 tons
and took up as much space as a High School Gymnasium
Memory:
• Magnetic Core (Donuts)
Magnetic Core
• Average: 1,000 – 4,000 ‘donuts’ (125 – 500 Chars)
MIT5312: Professor Kirs
Information Processing & IS Types
Slide 32
The 1st Generation of Computers (1951 - 58)
Secondary Storage:
• Magnetic Drums
Magnetic Drum
• Punched Cards
• Dated Back to Herman
Hollerith in 1880
MIT5312: Professor Kirs
Information Processing & IS Types
Slide 33
The 1st Generation of Computers (1951 - 58)
Secondary Storage:
• Punched Cards
• Dated Back to Herman
Hollerith in 1880
Operating Environment:
• Dedicated Machines
• The programmer 1st got the operating system (on cards)
• The added their program (on cards)
• Then fed the Deck into the card reader
Operating System
+
Program
MIT5312: Professor Kirs
Information Processing & IS Types
Slide 34
The 1st Generation of Computers (1951 - 58)
Program Languages:
• Machine language (1st
Generation)
• Programmers needed to know
all of the Operating Codes (in
Binary), keep track of
memory (in binary), and enter
all code in binary
IBM Wiring Board
Cost:
• $500,000 - $30M
(Approximately $25M to $1.5B in 2002 dollars)
Availability: 2,550 (1958)
MIT5312: Professor Kirs
Information Processing & IS Types
Slide 35
The 1st Generation of Computers (1951 - 58)
A Typical Set-up: An IBM 650 in 1956:
• The rental price for the CPU and power supply was $3,200/month
• This was about the complete price of a fully loaded Cadillac
• The equivalent of $156,800 in 1998
• The CPU was 5ft by 3ft by 6ft and weighed 1966 lbs
• The power unit was 5ft by 3ft by 6ft and weighed 2972 lbs
• A shirt pocket HP-100 will run on 2 AA cells and is much faster
• A card reader/punch weighed 1295 lbs and rented for $550/month
• The probable operating ratio was 80% -- not guaranteed
• The estimated cost of spare parts was $4000/year ($196,000 in 1998)
• The 650 could add or subtract in 1.63 mill-seconds, multiply in 12.96 ms, and
divide in 16.90 ms
• The memory on most systems was magnetic drum with 2000 word capacity
• For an additional $1,500/month you could add magnetic core memory of 60
words with access time of .096ms
MIT5312: Professor Kirs
Information Processing & IS Types
Slide 36
The 1st Generation of Computers (1951 - 58)
Information Systems Usage:
• No Real Systems
• The Programs written were highly procedural in nature
• User involvement Not Necessary
User Attitude:
• “What is a Computer?”
Manager Attitude:
• “What is a Computer?”
Designer Attitude:
• “What are Users and Managers?”
MIT5312: Professor Kirs
Information Processing & IS Types
Slide 37
The 1st Generation of Computers (1951 - 58)
Additional Issues of Note:
• 1951: Univac
• Built ‘On-Demand’ for no specialized purpose and with
no variations
• 1953: IBM701
• Business Oriented
• Not Extremely Successful
• 1954: IBM650
• Slight Improvement
• Direct Marketing
• Very Successful
• By End of 1st generation:
• IBM largest manufacturer of computers
(An Anti-Trust Suit had already been filed against IBM in 1952)
MIT5312: Professor Kirs
Information Processing & IS Types
Slide 38
The 2nd Generation of Computers (1959 - 65)
Onset:
• 1948: Bell Labs
• First Transistors
• 1954: TRADIC
• 800 Transistors
• 1959: IBM7000
• No Vacuum Tubes
• 1959: IBM1401
• IBM completely dominates
the computer market
Uses:
• Expanded Government and
Research usage
The IBM-1407
• Large Businesses (Almost exclusively for Accounting)
MIT5312: Professor Kirs
Information Processing & IS Types
Slide 39
The 2nd Generation of Computers (1959 - 65)
Technology:
• Transistors
• Relatively Small
• Much Cheaper
• Required Less
Electricity
• Gave off less heat
• Less prone to
break-downs
• Could be Mass
Produced
The IBM-1407 System
MIT5312: Professor Kirs
Information Processing & IS Types
Slide 40
The 2nd Generation of Computers (1959 - 65)
Speed: • 1 – 1.2 MIPS
• Clock Speeds of about 0.086 mHz
Memory:
(vs. about 2 gHz, or better, for most PCs today)
• All Magnetic Core
• The IBM-1401 typically had between 4k to 16k
(32k was considered large)
(In 2001, 1 MB of RAM could be purchased for as little as $0.19)
Secondary Storage:
• Still mostly Punched Cards
• Magnetic Tape Available
• Used 2-10½ Reels
• Capable of storing 14 MB/Reel
(The Equivalent of about 175,000 punch cards)
IBM Tape Reader
MIT5312: Professor Kirs
Information Processing & IS Types
Slide 41
The 2nd Generation of Computers (1959 - 65)
Cost: • Variable:
Cost (in that year’s $)
Year
Model
1959
IBM 7090
$3,000,000
1960
IBM 1620
$200,000
1960
DEC PDP-1
$120,000
1960
DEC PDP-4
$65,000
1962
UNIVAC III
$700,000
1964
CDC 6600
$6,000,000
1965
IBM 1130
$50,000
MIT5312: Professor Kirs
Information Processing & IS Types
Slide 42
The 2nd Generation of Computers (1959 - 65)
Operating Environment:
• The 1st Operating System (DOS) was invented
by IBM in 1956 but was not widely available
until the 2nd Generation
Gene Amdahl
Programming Languages:
• Assembly Language (2nd Generation; 1st developed in 1949)
• For example to add 4 + 6, the code needed was:
MOV AX,0006
MOV BX,0004
ADD AX,BX
; Puts value 0006 at register AX (Accumulator)
; Puts value 0004 at register BX
; Adds BX to AX contents
vs. the Machine Language (1st Generation) Code:
00110
00110
10100
00000
00110 00000111100
00100 00001001101
00000111100
00001001101
;Store value 110 (6) in memory loc 111100 (60)
;Store value 100 (6) in memory loc 1001101 (77)
;Load value in location 111100 into accumulator
;Add contents of memory loc 1001101 to accumulator
MIT5312: Professor Kirs
Information Processing & IS Types
Slide 43
The 2nd Generation of Computers (1959 - 65)
Programming Languages (Continued):
• 1957: 3rd Generation Laguages: FORmula TRANslation
(IBM)
• To add 4 + 6, the code needed was:
y=4+6
( y is the location in memory; no register operations required)
• 1958: COBOL (Dept. of Defense)
• Intended for transaction processing
and the processing of large amounts
of data
Grace Hopper (1902 – 1992)
Size: Corner of (large) room (Peripherals still large)
Availability: 18,000 (1964)
MIT5312: Professor Kirs
Information Processing & IS Types
Slide 44
The 2nd Generation of Computers (1959 - 65)
Information Systems Usage:
•
•
•
•
•
Mostly Individual Programs written for Specific needs
Programs still highly Procedural in nature
EDP departments established (Under Accounting)
Some Manager Involvement
User involvement considered unnecessary
User Attitudes:
• “I’ve heard of computers. What do they do? Will they
replace us?”
Manager Attitudes:
• “Maybe these things can save us money!”
Designer Attitudes:
• “We’re still in control: We can do what we like!”
MIT5312: Professor Kirs
Information Processing & IS Types
The 3rd Generation of Computers (1968 Onset: Photolithography
70)
(Reduction and Burning)
• Small Scale Integration
(SSI)
• 10’s of transistors/chip
• Medium Scale Integration
(MSI)
• 100’s of transistors/chip
• Large Scale Integration
(LSI)
• 1,000’s of transistors/chip
• Very Large Scale Integration
(VLSI)
• Millions of transistors/chip
Slide 45
MIT5312: Professor Kirs
Information Processing & IS Types
Slide 46
The 3rd Generation of Computers (1965 70)
Onset (Cont.):
• IBM 360 series
•
•
•
•
Several Models Available
Expandable
Software Unbundling
Software Compatibility
(More Anti-trust legislation pending)
Uses:
• Medium Size Businesses
• Educational Facilities
• Still primarily Accounting (TPS) but some
Managerial Reporting
MIT5312: Professor Kirs
Information Processing & IS Types
Slide 47
The 3rd Generation of Computers (1965 Major Changes:
70)
• Market Segmentation
• Smaller Businesses
• Small Universities
(DEC PDP-1 Introduced in
1960)
• Large Research Ctrs.
• Companies needing
extra resources
Mini-Computers
DEC PDP-8
Super Computers
(CDC Cyber 6000 Introduced
in 1964)
• Mainstream
Businesses and
Organizations
(UNIVAC Updated)
Cray Y-MP (1988)
Mainframes
MIT5312: Professor Kirs
Information Processing & IS Types
Slide 48
The 3rd Generation of Computers (1965 Integrated Circuits (ICs)
Technology:
70)
• Small
• Used little Electricity
• Cheap
• Gave off little heat
• Durable • Seldom Broke down
Speed: 0.01 Microsecond per operations
(1,000,000/.01 = 100 MIPS)
Memory: 32K to 3MB
Secondary Storage:
This integrated circuit, an F-100
microprocessor, is only 0.6 cm
square and is small enough to
pass through the eye of a needle.
• Magnetic Disks (Up to about 3 GB)
(In 2001, a 120 GB Drive sold for as little as $275)
• The IBM 1405 Disk:
• Could store up to 10 MB per disk
• Had up to 50 Disks, each 2’ in Diameter
• Purchase price per MB: around $10,000
(vs. $0.002 for the drive above – 5,000,000 times cheaper)
IBM 1405 Disk Storage
MIT5312: Professor Kirs
Information Processing & IS Types
Slide 49
The 3rd Generation of Computers (1965 70)
Size: Small Closet (Mini-Computer)
Cost: $15K to $10M
Operating Environment: Enhancements to IBM/DOS
Programming Languages:
• BASIC (1964)
• Kemeny and Kurtz at Dartmouth
University
• 1st Interpreted Language
Availability:
Kemeny and Kurtz
150,000 (1970)
MIT5312: Professor Kirs
Information Processing & IS Types
Slide 50
The 3rd Generation of Computers (1965 70)
Information Systems Usage:
• Early Generation:
• EDP Departments Expanding (Centralized Control)
• Emphasis on on automating everything
(Organizational Efficiency)
• Increased Emphasis on Managerial Reporting
• Periodic Reports
• Weekly Sales Summaries
• Monthly Budgets
• On-Demand Reports
• “How do our sales compare to San Antonio’s?”
• Exception Reports
• “Why did Johnson have $4,000 in sales expenses
last month?”
MIT5312: Professor Kirs
Information Processing & IS Types
Slide 51
The 3rd Generation of Computers (1965 70)
Information Systems Usage (Cont.):
• Later Generation:
• Because of Cheaper costs, Multiple Computers often
available
• Some decentralization of authority
(Individual area might have their own Computers)
• Some Programs written for individual departments and
users
(Organizational Effectiveness)
• Initial Attempts at Decision Support Systems (DSS)
• Programs written for Individual Decision Makers
• Programs written for Specific Problems
(Not a “True” DSS)
MIT5312: Professor Kirs
Information Processing & IS Types
Slide 52
The 3rd Generation of Computers (1965 70)
Manager Attitudes:
• Early Generation:
“These things are great! We can lay-off people and save
money!”
• Later:
“This is getting expensive!”
User Attitudes:
• Early Generation
“The boss says we have to use these miserable things! I
know they are going to replace us”
• Later
“I can live with it, but I wish it didn’t take forever to get
new systems!”
MIT5312: Professor Kirs
Information Processing & IS Types
The 3rd Generation of Computers (1965 Designer Attitudes:
70)
• Early Generation:
“We can do whatever we want! This is great!”
• Later:
“Its still a great job, but I hate those users! Can we
get rid of them?”
(The Mushroom Approach Begins – And Continues)
Slide 53
MIT5312: Professor Kirs
Information Processing & IS Types
Slide 54
The Early 4th Generation of Computers (1970 - 81)
Onset:
• The IBM 370 Introduced
• LSI
• Metal Oxide Semiconductors (MOS) for
memory
• Evolutionary NOT
Revolutionary
Why a new generation??
Because IBM said so!
Uses:
• Almost All Businesses/Research Facilities
• All Educational Facilities
MIT5312: Professor Kirs
Information Processing & IS Types
Slide 55
The Early 4th Generation of Computers (1970 - 81)
Other Developments:
• 1969: 1st Microprocessor developed at Intel
• 1974: Intel 4004 commercially available
• 1974: Edward Roberts develops the MITS
Altair 8800.
• Sold for $375
• Contained, a board set, CPU, front
panel (without switches), four slot
backplane and a 1K memory board with
256 bytes of RAM chips (not 256k).
• There was no case, no power supply no
keyboard, no display, and no auxiliary
storage device. (But Hacker’s Loved it)
Intel 4004
Altair 8800
THE 4th GENERATION IS NOW OFFICIALLY UNDERWAY !!!
MIT5312: Professor Kirs
Information Processing & IS Types
Slide 56
The Early 4th Generation of Computers (1970 - 81)
Other Developments (Cont):
• 1975: Popular Electronics Magazine
publishes an article on how to build
‘A Personal Computer’
(Hacker’s go crazy!)
• 1975: The Homebrew Computer Club
• Jobs meets Wozniak
• Together they start producing
computer boards (initially),
then computers, in Jobs’
parent’s garage
• The rest, as they say, is history
• 1977: Apple II Introduced
(1983 Sales: $983M)
MIT5312: Professor Kirs
Information Processing & IS Types
Slide 57
The Early 4th Generation of Computers (1970 - 81)
Information Systems Usage:
• Increasing Decentralization (Departmental Computing)
• EDP Departments Growing out of control
• Information Systems Development Bottlenecks
• Demand far exceeds supply
• Systems taking too long to develop
• File Processing Systems (mainly COBOL Based) still
prevalent:
• Single Application
• Extensive Duplication
• Structural and Data
Dependence
• Data Inconsistencies
•
•
•
•
•
Limited Data Sharing
Excessive Storage
Extensive Development Times
Extensive Maintenance
Lack of standards
Result: Shift (limited) toward Database Management Systems
(DBMS)
MIT5312: Professor Kirs
Information Processing & IS Types
Slide 58
The Early 4th Generation of Computers (1970 - 81)
Information Systems Usage (Cont.):
• DBMS originated as a result of NASA Space Program
• Early 1960’s: >60% of all data duplicated at least once
• IBM Develops Information Management Systems (IMS)
• Required extensive computing Resources
• Intended DBMS Advantages:
• Multiple Applications
•
• Data Consolidation
•
• Minimum Data
Duplication
•
•
• Data Sharing
• Data Integrity
•
Data Security
Data Standards
Enforcement
Easier Maintenance
Quicker Development
Cost Savings
MIT5312: Professor Kirs
Information Processing & IS Types
Slide 59
The Early 4th Generation of Computers (1970 - 81)
Information Systems Usage (Cont.):
• Increased use of Management Reporting Systems
• Increasing emphasis on unstructured programs for
managerial decision making
• Increased use of DSS
• Boeing, Lockheed
• Improvements/Extensions in Spreadsheets (DSS
Generators)
• Some Expert System/Artificial Intelligence applications
finding their way into business
• First ACM Computer Chess Tournament held in 1970
• LISP (1958)
• Prolog (1972)
• AI Shells
MIT5312: Professor Kirs
Information Processing & IS Types
Slide 60
The Early 4th Generation of Computers (1970 - 81)
Manager Attitudes:
• “If we control this thing right, we can increase
productivity”
User Attitudes:
• “It’s better, but trying to get what you need around here is
like pulling teeth!”
(Visible AND Invisible Backlogs)
Designer Attitudes:
• “We’re understaffed! The boss says I have to deal with those
slimy users, but I don’t have the time”
MIT5312: Professor Kirs
Information Processing & IS Types
Slide 61
Middle 4th Generation of Computers (1981 - 87)
Developments:
• IBM decides to use an ‘open-architecture’ approach
• They would use the Intel 8080 (decided in 1980)
• They would go shopping for an operating system
• First Stop: Gary Kildall creator of the PL/M
programming language for the Intel 8008
and developer of the CP/M (Control
Program/Monitor) operating system
• He wasn’t home
• His wife refused to sign the ‘Non-Disclosure’
form (i.e., “We never talked to IBM, and
even if we did, I can’t tell you what we
said”) that IBM always required
Gary Kildall (1946–94)
MIT5312: Professor Kirs
Information Processing & IS Types
Slide 62
Middle 4th Generation of Computers (1981 - 87)
Developments (Cont):
• Next Stop: Microsoft
• Microsoft had developed BASIC interpreters,
primarily for the Altair
• Did they have an operating system for the PC?
• “Of Course!”, Bill lied
• So, how did they get the operating system?
• Microsoft bought all rights to the 86-DOS from Seattle
Computers System in 1928 for $50,000
• MS-DOS version 1 operating system released in August, 1981.
Used 160 Kb memory and a single sided floppy disk
• Microsoft decides to license MS/DOS to IBM, while IBM ceded
control of the license for all non-IBM PCs.
MIT5312: Professor Kirs
Information Processing & IS Types
Slide 63
Middle 4th Generation of Computers (1981 - 87)
Developments (Cont):
• The Result:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
The IBM PC Released in 1981
Intel 8080 CPU operating at 4.77 mHz
64K Ram
1 5¼” Floppy Drive (No Hard Drive)
B/W (Green, really) Monitor
Approximate cost: $5,000
65,000 units sold by end of the year.
23% Market Share by 1983
• Bill Gates?
• With a net worth of $43.34 Billion (January, 2002) he is behind
the GNP of Puerto Rico ($47.62 Billion; the 50th ranked country
in the world), BUT ahead of the 51st, The United Arab Emirates
($42.73 Billion) (The Stock Market Crash really hurt)
MIT5312: Professor Kirs
Information Processing & IS Types
Slide 64
Middle 4th Generation of Computers (1981 - 87)
Major Advances:
• Introduction of PCs into
the workplace
• Significant Increases in
computing Power
• In 1983, The Cray-2
was running at 1
GigaFLOPs
Focus:
•
•
•
•
Business Departments
End-Users
Organizational Planning and Control
User Effectiveness
MIT5312: Professor Kirs
Information Processing & IS Types
Slide 65
Middle 4th Generation of Computers (1981 - 87)
Information Systems Usage:
• Change in Positioning/Importance of Information Systems
• Table of Organization changing from:
CEO
VP Marketing
VP Finance
Accounting
VP Production
•••••
VP Production
CIO
To:
EDP Depart.
CEO
VP Marketing
VP Finance
MIT5312: Professor Kirs
Information Processing & IS Types
Slide 66
Middle 4th Generation of Computers (1981 - 87)
Information Systems Usage (Cont.):
• Rapid Proliferation of End-User Computing
(Individual Effectiveness)
• End-User Computing had Trade-0ffs:
Pro
• Programs tailored
to user needs
• Effectiveness
• No waiting for ISD
for applications
• User Satisfaction
Con
• Duplication
• Errors
• User Skill and Knowledge
Limitations
• Reversion to file
processing systems
MIT5312: Professor Kirs
Information Processing & IS Types
Slide 67
Middle 4th Generation of Computers (1981 - 87)
Information Systems Usage (Cont.):
• Solution to User Trade-off Issues ??
• Information Centers (Help Desks)
• ISD no longer viewed as an Expense but as a Profit
Centers. (Revenues are ‘Soft Money’)
• (Some of the) Services Provided by ICs:
•
•
•
•
Phone-In Questions
• Approved Product Installation
Technical Assistance
• Approved Product Support
Training
Approved Product Purchases (User Pays Cost)
BUT at a cost and ONLY if Organization Standards are
maintained
(Non Standard Hard/Software tolerated but not supported)
MIT5312: Professor Kirs
Information Processing & IS Types
Slide 68
Middle 4th Generation of Computers (1981 - 87)
Information Systems Usage (Cont.):
•
•
•
•
•
•
Increased emphasis on Organizational databases
Increased emphasis on spreadsheets (PC Usage)
Increased Use of Expert Systems (still limited)
Introduction of Executive Information Systems (EIS)
Increased use of personal databases (This can be dangerous)
Availability of 4th generation Languages (4gls)
(Non-Procedural Languages)
• Increased usage of 3GLs and Object-Oriented Languages
• C (Bell Labs: 1973)
• C++ (1983)
• Visual BASIC
• Increased use of semi/non-structured systems for adhoc decision making (DSS)
MIT5312: Professor Kirs
Information Processing & IS Types
Slide 69
Middle 4th Generation of Computers (1981 - 87)
Manager Attitudes:
•
“There is a balance that we need to maintain”
User Attitudes:
• “I don’t need no stinking Analyst!”
Designer Attitudes:
• “Users may be a pain, but they can kill you if you aren’t
careful.””
• “I guess we need more than just technical skills. Are people
really necessary? It was so much nicer before.”
• IS trained individuals now preferred to Computer Science
Trained individuals
MIT5312: Professor Kirs
Information Processing & IS Types
Slide 70
The Later 4th Generation of Computers (1987 - )
Major Advances:
• LANs
• Intranets
• Internet
• ARPANET (1969)
• WWW (1992)
• Extranets
Focus:
•
•
•
•
Intra-Organizational
Inter-Organizational
Global Positioning
Business Effectiveness
MIT5312: Professor Kirs
Information Processing & IS Types
Slide 71
The Later 4th Generation of Computers (1987 - )
Information Systems Usage:
• Introduction of LANs Changed emphasis on IntraOffice
functioning:
• Increased Intra-office Communication (Email)
• Collaboration/Sharing of Data
• Balance between Centralization (Control) and
Decentralization (Flexibility)
• Intranets changed emphasis from Office Efficiency/Effectiveness
to Organization Efficiency/Effectiveness
• Focus on Business Effectiveness
• Internets/Extranets changed emphasis from Organizational
Efficiency/Effectiveness to Industry Effectiveness
• Global Competition
• EDI
• Strategic Information Systems
• E-Commerce
MIT5312: Professor Kirs
Information Processing & IS Types
Slide 72
The Later 4th Generation of Computers (1987 - )
Information Systems Usage:
• IntraOffice/IntraOrganization initiatives:
• Email
• Document Management
• Reliance on DBMS
• Intranets/Extranet Initiatives:
• EDI
• Database Proliferation
• Centralized
• Decentralized
• Distributed
• Web-Oriented Packages/Programming
• Java/Javascript
• Oracle
• ASP
• CGI
• Perl
• HTML
MIT5312: Professor Kirs
Information Processing & IS Types
Slide 73
The Later 4th Generation of Computers (1987 - )
Information Systems Usage:
• Increased need for rapid systems development:
• Prototyping
• Reliance on ‘canned systems’
• Reusable code (Object Oriented Programming – OOPS)
• Need for System Stability
• Ability to rapidly change as the business changes
• Ability to change as user needs change
• Emphasis on Graphical User Interfaces (GUIs)
• Need to minimize training time for new systems
• Improved System Interfaces (Legacy System Modifications)
• Need for ‘Seamless’ integration/interaction between
disparate systems
MIT5312: Professor Kirs
Information Processing & IS Types
Slide 74
The Later 4th Generation of Computers (1987 - )
Information Systems Usage:
• Use of Strategic Information Systems for competitive
advantage
• SABRE Systems
• McKesson
• American Hospital Supply
• Increased use of DSS/ES/EIS
• Emphasis on Information Systems for Re-engineering
• Need to change the way in which business is done, not
simply improve operations (i.e., Don’t use new tools to do
old things)
• Need to develop new information system uses:
• Artificial Intelligence
• Neural Networks
MIT5312: Professor Kirs
Information Processing & IS Types
Slide 75
The Later 4th Generation of Computers (1987 - )
Information Systems Usage:
• Increased attractiveness of Outsourcing:
• Concerns about Cost and Quality
• Tighter Overhead cost control/fringe benefits
• Lower-cost labor pools
• World-class standards applied
• Economies of scale
• Improved control/standardization
• Improved management of Inventory
• Focus on Business Skills
• Flattening of Hierarchical Structure
• Higher Levels of IT Skills
MIT5312: Professor Kirs
Information Processing & IS Types
Slide 76
The Later 4th Generation of Computers (1987 - )
Manager Attitudes:
• “We’ve got to keep pace with technology”
• “How can we use Information technology to gain
an advantage?”
User Attitudes:
• “I can’t do my job unless I have the latest technology”
Designer Attitudes:
• “How do they expect us to keep up with technology?
This job is killing me!”.
MIT5312: Professor Kirs
Information Processing & IS Types
Slide 77
Overview of the IT Environment/Infrastructure
Administration
Primary Target
Main Intent
Regulated
Monopoly
Organizational
Productivity/
Efficiency
Free
Market
Individual
Indiv/Group
Effectiveness
Era III Regulated Free
Market
(80s-90s)
Bus. Process/
Interorganiz.
Strategic/
Competitive
Era IV
Electronic
Integration.
Organization
Effectiveness
Era I
(60s-70s)
Era II
(70s-80s)
(90s -)
Collaborative
* Adapted from Applegate, McFarlan, McKenney
MIT5312: Professor Kirs
Information Processing & IS Types
Slide 78
Overview of Information System Types
Consider the type of Information which a Productions Manager
at an Automobile Assembly plant deals with:
Inputs
• S/he is concerned with what is happening in the plant only
• The Information focuses on what is happening now (‘real-time’)
• Input Data is based on what happened in the past
•
•
•
•
Outputs
The Outputs are very accurate
The Reports are very detailed
The reports received are generally similar in their structure
There are typically very few surprises
What Types of Information Systems are required ??
• Internal Data Operational Management
Transaction Processing Systems (TPS)
• Real-Time
On-Line TPS (OLTPS)
• Historical
• Highly Accurate
As Well As
• Very Detailed
Floor Shop Scheduling Inventory Control
• Highly Structured Floor Shop Control
Machine Control
And Others
Inventory Control
Process Control
• Anticipated
MIT5312: Professor Kirs
Information Processing & IS Types
Slide 79
Overview of Information System Types
Consider the type of Information which the General Manager at
the same plant deals with:
Inputs
• S/he is concerned with what is happening in the plant AND Outside
• The Information focuses on what is happening now AND in the future
• Input data is based on the past, but ALSO uses predictive data
•
•
•
•
Outputs
The Outputs are only fairly accurate
The Reports are somewhat detailed
The reports received are generally similar in their structure, but vary
There are sometimes surprises
What Types of Information Systems are required ??
•
•
•
Organizational Info. Systems (OIS) •
• Internal/External Data
Middle Management
• Real-Time/Future
Mgt. Info. Systems (MIS)
• Historical/Predictive
Info. Reporting Systems (IRS)
As Well As
Marketing Analysis
Sales Forecasting
Financial Planning
And Others
Fairly Accurate
Semi-Detailed
Semi-Structured
Semi-predictable
MIT5312: Professor Kirs
Information Processing & IS Types
Slide 80
Overview of Information System Types
Consider the type of Information which the CEO who is deciding
how to go about building a new car plant might require:
Inputs
• S/he is concerned with what is happening Outside the plant
• The Information focuses on will be happening in the future
• Input data is almost entirely predictive
•
•
•
•
Outputs
The Outputs are only somewhat accurate
The Reports are very summarized
The reports received are generally unstructured
There are often surprises
What Types of Information Systems are required ??
Decision Support Systems (DSS)
• External Data • Slightly Accurate
Top
• Future
• Summarized
But Middle & Operational Mgt. Can
Mgt.
• Predictive
• Unstructured
Use That Too! Mostly Top & Middle!
• Unpredictable
Executive
Expert Systems (ES)
That Will Work !
Info. Systs.
(EIS)
But Middle & Operational
Mgt. Can Use That Too!
Mostly Middle & Operational!
MIT5312: Professor Kirs
Information Processing & IS Types
Slide 81
Overview of Information System Types
If we put it together, we find:
External Data
Future Oriented
Predictive
Slightly Accurate
Summarized
Unstructured
Unpredictable
Internal Data
Real-Time
Historic
Accurate
Detailed
Structured
Predictable
Information
Top
Mgt.
Control
Executive
Info. Systs.
(EIS)
DSS
Middle Management
Mgt. Info. Systems (MIS)
Info. Reporting Systems (IRS)
Organizational Info. Systems (OIS)
As Well As
Marketing Analysis
Sales Forecasting
Financial Planning
And Others
Operational Management
Transaction Processing Systems (TPS)
On-Line TPS (OLTPS)
As Well As
Floor Shop Scheduling
Floor Shop Control
Inventory Control
Inventory Control
Machine Control
Process Control
And Others
ES
MIT5312: Professor Kirs
Information Processing & IS Types
Any Questions ??? (Please !!!)
No ????
Slide 82
MIT5312: Professor Kirs
Information Processing & IS Types
Slide 83
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Decision Making