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Reduction of pollution from agricultural point
and diffuse sources through policy changes
and demonstration through pilot projects
Ivan Zavadsky
Project Manager
UNDP GEF Danube Regional Project
The Danube River Basin,
a cultural and historical centre of Europe
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Structure of the presentation

The Danube River Protection Convention

EU WFD implementation

UNDP GEF Danube Regional Project:
Implementing Components on Agriculture
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The Danube River Protection
Convention
A legal frame for co-operation to assure
the protection of water and ecological
resources and their sustainable use in the
Danube River Basin
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Danube River Protection Convention
OBJECTIVES
 Ensure sustainable and equitable water
management
 Ensure conservation, improvement and the rational
use of surface waters and ground water
 Control discharge of waste waters, inputs of
nutrients and hazardous substances from point and
diffuse sources of emissions
 Control floods and ice hazards
 Control hazards originating from accidents (warning
and preventive measures)
 Reduce pollution loads of the Black Sea from
sources in the Danube catchment area.
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ICPDR Policies & Actions
The Joint Action Programme
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Policies and Strategies of the JAP
River Basin Management and implementation
the EU Water Framework Directive
 Emission inventory and pollution reduction
 Restoration of wetlands and flood plains
 Transnational Monitoring Network (TNMN)
and extended water quality standards
 Accident warning system and prevention
 Sustainable flood control and prevention
 Domestic and basin wide water balance.
Investments and expected results
(Joint Action Programme /
Five Years Nutrient Reduction Plan)
Investments:




Municipal waste water collection & treatment:
Industrial waste water treatment:
Agricultural projects and land use:
Rehabilitation of wetlands:
3.709 billion USD
0.276 billion USD
0.113 billion USD
0.323 billion USD
Nitrogen reduction:
• from point sources :
• from diffuse sources :
• total emission reduction :
58,600 t/y
60,000 t/y
22 %
Phosphorus reduction:
• from point sources :
• from diffuse sources :
• total emission reduction :
12,000 t/y
4,000 t/y
33 %
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The Implementation of the EU
Water Framework Directive in
the Danube River Basin
Development of the Danube RBM Plan
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- preparation phase
European Commission
ICPDR
 Common Implementation
Strategy
 Guidance documents
• Strategy for development of RBM Plan
• Delimitation of the DRB District (including
the coastal waters of the Black Sea)
• Development of issue papers and
preparatory studies on special DRB topics
economic analysis
transboundary issues
public participation
Danube GIS & mapping criteria
typology & reference conditions of water bodies
artificial and heavily modified water bodies
significant pressures and impacts
effects from human activities on ground water
register of protected areas (species and habitats)
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Agricultural Pollution Control Strategy
in Line with the WFD Requirements
• Updated basin-wide Emission Inventories 2002
• Article 5 of the WFD: information on the type
and scale of significant anthropogenic
pressures, including point and diffuse sources
of pollution.
• Requirements to consider land use patterns
(e.g. urban, industrial, agricultural, forest).
Project “Harmonised Inventory of Point and
Diffuse Emissions of N and P in the DRB”
MONERIS
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• Undertaken by the Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries
(IGB), Berlin.
• The project aim: to determine and calculate the annual nutrient emissions
into the Danube river (1998 to 2000) by applying MONERIS model to the
388 sub-basins of DRB.
• 7 pathways are considered: point sources (discharges from municipal
waste water treatment plants and direct industrial discharges);
atmospheric deposition; erosion; surface runoff; groundwater; tile drainage
and paved urban areas.
•
Estimations of Agricultural Diffuse Pollution: 4 main nutrient emission
pathways influenced significantly by agriculture –groundwater, tile
drainage, soil erosion and surface run-off.
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Effect of pollution on
the Black Sea
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Significant process degrading the Black Sea
 Over-fertilization of the sea by compounds of N and P,
largely as a result of agricultural (late 1960s, "green
revolution"), domestic and industrial sources. This overfertilization produces eutrophication which has changed the
structure of the Black Sea ecosystem.
 It is estimated that the six Black Sea countries contribute
about 70% of the total amount of the substances flowing to
the Black Sea as waste from human activities.
 The remaining 30% (from the other eleven non-coastal
countries) enter the Sea via the Danube River.
 Current phosphate levels appear to be roughly the same as
in the 1960s but total nitrogen levels are still at least four
times as those observed during that period.
Annual Nitrogen Load in the Danube (in kt/y), subdivided16
over the countries of origin, with a high estimate for the
in stream denitrification (= removal rate)
nitro gen (kt/a)
600
500
400
G ERMANY
A U S T R IA
C ZE C H _R E
S L O V A K IA
HUNG ARY
S L O V E N IA
C R O A T IA
YU G O S LAV
B O S N IA _ H
B U L G A R IA
R O M A N IA
MO LDOVA
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(5.1% )
8
(1.5% )
12 1
(22 % )
U K R A IN E
300
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(4.1% )
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(6.5% )
7 2 (13 .1 % )
200
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(4.1% )
20
(3.5% )
31
(5.6% )
30
(5.4% )
15
(2.8% )
7 7 (13 .9 % )
100
o u tflo w
B G -R O bo rd e r
Iro n G a te s
Y U -B G b o rd e r
Y U -R O b o rd e r
Tis a
S ava
D ra v a
H to C R /Y U
M o ra v a /A -S K -H b o rd e r
In n
D -A bo rd e r
0
s o u rc e
6 8 (12 .3 % )
total
55 1 (10 0% )
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Cooperation with the Black
Sea Commission
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Memorandum of Understanding
between the International Commission for
the Protection of the Black Sea (ICPBS)
and the International Commission for the
Protection of the Danube River (ICPDR)
on Common Strategic Goals
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Nutrient Reduction to the Black Sea
Goals:
 In short and medium terms, by adopting appropriate
strategies, in particular in the transition countries, that
will permit economic development, whilst assuring the
recovery of the agricultural and industrial sector
activities, the discharge of nutrient and hazardous
substances into the Black Sea shall not exceed the
discharges from 1997
 In the long-term, the Black Sea ecosystems shall
recover to conditions similar to those observed in the
1960s through progressive reduction of loads of
anthropogenically applied nutrients and hazardous
substances in all countries of the Black Sea Basin.
Joint Danube / Black Sea
Technical Working Group
Bulgaria
Romania
Ukraine
BS members
Danube members
Russia
ICPDR
PS
Joint Danube /
Black Sea TWG
MLIM
chair
EMIS
chair
Georgia
Turkey
Black Sea
PS
UNDP/GEF
DRP
UNDP/GEF
BSP
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JTWG Danube-Black Sea
Work Programme
 Assessment of existing monitoring systems (BSC area)
 Development of monitoring programme (BSC area)
 Development of ecological status indicators (BSC area)
 Assessment of pollution (causes) in the BSC area and
of the ecological status of the Black Sea
 Development of reporting formats
 Recommendations to limit discharge of nutrients and
hazardous substances
 Enhancing of information mechanisms
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Nutrient Management in the Danube
Basin and its Impact on the Black Sea
daNUbs
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General objectives:

to improve the knowledge on the sources, pathways, stocks,
losses and sinks of nutrients in a large river catchment,

to improve the knowledge on the effects of nutrients

to develop, improve and combine management tools for
nutrients in the Danube Basins and

to develop scenarios and prognoses for nutrient
management and its effect on water quality and their
consequences on the socio-economic development in the
DRB.
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UNDP GEF Danube Regional Project
Strengthening the implementation
capacities for the nutrient reduction and
transboundary cooperation in the DRB
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The Overall Objective of the
Project
Complement the activities of the ICPDR
required to strengthen a regional approach for
solving transboundary problems. This includes
the development of national policies and
legislation, the definition of priority actions for
pollution control, especially nutrient reduction,
as well as the achieving of sustainable
transboundary ecological conditions within the
DRB and the Black Sea basin area.
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Project Time Frame
• Phase 1 (2002-2003), Preparation
– activities related to ICPDR Expert Groups, WFD
support, sectors: agriculture, industry, wetlands;
public participation, pilot activities etc.
• Phase 2 (2004-2006), Implementation
– Application of methodologies, plans, strategies and
pilot projects prepared in the Phase 1
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Goals of the DRP
in Short....
• Reduce Nutrient and Toxic Pollution in the
Danube and Black Sea Ecosystems;
• Reinforce Transboundary Cooperation and
the Ecosystem Approach.
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The Approach?
1. Support the ICPDR & its Member States, through
strengthening the ICPDR Structures, activities and
policy development;
2. Strengthen Public Involvement in addressing key
environmental problems through supporting the
NGOs (DEF network), public awareness activities,
communication strategy, small grants programme
and access to information.
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A Summary of DRP
Activities
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•
•
•
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Strengthening Institution (s);
Improving Management Tools;
Developing Policies;
Promoting Public Participation;
Implementing Pilot Projects.
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Strengthening
Institutions
• Danube Protection Commission (ICPDR);
–
–
–
–
WQ Monitoring System;
ICPDR Info System (Danubis),
Accident Prevention and Control;
Joint Danube-Black Sea Working Group;
• National Level;
– Inter-ministerial Committees;
• Other Stakeholders:
– DEF.
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Developing & Utilizing
Tools
• River Basin Management (EU Water
Framework Directive),
• Danube GIS,
• Economic Instruments (Tariffs,Fines etc.)
• Monitoring of Nutrients in Wetlands.
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Developing Policies
•
•
•
•
•
Agriculture;
Industry;
Economic Instruments;
Land Use and Wetlands;
Phosphates in Detergents.
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Supporting Pilot
Projects
• River Basin Management
(Sava River Basin),
• Agriculture,
• Wetlands.
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Supporting Public
Participation
• Public Awareness (Communication
Strategy, products & campaigns);
• Small Grants Programme;
• Support to DEF;
• Public Participation in Developing a
Danube River Basin Mgmt. Plan;
• Improving Access to Information (phase 2)
for Addressing Hot Spots
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UNDP GEF Danube Regional Project
Output 1.2:
Policies for the Control of
Agricultural Point and
Non-point Sources of
Pollution
Output 1.3:
Pilot Projects on
Agricultural Pollution
Reduction
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Policies for the Control of Agricultural Point
and Non-point Sources of Pollution

Up-dating the basin-wide inventory on priority agricultural point and
non-point sources of pollution (Phase 1)

Reviewing the relevant legislation, existing policy programmes and
actual state of enforcement in the DRB with respect to promotion and
application of best agricultural practices

Reviewing the inventory on important agrochemicals (nutrients etc.) in
terms of quantities of utilization, their misuse in application, their
environmental impacts and potential for reduction

Identifying the main institutional, administrative and funding
deficiencies (including complementary measures) to reduce pollutants

Introducing or, where existing, further developing concepts for the
application of BAP in all DRB countries
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Policies for the Control of Agricultural Point
and Non-point Sources of Pollution
(2)
 Inventory/description of policy instruments/programmes
 Assessment of adequacy (e.g. state of enforcement)
 Description of main deficiencies
 Review of BAP projects/programmes
 Assessment of nutrient reduction capacity of BAP
projects/programmes identified
 Gaps/deficiencies in the implementation of BAP
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Policies for the Control of Agricultural Point
and Non-point Sources of Pollution(3)
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Develop basin-wide unifying concept of BAP according to need for
intervention that is identified – develop the “hierarchy of BAP” in more
detail, taking into account national circumstances
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Take account of EU requirements where appropriate

Prepare concept paper for each of the 11 DRB countries and translate
into appropriate national languages for purposes of consultation
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Discuss the new concept with governments, farming communities and
NGOs in the DRB and disseminate the results and conclusions
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Pilot Projects on
Agricultural Pollution Reduction
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Analyzing existing programmes and pilot projects promoting BAP
(especially regarding animal farming and manure handling, as well as
organic farming) in DRB countries, and assess nutrient reduction
capacities (Phase 1)
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Developing practical concepts for the introduction respectively
promotion of appropriate agricultural practices and manure handling in
the central and downstream DRB countries by taking into account
national demand and international markets
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Preparing and implementing for the central and lower DRB countries
typical pilot projects (especially in UA, MD, RO, BG, YU and B-H) to
train and support farmers in the application of best agricultural practice
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Pilot Projects on
Agricultural Pollution Reduction (2)
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Clearly defined mechanisms for promoting BAP through the agricultural
extension services
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Consultation workshop on the design and development of selection
criteria for pilot projects promoting BAP in the priority countries
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List of potential projects in the central and lower DRB countries
(especially in UA, MD, RO, BG, YU and B-H) to train and support
farmers in the application of best agricultural practice
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Preliminary implementation plans
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Danube Regional Project Web Page
• http://www.icpdr.org/undp-drp
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Thank you
for your attention!
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