Streaming and Mainstreaming
in English Language Teaching
Historical background
STREAMING
The school systems have been making a distinction
between children on the basis of “academic
attainment” and pupils were allocated to different
levels or schools.
 Level A :
More academically confident students
 Level B : Less academically students
STREAMING
Self-Fulfilling Prophecy
•Level A: Selected for advancement
“Successes”
•Level B: Selected-out of advancement
“Failures”
Mainstreaming
The concept of Mainstreaming first came into
prominence after the UN 3rd Conference on
Women, held in Nairobi in 1985.
It refers to:
Religion belief
Political opinion
Racial group
Age
Marital status
Disability
& Dependants
It has been decided that the
European Union will be
represented by all the languages.
Languages reflect the culture of
each country.
The European Union respects the
diversity of cultures.
MAINSTREAMING
The practice of placing students with
educational and/or physical disabilities
in general education classes.
Inclusion : Ενσωμάτωση
How does
MAINSTREAMING
affect students?
• It has a positive effect on ALL students.
• Students without disabilities benefit by learning to be
patient with children who need extra help in class.
• Students accept and value the difference in their
classmates and have enhanced Self-Esteem and develop
a genuine capacity for friendship.
• Students learn, first hand, that everyone has different
needs as well as different strengths.
• The classroom becomes a place where differences are
respected and everyone’s needs attended to, and
everyone strengths and talents are appreciated.
HEALTHY ENVIRONMENT
INCLUSIVITY
in the educational process is
fundamental to promoting a fuller idea
of CITIZENSHIP within the
school curriculum and linking with
LIFE-LONG LEARNING
citizenship.
How can we apply
MAINSTREAMING in our
classroom ?
Developing team teaching (mixed groups).
LEARNER AUTONOMY APPROACH
help students take charge of their learning.
Introdution of Learner-centered principles
PEER-TUTORING (mentoring)
WAYS TO FRAME
INSTRUCTIONS
• Obtain as much background information
as possible about your learners through
home language surveys, student files, etc.
• Be aware of culturally biased or
irrelevant content.
WAYS TO FRAME
INSTRUCTIONS
• Language accuracy is not as important.
Specific problematic aspects of language
will improve through time and practice.
• Use alternative assessments and monitor
frequently through checks for learning /
understanding
Four levels of impact
Level 1
INFLUENCE
Level 2 ENGAGEMENT
Level 3 APPRECIATION
Level 4
AWARENESS
supports teachers
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