Chapter 10: Thinking and Language
Speak up!
Think before you
speak.
Solve the
Problem
Talk to the
Animals
Concentrate
100
1. A mental grouping of objects or
events is called a:
•
•
•
•
A) mental image.
B) concept.
C) abstract representation.
D) cognition.
2. When we think of a “bird” we are
more likely to think of a robin than a
penguin because a robin fits our:
•
•
•
•
A) perception.
B) cognition.
C) formal concept.
D) prototype.
3. When following this procedure to
solve problems, you will always arrive at
a correct solution.
•
•
•
•
A) trial-and-error
B) heuristic
C) algorithm
D) insight
4. Jim misplaced his keys. He knew they
were in the house, so he first looked on the
hook, then on the dresser, then in other
places he has found them in the past. He
is using the strategy of:
•
•
•
•
A) trial-and-error.
B) heuristics.
C) algorithm.
D) insight.
5. A team of researchers have
discovered an area of the brain
activated during sudden flashes of
insight, it was the:
•
•
•
•
A) right temporal lobe.
B) left parietal lobe.
C) prefrontal cortex.
D) amygdala.
6. When the United States went to war
with Iraq on the false assumption it had
weapons of mass destruction, this was an
example of:
•
•
•
•
A) heuristics.
B) fixation.
C) ignorance.
D) confirmation bias.
7. Our tendency to approach a problem
a certain way, i.e., a way successful in
the past, is called:
•
•
•
•
A) prototype.
B) heuristics.
C) mental set.
D) algorithm.
8. Mary was out of coffee filters. She did
not think of using a paper towel, so she
went without coffee. Her failure was one
of:
•
•
•
•
A) representativeness heuristic.
B) algorithms.
C) functional fixedness.
D) availability heuristic.
9. Gambling is perpetuated, in part, by
the ease we have of remembering the
times we won. This is an example of:
•
•
•
•
A) false memory.
B) availability heuristic.
C) false prototypes.
D) concept misattribution.
10. Politicians know that labeling military
action as a “pre-emptive strike” gains
more support than, “invasion.” This is an
example of:
•
•
•
•
A) lying.
B) framing.
C) false advertising.
D) political psychobabble.
11. The rules of a language, its ___,
helps determine the meaning being
communicated.
•
•
•
•
A) nanogram
B) linguistics
C) syntax
D) morpheme
12. The smallest unit of language that
carries meaning is called a:
•
•
•
•
A) morpheme.
B) phoneme.
C) babble.
D) telegraphic speech.
13. By the time infants are about
10 years old,
• A) they should be speaking full
sentences.
• B) they should be putting two words
together.
• C) their babbling is universal across all
cultures.
• D) their babbling has features of
the household language.
14. The stage of speech in which a
young child says things like, “go car,”
and, “momma come,” is called:
•
•
•
•
A) one-word speech.
B) telegraphic speech.
C) babbling.
D) morpheme speech.
15. Chomsky believes our capacity for
language is natural and quick due to:
•
•
•
•
A) behavioral conditioning.
B) sequential developmental stages.
C) language being entirely inborn.
D) a language acquisition device.
16. According to Worf (1956), differences
among languages cause differences in
perceptions and thinking. This idea is
called:
•
•
•
•
A) displacement hypothesis.
B) linguistic determinism.
C) perceptual change theory.
D) linguist shift.
17. Deaf children are unable to learn a
language:
• A) if their parents are hearing and don’t
sign.
• B) if their parents are deaf and sign.
• C) in some languages more than
others.
• D) regardless of what they are
exposed to.
18. Wallace Lambert (1992) found that
bilingual education:
• A) resulted in a loss in vocabulary for
the English speaking children.
• B) had no benefit to Canadian students.
• C) resulted in higher levels of English
proficiency.
• D) resulted in higher levels of
self-esteem for Hispanics.
19. Thinking without language:
• A) is not possible.
• B) can improve your performance on
the basketball court.
• C) is found only in animals.
• D) occurs more often in cultures
without language.
20. Students wanting to improve their
test scores should:
• A) should study every chance they get.
• B) should spend 5 minutes every day
imagining themselves getting an “A”.
• C) should think more often.
• D) spend 5 minutes every day
imagining themselves studying.
21. Most researchers who work with
Apes conclude their mental
accomplishments:
• A) are around the level of a 2-yearold human.
• B) include self-recognition.
• C) include empathy and reasoning.
• D) all of the above.
22. Chimpanzees can use language:
• A) to meaningfully communicate
with symbols.
• B) if taught to speak at an early
age.
• C) to obey commands.
• D) just like people.
23. Bees communicate:
• A) in a quick series of buzzing
sounds.
• B) with their antennae.
• C) by a complex dance to tell
where the flowers are.
• D) all of the above.
24: Human communication differs from
animal communication in our use of:
•
•
•
•
A) vocal sounds.
B) syntax.
C) phonemes.
D) morphemes.
25. Animal researchers have shown
that chimpanzees and apes can:
• A) communicate with one another.
• B) show insight.
• C) comprehend the syntax of
human speech.
• D) all of the above.
Stop here, or continue as a review
1. A mental grouping of objects or
events is called a:
A) mental image.
B) concept.
C) abstract representation.
D) cognition.
396
2. When we think of a “bird” we are
more likely to think of a robin than a
penguin because a robin fits our:
A) perception.
B) cognition.
C) formal concept.
D) prototype.
396
3. When following this procedure to
solve problems, you will always arrive at
a correct solution.
A) trial-and-error
B) heuristic
C) algorithm
D) insight
397
4. Jim misplaced his keys. He knew they
were in the house, so he first looked on the
hook, then on the dresser, then in other
places he has found them in the past. He
is using the strategy of:
A) trial-and-error.
B) heuristics.
C) algorithm.
D) insight.
398
5. A team of researchers have
discovered an area of the brain
activated during sudden flashes of
insight, it was the:
A) right temporal lobe.
B) left parietal lobe.
C) prefrontal cortex.
D) amygdala.
398
6. When the United States went to war
with Iraq on the false assumption it had
weapons of mass destruction, this was an
example of:
A) heuristics.
B) fixation.
C) ignorance.
D) confirmation bias.
399
7. Our tendency to approach a problem
a certain way, i.e., a way successful in
the past, is called:
A) prototype.
B) heuristics.
C) mental set.
D) algorithm.
400
8. Mary was out of coffee filters. She did
not think of using a paper towel, so she
went without coffee. Her failure was one
of:
A) representativeness heuristic.
B) algorithms.
C) functional fixedness.
D) availability heuristic.
400
9. Gambling is perpetuated, in part, by
the ease we have of remembering the
times we won. This is an example of:
A) false memory.
B) availability heuristic.
C) false prototypes.
D) concept misattribution.
402
10. Politicians know that labeling military
action as a “pre-emptive strike” gains
more support than, “invasion.” This is an
example of:
A) lying.
B) framing.
C) false advertising.
D) political psychobabble.
406
11. The rules of a language, its ___,
helps determine the meaning being
communicated.
A) nanogram
B) linguistics
C) syntax
D) morpheme
411
12. The smallest unit of language that
carries meaning is called a:
A) morpheme.
B) phoneme.
C) babble.
D) telegraphic speech.
411
13. By the time infants are about
10 months old,
A) they should be speaking full sentences.
B) they should be putting two words
together.
C) their babbling is universal across all
cultures.
D) their babbling has features of
the household language.
412
14. The stage of speech in which a
young child says things like, “go car,”
and, “momma come,” is called:
A) one-word speech.
B) telegraphic speech.
C) babbling.
D) morpheme speech.
413
15. Chomsky believes our capacity for
language is natural and quick because:
A) behavioral conditioning.
B) sequential developmental stages.
C) language being entirely inborn.
D) a language acquisition device.
414
16. According to Worf (1956), differences
among languages cause differences in
perceptions and thinking. This idea is
called:
A) displacement hypothesis.
B) linguistic determinism.
C) perceptual change theory.
D) linguist shift.
418
17. Deaf children are unable to learn a
language:
A) if their parents are hearing and don’t
sign.
B) if their parents are deaf and sign.
C) in some languages more than others.
D) regardless of what they are exposed to.
414
18. Wallace Lambert (1992) found that
bilingual education:
A) resulted in a loss in vocabulary for the
English speaking children.
B) had no benefit to Canadian students.
C) resulted in higher levels of English
proficiency.
D) resulted in higher levels of
selfesteem for Hispanics.
420
19. Thinking without language:
A) is not possible.
B) can improve your performance on
the basketball court.
C) is found only in animals.
D) occurs more often in cultures
without language.
421
20. Students wanting to improve their
test scores should:
A) should study every chance they get.
B) should spend 5 minutes every day
imagining themselves getting an “A”.
C) should think more often.
D) spend 5 minutes every day
imagining themselves studying.
421
21. Most researchers who work with
Apes conclude their mental
accomplishments:
A) are around the level of a 2-yearold human.
B) include self-recognition.
C) include empathy and reasoning.
D) all of the above.
426
22. Chimpanzees can use language:
A) to meaningfully
communicate with symbols.
B) if taught to speak at an early
age.
C) to obey commands.
D) just like people.
427
23. Bees communicate:
A) in a quick series of buzzing
sounds.
B) with their antennae.
C) by a complex dance to tell
where the flowers are.
D) all of the above.
428
24: Human communication differs from
animal communication in our use of:
A) vocal sounds.
B) syntax.
C) phonemes.
D) morphemes.
4286
25. Animal researchers have shown
that chimpanzees and apes can:
A) communicate with one another.
B) show insight.
C) comprehend the syntax of human
speech.
D) all of the above.
428
Answers
1.
B
9.
B
17.
A
2.
D
10.
B
18.
C
3.
C
11.
C
19.
B
4.
B
12.
A
20.
D
5.
A
13.
D
21.
D
6.
D
14.
B
22.
A
7.
C
15.
D
23.
C
8.
C
16.
B
24.
B
25.
D
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