NONFICTION TEXT UNIT: PATHS OF THE PEOPLE A look at the Wisconsin Ojibwe Indian Experience WORDS YOU’LL NEED TO KNOW TO GET STARTED….. •Primary source document •Secondary source document •Treaty •Negotiation •Consensus •Cession •Reservation •Removal •Assimilation •Allotment WHO ARE THE OJIBWE INDIANS? •Other names: Anishinabe, Saulteur, Chippewa •Name means “to roast until puckered”—it refers to their style of moccasins. This name was given to them by their enemies, the Eastern Dakota (Sioux) •Originated in the Gulf of St. Lawrence region; migrated to Wisconsin over a 500 year period •Their lifestyle incorporated hunting and gathering, which required them to move seasonally to find resources. They moved freely throughout much of north central Wisconsin and parts of Michigan and Minnesota •After treaties with the United States government, Ojibwe Indians were restricted to small areas of land called reservations TWO QUESTIONS TO CONSIDER AS WE WORK THROUGH THIS UNIT: •What were the impacts of treaties on the Ojibwe people? •In what way(s) do we see impacts of these treaties in Wisconsin today? As we read and discuss during this unit, think carefully about what you are learning about Ojibwe history. Be prepared to share your ideas—positive and negative—about the questions listed above. PART 1: THE TREATY PERIOD Treaties of 1825, 1837, 1842, & 1854 TREATIES AT A GLANCE 1825— establishes boundaries among Indians 1837— “Pine Tree Treaty” Government wants access to timber 1842— “Copper Treaty” Government wants access to copper deposits near Lake Superior Not a removal treaty **Between 1842 & 1854: President Taylor’s Removal Order, Annuity Payments in Sandy Lake, MN 1854— provides reservation lands in UP and Wisconsin PART 2: POST-TREATY CONTROVERSY In 1852, Chief Buffalo led a small group of Ojibwe Indians to Washington. His goal was to protest the Removal Order of President Zachary Taylor. He was almost 100 years old at the time. He was able to get President Millard Fillmore to end the Removal Order, and his visit helped to secure Wisconsin land for the Ojibwe in 1854. A section of the 1854 Treaty with the Chippewa. This section, Article 2, describes reservation lands for the Ojibwe people. PART 3: SOLVING THE “INDIAN PROBLEM” “We can not afford to raise any more Indians in this country.” (Atkins, J.D.C., US Commissioner of Indian Affairs, 1887-88.) After the Indians were provided reservation lands, much pressure was put on the Ojibwe people to abandon their old ways. The United States government attempted to assimilate the Ojibwe into the “white man’s world.” Government methods included dividing the reservation lands and allotting small sections to individual members of the tribe. They hired farmers to work with the Ojibwe in order to increase the number of farms on reservation lands. Government officials also opened boarding schools for Ojibwe children. The children were removed from their homes and enrolled in schools that were often far away from their families. Students at boarding schools were forbidden to speak their native languages. In addition to learning how to read and write, they received instruction in skills that would help them be “successful” in the white man’s world. These skills included farming and carpentry for the boys and sewing and cooking for the girls. TOURISM— “PLAYING INDIAN” By the 1920’s, improved transportation into Wisconsin’s “north woods” allowed many tourists from the south to visit northern Wisconsin. This meant that many Ojibwe people were able to find jobs in the tourism industry. Ojibwe men worked as hunting and fishing guides and laborers at lakeside resorts. Ojibwe women often sold craft items like beadwork, birchbark baskets, moccasins, and dreamcatchers. Women also worked as cooks or laundresses in resorts. Sometimes, the Ojibwe people would perform in pageants and pow wows in order to entertain tourists. The U.S. government didn’t especially approve of this practice. Now, consider again the guiding questions for this unit….. •What were the impacts of treaties on the Ojibwe people? •In what way(s) do we see impacts of these treaties in Wisconsin today? It’s time to share your ideas!!