INTONATION PATTERNS IN POLISH AND ENGLISH by Joanna Rutkowska Marzena Raczkowska prepared on the basis of Marek, B., Intonation and Emphasis in Polish and English, PSICL 3 Demenko G., Badania intonacji na potrzeby technologii mowy, WN-UAM 1999 Intonation The intonation of a sentence is the pattern of pitch changes that occurs during the utterance of the sentence. Presentation of the approach The most popular approach in the studies on intonation is so-called BRITISH SCHOOL. According to this approach there are three types of pitch patterns: -low ( L ) -high ( H ) -middle ( M ) English nuclear tones can be defined in terms of those three kinds of pitch. In our presentation we will try to compare Polish and English nuclear tones in terms of these pitch patterns. To refresh your memory... a tone group (fraza intonacyjna) consists of pre-head head nucleus (the syllable which carries the main change in pitch) tail [prehead [ head [[ nucleus] tail ]]] 220 60 0 Oh, I’m SO glad to see you Time (s) 3.68717 Types of nuclear tones falls: HL high-low (HL) Pol. Znowu ten wariat. Eng. not present 450 50 0 This freak Time (s) a gain 1.61828 450 50 0 1.242 Znowu ten Time (s) wariat Types of nuclear tones falls: ML and HM middle-low (ML) Pol. Bardzo zły znak. Eng. I don't believe it. high-middle (HM) Pol. To nie jest najlepsza poradnia. Eng. What did you do? Types of nuclear tones falls: xL 50 0 1.61828 Time (s) 450 extra-low (xL) 50 Pol. Mówiłem ci, że to jest kiepski nawóz. 0 Time (s) Eng. not present 1.242 450 50 0 I 3.04531 told you this was not a good fertiliser. Time (s) 450 50 0 1.54304 Mówiłam ci, że to jest kiepski nawóz. Time (s) Types of nuclear tonesrises: LM, LH low-middle (LM) Pol. Byłeś tu już? Eng. Try not to be late. middle-high (MH) Pol. not present Eng. Why don't I write to the secretary, did you say? low-high (LH) Pol. Co mówiłeś? Eng. It isn't as bad as all that. Types of nuclear tones (intonacje rdzenne) - other COMPLEX TONES low-high-low (LHL) or middle-high-low (MHL) Pol. not present Eng. It's ridiculous. high-low-high (HLH) or middle-low-high (MLH) Pol. not present Eng. No one wants to force you to play. LEVEL TONES middle-middle (MM) Pol. Dwa miasta . Eng. Two cities. Differences between nuclear tones in different l-s Some of the above listed phenomena are universal for different languages However, certain languages show considerable differences in their use of nuclear tones STRUCTURAL DIFFERENCES REALISATIONAL DIFFERENCES SEMANTIC DIFFERENCES STRUCTURAL DIFFERENCES Some types of nuclear tones (structures of pitch patterns) are present only in some languages e.g. English HLH nuclear tone is not present in Polish REALISATIONAL DIFFERENCES Similar intonation patterns appear in different languages, but they are realized in different ways. For example, LM tone is realized differently in English and in Polish: In Polish the increase of fundamental frequency occurs most often at the end of a phrase in English it can occur at the beginning of a phrase REALISATIONAL DIFFERENCES - illustration 50 0 3.04531 Time (s) 450 In English Polish the theincrease increaseofoffundamental fundamentalfrequency frequency occurs can occur most at often the beginning at the end of of a phrase a phrase 50 0 1.54304 Time (s) 450 50 0 Have you been Time (s) 2.88399 there? 450 50 0 1.6839 Pytasz dlaczegoTime nie(s) piszę do sekretarki? SEMANTIC DIFFERENCES Intonation patterns can be structurally similar, but they can have different meaning. For example, LH pattern can mean different things in Polish and in English In English LH does not indicate a question. In the expression It isn't as bad as all that LH pattern indicates opposition In Polish the expression Wcale nie jest znowu taka zła would be probably realized with falling intonation pattern of HL type. SEMANTIC DIFFERENCES - illustration 50 1.242 0 1.7312 Time (s) 3.04531 In English Polish, opposition LH does not is expressed indicate a question. by falling It indicates intonation opposition. pattern of HL type. 450 50 1.54304 0 It isn't as bad as all that 2.05819 Time (s) 450 50 2.88399 0 1.7312 Wcale nie jest znowu taka zła Time (s) FOCUS Focus is a specification assigned to an element of a semantic structure before the latter enters any postsemantic processes, and which can later be manifested in the surface structure by means of a nucleus placed on a corresponding element. Focus assignement in neutral sentences -1 In case of the ”neutral sentences” the focus is assigned according to the following rules: 1 If the semantic structure contains only one root and this root is a verb root, then this verb root receives the feature FOC (focus) V root ---- V root FOC Eg. It's [[rain]ROOTing]VERB Rules for focus assignement (ns) - 2 2 The FOC is assigned to an action verb root if the semantic structure contains this verb root and an agent noun root act V root ---- act V root FOC/ agent noun root eg. [David]NOUN [[laugh]ROOTed]VERB. Rules for focus assignement (ns) - 3 3 If the semantic structure contains a patient and a beneficiary or an agent noun root the feature FOC will usually be assigned to the patient. patient N root ---- patient N root FOC/benef.,agent eg. [Mary]AGENT opened [the box]PATIENT. Rules for focus assignement (ns) - 4 4 A location noun root, if present, will always have the feature FOC ( except for sentences with existential "there” loc N root ---- loc N root FOC eg. A book is on [the table]LOCATION N ROOT. (as opposed to: There is a book on the table.) Focus assignement in Polish neutral sentences The principle of FOC assignement seems to hold true for Polish, eg. Pada. V root ---- V root FOC Ściemnia się. V root ---- V root FOC Janek zaśmiał się. Act V root ---- act V root FOC/ agt N root Janek wylał mleko. pat N root ---- pat N root FOC/ben, agt Książka leży na stole. loc N root ---- loc N root FOC EMPHASIS Intonation can serve as a means of expressing emphasis. The semantic structure of an utterance determines the intonation which this utterance receives in the phonetic representation. The nature of emphasis is basically the same in Polish and English. Emphasis - examples 1a. 'Roger is a teacher. 1b. Roger is a teacher. 2a. 'Robert jest Ang likiem. 2b. Robert jest Ang likiem. 3a. Ma rysia jest tan cerką. 3b. Ma rysia jest tan cerką. Sentences of each pair differ in meaning. 1b, 2b and 3b express a contrast which is absent or less obvious in 1a, 2a ,3a. Contrastive and emotive emphasis Now look at the examples: 1a. It’s beautiful! 1b. Jak tu ślicznie! 2a. Roger is a teacher. 2b. Roger jest nauczy cielem. 3a. Roger is a teacher. 3b. Roger jest nauczy cielem. All the above sentences can be interpreted as emphatic. It can be also seen that the list contains examples for both contrastive and emotive emphasis. Focus shift in emphatic sentences The context may sometimes require a shift of FOC from the neutral position of ”neutral sentences" and place it on some other element of the semantic structure. Such a shift produces emphasis. The rule for EMPH assignement The feature EMPH is placed on focus in contrastive and emotive sentences. The nature of emphasis is basically the same in Polish and English X FOC ---- X EMPH/ contr X FOC ---- X EMPH/ emot Emphasis - illustration 450 50 0 Time (s) It’s beautiful 1.43234 450 50 0 Jak tu śli cz Time (s) nie 1.17424 Conclusion The nature of emphasis and the principle underlying intonation assignement are basically the same in Polish and English. X FOC ---- X EMPH/ emot [Listen]FOC everybody! [Mary]FOC has arrived! Patrzcie państwo! Marysia przyjechała! X FOC ---- X EMPH/ contr Roger is a teacher. Roger jest nauczycielem.