Paperwork Stuff •Clinic – anyone who has yet to make up the chapter 20 test! Warm-Up Think about where your ancestors came from. Make a list on the board. Is there a pattern? Where did your ancestors come from? Europe North America South America Asia Africa Do you see a pattern? %? Why do you think this is? Australia CHAPTER 21 A NEW URBAN CULTURE Section 1 New Immigrants in a Promised Land A person who leaves a country in order to settle in a another one. A person who enters another country in order to settle there. Why did Immigrants come to the U.S.? Push Factors (Reasons why people left there homes) Lack of land Jobs lost to machines Political Persecution Religious Persecution Revolution / War Poverty / Hard times ____________________________ _________________________ (fill in the above continent) (Fill in the above continent) Pull Factors (Reasons that attract immigrants to a new country) Land Jobs Political Freedom Religious Freedom Better Life (easier) Family was there Why did Immigrants come to America? Typical Occupations in America Italians Italians •Cholera epidemic in 1880’s •Land shortage for peasants; landlords charge high rent •Food shortages •Poverty, unemployment •Unskilled labor – dock work, construction, railroads •Some skilled labor, such as bricklayers, stonemasons, and other trades East Europeans East Europeans •Russians, Poles; land shortages for peasants, unemployment, high taxes; long military draft. •Jews: discrimination, poverty, and recurring pogroms. •Poles: farmers, coal miners, steel and textile millworkers; meatpacking •Jews: laborers, garment workers, merchants. Chinese Chinese •Famine •Land shortage for peasants •civil war (Taiping rebellion) •Railroad and construction workers; some skilled labor •Merchants, small businesses Difficult Journey •steerage -slept and ate on the bottom level of the ship. •Fed lukewarm soup, boiled potatoes, and stringy beef. •The beds (berths) were narrow and sometimes stacked three high. •2,000 people in this area •On the return trip cattle or cargo filled the same spaces! •In such close quarters disease spread quickly. Roughly $700 today Difficult Journey •Sometimes a family •Ship wouldcompanies come all at once limited howtimes muchthey but many luggage immigrants would come could bring. The oldest separately. •The theymight childamount and father could bring to depended immigrate the new upon thewhile type of country thefare they paid. mother and other •Some people children wouldjust stayhad bundles together, behind. tied After the father others took child cardboard and oldest had boxes, workedtrunks, and earned suitcases, and money forbaskets the passage leather sacks. they of the others, would send for them. Difficult Journey •If the weather was good, people would try and stay on the deck. •The children would play games such as marbles and dominoes. They also spent time with people from many different places and learned words from other languages. •Mothers would wash their children's hair on the deck. •Other people would do chores on the ship with the sailors. Arrival Immigrants faced many difficulties on the journey to the United States. •Dangerous weather •Disease / Death •Once here though – they still had to pass a physical exam and a citizen ship test. EAST COAST ELLIS ISLAND Most European Immigrants entered here. 2% denied New York Harbor – Liberty Island and Ellis Island 1892 – Ellis Island Opened, Closed in 1954 1990 – opened as a Museum West Coast Most Asian Immigrants entered here. ANGEL ISLAND San Francisco Bay Used After 1910 Who Old New When 1840-1860 1860-1900 Settled on the Frontier Frontier Closed – Settled in/near cities Northern & Western Europeans English, Irish, German, Scandinavian Southern & Eastern Europeans Italians, Polish, Greeks, Russians, Hungarians Asians Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Indian, Filipino Americans Mexico, Caribbean Some spoke English Mostly Protestant, some Catholics Few spoke English Catholic, Jewish, Eastern Orthodox, Buddhist, Daoist Most speak English Catholic & Protestant Ellis Island Ellis & Angel Island Customs at Airports From Where Language Religion How Today 2000 Asians Chinese, Indian, Filipino 2 Activities to complete • Graphing – Old and New Immigrants • Mapping – Old and New Immigrants WRAP-UP • Review the Agree / Disagree statements. In the Before Reading box decide if you agree or disagree with the statements listed. HOMEWORK Read pages 600-605 and complete the After Reading section of the Agree / Disagree Statements.