Cultural Competency Learning
Objectives
• What culture and cultural competency is
• Evaluating ourselves
• Why it is important to our work
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Demographics of America
Disparities in Health Status
Access to Health Care
Quality - a key to future success
• How to implement cultural services
• Closing the Gap/Development of Competency
• Burmese, American Indian, Hispanic, Asian Indian
• Game/ Post Test
Cultural Competency in the Health
Care Setting
What is Cultural Competence?
Cultural competence is a set of attitudes, skills, behaviors, and
policies that enable organizations and staff to work efficiently in
cross-cultural situations. It reflects the ability to acquire and use
knowledge of health care related beliefs, attitudes, practices, and
communication patterns of clients and their families to improve
services, strengthen programs, increase community participation,
and close the gaps in health status among diverse population
groups.
MSH (Management Sciences for Health)
Other terms for cultural competence include cultural proficiency and
cultural humility .
Effective cross-cultural competency equates to tailoring the delivery
of health care to meet the patient’s social, cultural and linguistic
needs.
What is culture?
• The learned, shared, transmitted values and beliefs and practices of a
particular group that guide the thinking, actions, behaviors,
interactions, emotions and view of the world.
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Art
Relationships
Customs
Clothing
Environment
Economics
Religion
Diet
Beliefs about:
Family obligations
Gender Roles
Preventative Health
Illness and death
Sexuality
Culture is an integrated pattern of human behavior which includes
but is not limited to:
communication
values
courtesies
rituals
relationships
roles
languages
thought
beliefs
customs
manners of
interacting
practices
expected
behaviors
… of a racial, ethnic, religious, social, or political group; the ability
to transmit the above to succeeding generations; dynamic in nature.
COMPETENCE
values
attributes
knowledge
skill set
requires values, attributes, knowledge and a skill set to work
effectively cross-culturally.
Cultural Competence
behaviors
practices
attitudes
policies
structures
requires that organizations have a clearly defined,
congruent set of values and principles, and demonstrate
behaviors, attitudes, policies, structures, and practices
that enable them to work effectively cross-culturally
(adapted from from Cross, Bazron, Dennis and Isaacs, 1989)
3 H Approach
Head- Understand that people think,
believe, behave, perceive,
understand, react/respond differently
than I do.
Heart- Sensitivity to the
differences and similarities
between and among
people; especially those
who are different from me.
Hands- Tools, skills and
knowledge to work
effectively with those who
are different from me
Peeling an Onion
multi-layered
During what decade
did you grow-up?
What have been
your life
experiences?
What is your
religious
background?
Who have you worked
with? Where have you
worked?
What schools
did you
attend?
Who were family
members that
influenced you?
Who raised you?
Adapted from Suganya Sockalingam, NCCC Senior Consultant
Where did you
grow up ?
Where have
you lived?
What area
were trained
in? Area of
study?
Tip of the iceburg
gender  language
 race or ethnicity 
 eye behavior
 facial expressions 
Adapted by the NCCC
 body language sense of self 
 gender identity 
notions of modesty concept of cleanliness
 emotional response patterns rules for
social interaction child rearing practices 
decision-making processes 
approaches to problem solving 
 concept of justice value individual vs. group 
 perceptions of mental health, health, illness, disability 
 patterns of superior and subordinate roles in relation to status by
age, gender, class  sexual identity & orientation 
Integration
Community Engagement
Cultural Competence
Linguistic Competence
Family Centered
Care
Literacy
Partnerships between
Families &
Professionals
Self Assessment or Reflection
What are your attitudes, knowledge and skills in related to
cultural and linguistic competence?
What are some barriers and opportunities that you have ?
How aware are you of the prevalence of significant health
care disparities?
Do you have an honest desire to not allow biases keep you
from treating every individual with respect and optimum
care?
Are you honestly capable of looking at your negative and
positive assumptions about others?
Learning to evaluate our own level of cultural competence
must be a part of improving the health care system.
Culture and Language may
Influence:
• Health, healing and wellness belief systems
• Illness, disease and how causes are perceived
• How health care treatment is sought and attitudes toward
providers, impacting treatment
• Delivery of health care services by providers who may
compromise access for patients from other cultures.
How well prepared are you to work with patients of
diverse populations?
• Do you consider the individual’s culture when planning and
coordinating care?
• Do you ensure that individuals who do not speak English
have trained certified medical interpreters?
• Do you modify your educational and printed materials to
meet the unique needs or learning styles of a diverse
population?
• Are you knowledgeable of the culturally and racially
diverse population in our area?
• What is your degree of proficiency in performing culturally
competent tasks?
• Is the educational support and communication present for
you to meet best practice standards?
Researchers have found classic
negative and racial stereotypes
We have a health system that is the pride of the world , but
the March 20, 2002 study entitled “Unequal Treatment
Confronting Racial and Ethnic Disparity in Health Care”
demonstrates that the playing field is clearly not equal.
David R. Williams, Professor of Sociology , U of Michigan
It found that racial and ethic minorities in the United
States receive lower quality health care than
whites even when their insurance and income are
the same.
Demographics of America
Our diverse nation is expected to become substantially more so over next
several decades.
The U.S. Census Bureau projects that by 2050, populations historically
termed “minorities” will make up 50% of the population.
The Hispanic –origin population will be the fastest growing ethnic group
doubling by 2050.
The fastest growing racial group will Asian and Pacific Islander
population. Asian American elders will increase by 300 %.
Marked differences in education, income with a greater number of blacks
and Hispanics being considered “near poor” (100-200% of poverty
level). This is remarkable in that income significantly influences health
status, access to health care and health insurance coverage.
One –sixth of the U. S. population speaks a language other than English
at home.
Disparities in Health Status
• Racial and ethnic minorities experience persistent and often increasing
disparity across a number of health care variables.
• Members of minorities suffer disproportionately from cardiovascular
disease, diabetes, asthma, , TB, HIV/AIDS and cancer.
• Variations in patient’s ability to recognize symptoms of disease and
illness, thresholds for seeking care, barriers related to mistrust,
expectations of care, including preferences for or against treatment
plans, diagnostic testing and procedures and the ability to comprehend
what is prescribed may influence the health care providers decisions.
• Causes of disparity are multi-factorial and often are related to social
determinants external to the heath care system.
Disparity in Access to Health Care
• Assessing high quality health care is often influenced by
the lack of an ongoing relationship with a provider, thus
reducing use of specialty services and preventative care.
• Increased use of ED as their regular place of care
• Geographic isolation, transportation, child care may be
problematic
• Non-English speaking patients may be reluctant to seek
treatment in a timely manner
Disparities in Health Insurance
Coverage
• One in six Americans is uninsured and those without
coverage is growing.
• Cost is the major barrier and many low income uninsured
families are not eligible for public programs or lack the
knowledge and literacy for enrollment.
• Confusion and fear inhibit immigrants from obtaining
coverage.
• More than one/three Hispanics and American
Indians/Alaska Natives do not have health insurance-triple
that for whites.
Disparities in Quality
• The Institute of Medicine indicates that health care should
exhibit 6 key quality components: safe, timely, effective,
efficient, patient-centered and equitable. All six must be
present for it to be high quality and in all these areas there
are significant disparities in care delivered to racial and
ethnic minorities.
• Differences may be the result of differential treatment by
providers but studies are indicating that physicians who
treat blacks primarily have more difficulty in obtaining high
quality ancillary services, specialists, diagnostic imaging,
etc.
Quality Being Addressed
• Healthy People 2010 – a national initiative to promote
equity and eliminate health disparities among different
segments of the population.
• United States Department of Health and Human Services
is requiring by 2010, that health care facilities provide
culturally competent care.
• The Joint Commission is also requiring facilities to provide
documentation of culturally competent care.
• There are clear links between cultural competence and
quality improvement and overcoming disparities.
• “Cultural Competence is being talked about a lot and it is a
beautiful goal, but we need to translate this into quality
indicators or outcomes that can be measured, monitored,
evaluated, or mandated.” –Administrator, Community Health Center
Culture of Improvement
• Mission of RHFW/ Enhancing everyone’s capabilities
• Value Added Component /rethink the way we provide
service
• Patient Centered Service/ Communication Priority
• Press Ganey Measures Overall Patient Satisfaction
• Priority index
• Response to Concerns/Complaints
• Degree to which hospital staff addressed your emotional needs
• Staff effort to include you in decisions about your treatment
• Increasingly responsible for coordinating care beyond our
walls
• Moving toward Pay for Performance /Quality incentive
Barriers to be overcome
• Institutional
• Socioeconomic, The Health Care System, Inadequate
Infrastructure, Discrimination
• Lack of diversity in leadership and workforce
• Community Level Barriers
• Philosophical Beliefs, Health Attitudes, Patient Provider
Relationship, American Medical Model, Modesty
• Provider Level Barriers
• Service Delivery Approach, Health Care Provider Attitudes
• Inadequate learning and assessment of knowledge, attitudes and
skills
Promising Communication
Strategies
• LEARN: Guidelines for Overcoming Obstacles in Cross
Cultural Comminication
• L isten with empathy for the patient’s perception of the problem
• E xplain your perception of the problem
• A cknowlege and discuss the similarities and differences
• R eccommend the treatment
• N egotiate agreement
Ethnic: A Framework for Culturally
Competent Clinical Practice
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E xplanation
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T reatment
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Negotiate mutually acceptable options that incorporate your patient’s beliefs
I ntervention
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Alternative or folk healers. Tell me about it
N egotiate
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Medicines, Home remedies or other treatments have been tried
Is there anything you eat, drink or avoid to stay healthy?
Please tell me about It. What treatment are you seeking?
H ealers
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What do you think may be the reason you have these symptoms?
What do friends and family say about these symptoms?
Do you anyone else with this problem?
What have you heard on the tv or radio about the condition?
Determine an intervention which may include alternative treatments- spirituality,
healers, etc.
C ollaboration … with family, health care team, healers, community resources
BATHE: Useful for Eliciting
Psychosocial Context
• B ackground
• What is going on in your life?
• A ffect
• How do you feel about what is going on?
• T rouble
• What about the situation troubles you the most?
• H andling
• How are you handling that? -provides direction for intervention
• E mpathy
• That must be very difficult for you. -legitimizes patient’s feelings
Language Barriers
• Use of trained certified medical interpreters
• M.D. s who have access to trained interpreters report significantly
higher patient-physician communication/adherence
• Discharge instructions in a language preferred by the
patient. Written materials developed in other languages
• Serving patients in their primary language including
notices, etc.
• Signage and Wayfinding to help reduce stress and
facilitate timely care
• Develop written language assistance plans
• Hispanics with language-discordant M.D. s are more likely
to omit medications, miss appointments, visit emergency
rooms for care than those with Spanish speaking doctors.
Basic Strategies
• Speak clearly and slowly without raising your voice,
avoiding slang, jargon, humor, idioms
• Use Mrs. Miss, Mr. , avoid first names which may be
considered discourteous in some cultures
• Avoid gestures- they may have a negative connotation
• Sign Language is not mutually understandable
• Some individuals believe illness is caused by supernatural
or by environmental factors like cold air. Do not dismiss as
they play an important role in some people’s lives.
• Many carry or wear religious symbols- Sacred threads
worn by Hindus, native Americans- medicine bundles
Limited English Proficiency
(LED)
• Determine Language needs at the point of contact
• A wide variety of language interpreters are available through
Language Line Services - In-service will be forthcoming
• Using phone interpreters
• Confidentiality-private room with a speaker phone
• Setting the Stage –summarize the situation
• Time Constraints- plan ahead with questions and allow for extra time
• On site interpreters
• Position Interpreter beside patient facing you
• Address patient directly, not interpreter-ask interpreter to speak in first
person so he/she can melt into the background
• Family members as translators is least desirable option=error, lack of
knowledge, biases, selective communication
Questions to Explore
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Primary and secondary language
Educational level- here or home country
Years in U.S./ degree of assimilation
Needs: interpreter, food, dietary, religious, cultural
Living arrangements
Who will make client’s health care decisions
Family values
Communication style
Lessons Learned
1. Don’t assume sameness.
2. What you think of as normal behavior may only be
cultural.
3. Familiar behaviors may have different meanings.
4. Don’t assume that what you meant was what was
understood.
5. Don’t assume that what you understood was what was
meant.
6. You don’t have to like or accept different behavior, but
you should try to understand where it comes from.
7. Most people do behave rationally; you just have to
discover the rationale.
Adapted from Craig Storti’s Cross Cultural Dialogues
Resources
• Culture Clues- tip sheets focused on improving the
communication between patients and health care
professionals, developed by the University of Washington
Medical Center http://depts.washington.edu/pfes
• Cue Cards- a multilingual resource to help with health
information translation
http://www.healthtranslations.vic.gov.au/bhcht.nsf/present
Detail?Open&s=Cue_Cards
• Find the resources you need to educate yourself/develop a
cheat sheet of cultural issues that affect care.
Bridging the Gap- Applying
Your Knowledge
• RHFW Resources
• Internet Resources
• Community Resources
• Learn about communities we serve and their health seeking
behaviors and attitudes
• Office Environment
• Develop training and appropriately tailored care-giving
• Perform self audits
• Ask staff to assist with designing ways to provide a supporting and
encouraging environment
• Provide staff with enriching experiences about the role of cultural
diversity
The Asian American Patient
• Diverse population-Chinese, Filipino, Vietnamese, Korean, Japanese
• Traditional Asian Definition of Causes of Illness is based on harmony
expressed as a balance of hot and cold states or elements
• Practices
• Coining- coin dipped in metholated oil is rubbed across skin =release
excess force from the body
• Cupping-heated glasses placed on skin to draw out bad force
• Steaming
• Herbs
• Chinese Medical Practices- acupuncture
• Norms about touch… head is highest part of body and should not be
touched
• Modesty highly valued
• Communication based on respect, familiarity is unacceptable
Burmese Refugees
• As of 2000, most of the estimated 20-30,000 Burmese living in the
U.S. were immigrants of religiously, ethnically and linguistically diverse
populations(150 separate sub-groups) Buddhists comprise 89% of
the population.
• Burma is one of 22 countries with a high burden of TB.
• Burma has one of the worst health systems in the world.
• In the past two years Burmese refugees have settled in Syracuse,
Phoenix, Minneapolis, Dallas, and Ft. Wayne- many from rural villages
• Challenging population to work with because of history of persecution
and mistrust of the government
• Burmese culture may be described as a more collectively-oriented,
favoring indirect, nuance style communication
• Discuss communication with interpreter and involve “cultural bridge” if
possible
Burmese Refugees
• Burmese traditional medicine is based on the classical health care
system of India where health is related to interactions between:
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The physical body
Spiritual elements
Natural world
Dat system: Wind, Fire, Water, Earth and Ether elements
Illness is considered an psychological imbalance until final stages when it
is classified as a disease
• Burmese Spiritualism linked with beliefs about cause, progression and
treatment of illness.
• Treatment may incorporate spiritual healing and exorcism of ghosts,
witches, demons and nats
• Muslim Burmese may use amulets-a verse based on Muslim
Numerology and Burmese Astrology written on paper and tied up
tightly with a thread and worn about a part of the body
• Karen Practcioners diagnose disease by wrist pulses and examining
face and eyes
Amish Society
• There are four groups of Amish
• Swartzentruber and Andy Weave Amish practice strict shunning
and are ultra conservative in their use of technology
• Old Order Amish is largest group- little or not modern technology
• Beachy Amish more relaxed discipline
• New Order Amish have liberal views but high moral standards
• Life is given and taken by God
• Disability is feared more than death
• Elderly ration care during end of life to not burden the
community or church’s resources
• Usually don’t have health insurance as it is considered a
worldly product ; the community comes together to pay
costs
• Speak to both husband and wife- partners in family life
Amish Society
• Four Basic Rules:
• More health professionals will come in contact with Amish
population- growing population
• Beliefs and behaviors are specific to the particular church district of
which they are a member
• Amish consider health care preferences from a holistic view- skill
as well as their relationship and reputation with Amish patients
count
• Amish will continue to change, as will their health care needs and
preferences
Amish Health Beliefs
• Powwowing-physical manipulation /therapeutic touch
/draws illness from body
• Illness endured with faith and patience
• Technology in the hospital for treatment is generally
accepted
• Belief in fate is common/ recognize external locus of
control
• Three generational family structure/they care for their
elderly
• Photographs are not permitted; mirrors are not permitted
Hispanic Health Beliefs and
Practices
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Preventative care may not be practiced
Illness is God’s will and recovery is in His hands
Hot and Cold Principles apply
Expressiveness of pain is culturally acceptable
Family may not want terminally ill told as it prevents
enjoyment of life left
Being overweight may be seen as a sign of good health
and well being
Diet is high in salt, sugar, straches and fat
High respect for authority and the elderly
Provide same sex caregivers if at all possible
Asian Indian
• Health encompasses three governing principles in the
body
• Vata energy and creativity
• Pitta optimal digestion
• Kapha strength, stamina and immunity
• Herbal Medicines and treatments may be used
• Modesty and personal hygiene are highly valued.
• Right hand is believed to be clean (religious books and
eating utensils): left hand dirty (handling genitals)
• Stoic/value self control; observe non verbal behavior for
pain
• Husband primary decision maker and spokesman for
family
Asian Indian
• Courtesy and self-control are highly valued
• Close family units/ may desire to stay in hospital and be
included in personal care of the patient.
• Very important to provide privacy after death for religious
rites
• Generally vegetarians. Beef is forbidden.
• Fasting is significant and crucial to consider in diet
teaching
• Many clients are lactose-intolerant
New and Emerging Knowledge
• Cultural Competency Development is a Journey – not a
goal
• Linking Communication to health outcomes
• Communication
• Patient Satisfaction
• Adherence
• Health Outcomes
Cultural and linguistic
competence is a life’s journey …
not a destination
Safe travels!
References
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Andrews, Janice Dobbins, Cultural, Ethnic and Religious Reference Manual, Jamarda
Resources,Inc., 1999
The Providers Guide to Quality and Culture, http://erc.msh.org
Cultural Diversity in Health Care, http://www.ggalanti.com
The State of Health Care Diversity and Disparity : A Benchmark Study of U.S. Hospitals,
Institute for Diversity in Health Management, October 2008
Teaching Cultural Competence in Physical Therapy Education, Committee on Cultural
Competence , June 2008
What is Cultural Competency?- The Office of Minority Health, http://omhrc.gov.
Teaching Cultural Competence in Nursing and Health Care: Inquiry, Action, and
Innovation by Seebert, Nancy, August 2006
Amish Society, An Overview Considered, Journal of Multicultural Nursing and Health, by
Donnermeyer, Joseph, Fredrich, Lora, Fall 2002
The Case for Cultural Competence in Health Care Professions Education by Shaya,
Fadia & Gbarayor, Confidence, January 2006,
http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov
University of Michigan Health System Multicultural Health Program,
http://www.med.umich.edu/multicultural
The Asian American Patient and Diabetes, MMCD Health Education, Diabetes
Self Management
TB and Cultural Competency, Northeastern Regional Training and Medical Consultation
Consortium, Spring, 2008
References
• Defining Cultural Competence :A Practical Framework for
Addressing Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Health and Health
Care, by Betancourt, Joseph, Green, Alexander, Carrillo, j,
Emillo, Firempong, Owusu, Public Health Records, JulyAugust, 2003, Vol. 118
• Communicating Across Boundaries: Beliefs and Barriers
by Gardner, Marilyn
• http://www.diversityrx.org
• Challenges Encountered When Teaching Cultural
Competence, http://medscape.com
• Getting the Most from Language Interpreters, by Herndon,
Emily & Joyce, Linda, June 2004 http://www.aafp.org
• Health Care Language Service Implementation Guide,
https://hclsig.thinkculturalhealth.org
References
• Racial and Ethnic Disparities in U.S. Health Care : a
Chartbook, March 2008, www.commonwealthfund.org
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www11.georgetown.edu/research/gucchd/nccc
www.mchb.hrsa.gov
www.championsforprogress.org
www.cshcndata.org
www.familyvoices,inc. Trish Thomas
• Diana Denboba, Branch Chief 301-443-9332;
[email protected]
• Wendy Jones, CSHCN Program Director
NCCC, 202 687-5531
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