6th NKOS WOrkshop
May 31, 2003
Houston, TX, US
Semantic Network Services
Sharing an integrated Ontology using
Topic Maps and Web Services
Research project UFOPLAN-Ref. No. 20111612, promoted by BMU/Federal Environmental Agency, Germany
Adam Farquhar (presenter)
KM Architect, Schlumberger, Austin, TX
Thomas Bandholtz
KM Solution Manager, SchlumbergerSema, Cologne (DE)
Member, OASIS TC Published Subjects & GeoLang (Topic Maps)
1
10/3/2015
Presenter initials
Umweltbundesamt
Semantic Network Services
German Environmental Information Network
> 200.000 individual web pages supplied
by over 80 authorities
+ > 500,000 objects in 9 remote
databases
+
SNS
Semantic Network Services
Harmonize environmental information
from national and state authorities
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Semantic Network Services
The gein® Integrated Ontology
Bi-lingual German/English
1.
a thesaurus of currently 39,143 environmental
terms (UmThes®, German source of GEMET)
2. a gazetteer including the intersections between
48,213 geographical objects of all kinds
(extended GN250, includes UN LOCODE);
3. a chronology of historical and contemporary
events that have affected the environment,
currently 544 events.
Before SNS, these were three distinct ontologies.
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Semantic Network Services
The Noise of „water“
"daphnia" "direct discharger" "permit for the use of water" "deep water" "water aeration" "snow water" "terms of waste water" "agricultural effluent" "boiling water reactor"
"water pollution load" "combined waste water" "waste water composition" "black water" "grey water" "river works" "water board law" "water supervision" "protection area for water
regulation" "groundwater resources" "salamander" "agriculture" "tertiary purification of sewage" "sewage purification close to nature" "persistent chemical substance" "primary
treatment" "flood" "chemical sewage purification" "secondary treatment of sewage" "industrial effluent" "lowering of groundwater level" "waste water purification" "bathing
waters" "water protection" "waste water reclamation" "surface water" "water privilege" "underground disposal of waste water" "water rate statute" "water levy act" "hydroisobath" "groundwater flow" "groundwater storey" "public goods" "hot water storage" "hot water heating system" "groundwater" "waste water legislation" "water quality
management" "water heating" "seepage water disposal" "hot water" "saline water intrusion" "industrial water" "mineral water" "stocktaking" "municipal water management"
"hydraulic and sanitary engineering" "waste water examination" "groundwater table" "void water" "seepage water treatment" "percolating water" "waste water reduction" "sewage
flow" "deep sea" "sewage lagoon" "waste water statistics" "water protection policy" "well" "water quality directive" "salts" "surface water" "river water" "wastewater load" "indirect
discharger" "back water" "waste water register" "river" "impregnation (materials)" "municipal sewage" "waste water sludge" "ordinance on parameters of noxiousness of waste
water" "sludge" "harmfulness of wastewater" "aquifer" "impregnating agent" "sewer" "desalination of brackish water" "waste water decontamination" "brackish water" "Waste
Water Origins Ordinance" "intertidal area" "feed water" "groundwater contour line" "ground water conservation" "soil moisture regime" "soil water" "small body of water" "waste
water charge legislation" "waste water charge code" "human settlement" "stagnant water" "waste water charge fixation" "state water law" "waters (geographic)" "water sciences"
"waste water charge" "environmental quality objective" "turtle" "residue" "water works" "waste water disposal" "proprietary right" "water course regulation" "sewage
decontamination" "liquid manure" "industrial installation" "waste water disposal embargo" "wastewater discharge" "rinse water" "EU Water Protection Directive" "industry"
"Framework Water Directive" "river filtrate" "waterfowl" "water pollution" "rhizosphere" "dump impounded water" "turbomachine" "water supply" "water pollution prevention"
"raw water" "deep water" "sea water protection" "outfall" "water evaporation" "water consumption" "water board decree" "biological water testing" "sea water fish" "water
analysis" "sea water desalination" "material insoluble in water" "shore belt bird" "waste water disposal embargo" "waste water disposal scheme" "sea water" "drinking water
preparation regulation" "sewage treatment plant" "turbidity of water" "drinking water" "water management plan" "general planning on water resources development" "sewage
disposal" "residual amount of water" "flowing waters" "water management" "wastewater quality" "tail water" "condensate" "under water coating" "planning permission" "aquatic
animal" "water temperature" "water reuse" "tide" "waste water treatment plant" "physical sewage treatment" "mechanical sewage treatment" "water resources" "international
convention" "electrochemical sewage treatment" "chemical sewage treatment" "rural area" "anaerobic sewage treatment" "aerobic sewage treatment" "water mite" "permit"
"drinking water supply" "drainage" "drinking water regulation" "water quantity management" "water volume" "water market" "water statistics" "water level" "water sports"
"reservoir" "waste water treatment" "drinking water examination" "drinking water protection area" "water shortage" "solubility in water" "drinking water quality" "water line"
"water conductivity" "low water" "regulation on securing of enough water" "law on the securing of enough water" "securing enough water" "shallow water" "protected water
catchment area" "Act Pertaining to Charges Levied for Discharging Waste Water into Waters" "wastewater levy" "water cooling system" "discharged water" "water cycle"
"hydroelectric power plant" "water power" "water partition" "waterborne sound" "water pollutant" "rainwater" "flood runoff" "drinking water treatment plant" "drinking water
treatment" "pollution of waters" "sewerage system" "water contents" "vapour" "Water Hygiene Act" "water purification" "water act" "water association" "vadose water" "inland
water way" "water hygiene" "water resources policy act" "biological water balance" "water hardness" "water pollution monitoring" "water sample" "water price" "water flow" "aquatic
plant" "increasing water hardness" "water penny" "water surface" "surface runoff" "water utilization" "PWR-type reactor" "deep sea fishing" "inland waters" "algae bloom"
"hydrologic balance" "water movement" "water bottom" "water quality model" "water deposit" "water protection directive" "water protection legislation" "water pollution control
measure" "water pollution control act" "water pollution control deputy" "toilet" "pelagial" "water demand" "hydraulic construction" "water treatment" "water quality" "long distance
water supply" "water catchment" "restoration of waters" "impounded water" "water act" "water company" "regulation of waters" "water content" "bilge water" "water ouzel" "water
runoff" "water endangering" "regulation concerning water endangering matter" "wet-type cooling tower" "permit to exploit water" "reject water" "fresh water fish" "utilization of
waters" "Framework Waste Water Administrative Regulation" "condition of water" "softening" "fresh water" "groundwater characteristics" "water fall" "administrative regulation
on substances hazardous to water" "water prospecting" "water desalination" "lime water" "salt water" "black water" "drainage water" "Ground Water Ordinance" "Waste Water
Ordinance" "Light water reactor" "washing water" "water sterilization" "ground water charges" "water softening" "quality of waters" "clarification basin planted with water plants"
"endangering of water" "water saving" "water permeability" "cooling water" "available water supply" "steam" "water pool" "ecological assessment"
308 terms about “water” from the UmThes® Thesaurus
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Thesaurus Concept
ISO 2788/5964
Morphology
composite
Term
Synonym
Component
preferred
related
Descriptor
broader
as implemented in UmThes®
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Where is River Rhine?
“Nördliche Oberrheinniederung natural landscape“ „Mainz-Bingen district“ „Waldshut district“ „Bodenseebecken natural landscape“ „Dinkelberg und
Hochrheingebiet natural landscape“ „Hochrheintal natural landscape“ „Markgräfler Rheinebene natural landscape“ „Mittleres Oberrheintiefland natural landscape“
„Offenburger Rheinebene natural landscape“ „Nördliches Oberrheintiefland natural landscape“ „Vorderpfälzer Tiefland natural landscape“ „Mittelrheingebiet (mit
Siebengebirge) natural landscape“ „Oberes Mittelrheintal natural landscape“ „Kölner Bucht (Köln-Bonner Rheinebene) natural landscape“ „Niederrheinisches Tiefland
natural landscape“ „Mittlere Niederrheinebene natural landscape“ „Bodensee lake“ „Elz catchment area“ „Rhein von Murg bis Neckar catchment area“ „Rhein von Sieg bis
Erft catchment area“ „Rhein von Lippe bis Maas catchment area“ „Franzosenkopf mountain“ „Rauhenberg mountain“ „Bregenzer Ache river“ „Argen river“ „Rotach river“
„Schussen river“ „Stockacher Aach river“ „Radolfzeller Aach river“ „Wutach river“ „Schwarta river“ „Aare river“ „Hauensteiner Alb river“ „Wehra river“ „Kander river“
„Sulzbach river“ „Möhlin river“ „Elz river“ „Kinzig river“ „Rench river“ „Sauerbach river“ „Murg river“ „Lauter river“ „Klingbach river“ „Pfinz river“ „Queich river“ „Saalbach
river“ „Speyerbach river“ „Kraichbach river“ „Neckar river“ „Eckbach river“ „Eisbach river“ „Weschnitz river“ „Modau river“ „Schwarzbach river“ „Main river“ „Selz river“
„Nahe river“ „Lahn river“ „Mosel river“ „Saynbach river“ „Nette river“ „Wied river“ „Ahr river“ „Sieg river“ „Wupper river“ „Dhünn river“ „Erft river“ „Ruhr river“
„Emscher river“ „Lippe river“ „Schwarzwald mountains“ „Taunus mountains“ „Westerwald mountains“ „Siebengebirge mountains“ „Hunsrück mountains“ „Schwäbische Alb
mountains“ „Düsseldorf community“ „Duisburg community“ „Krefeld community“ „Emmerich community“ „Kalkar community“ „Kleve community“ „Rees community“ „Hilden
community“ „Langenfeld (Rhld.) community“ „Monheim am Rhein community“ „Dormagen community“ „Meerbusch community“ „Neuss community“ „Dinslaken community“
„Moers community“ „Rheinberg community“ „Voerde (Niederrhein) community“ „Wesel community“ „Xanten community“ „Bonn community“ „Köln community“ „Leverkusen
community“ „Wesseling community“ „Bad Honnef community“ „Bornheim community“ „Königswinter community“ „Niederkassel community“ „Troisdorf community“
„Wachtberg community“ „Wiesbaden community“ „Biblis community“ „Bürstadt community“ „Groß-Rohrheim community“ „Lampertheim community“ „Biebesheim am Rhein
community“ „Bischofsheim community“ „Gernsheim community“ „Ginsheim-Gustavsburg community“ „Riedstadt community“ „Stockstadt am Rhein community“ „Trebur
community“ „Hochheim am Main community“ „Eltville am Rhein community“ „Geisenheim community“ „Lorch community“ „Oestrich-Winkel community“ „Rüdesheim am Rhein
community“ „Walluf community“ „Koblenz community“ „Remagen community“ „Sinzig community“ „Bad Breisig community“ „Brohl-Lützing community“ „Gönnersdorf
community“ „Burgbrohl community“ „Andernach community“ „Bendorf community“ „Brey community“ „Rhens community“ „Spay community“ „Niederwerth community“ „Urbar
community“ „Vallendar community“ „Weitersburg community“ „Kaltenengers community“ „Kettig community“ „Mülheim-Kärlich community“ „Sankt Sebastian community“
„Urmitz community“ „Weißenthurm community“ „Neuwied community“ „Bad Hönningen community“ „Hammerstein community“ „Leutesdorf community“ „Rheinbrohl
community“ „Dattenberg community“ „Leubsdorf community“ „Linz am Rhein community“ „Ockenfels community“ „Kasbach-Ohlenberg community“ „Bruchhausen community“
„Erpel community“ „Rheinbreitbach community“ „Unkel community“ „Boppard community“ „Hungenroth community“ „Karbach community“ „Oberwesel community“ „Sankt
Goar community“ „Lahnstein community“ „Filsen community“ „Kamp-Bornhofen community“ „Osterspai community“ „Braubach community“ „Bornich community“ „Dörscheid
community“ „Kaub community“ „Kestert community“ „Lykershausen community“ „Nochern community“ „Patersberg community“ „Prath community“ „Reichenberg
community“ „Sankt Goarshausen community“ „Sauerthal community“ „Weisel community“ „Frankenthal (Pfalz) community“ „Ludwigshafen am Rhein community“ „Mainz
community“ „Speyer community“ „Worms community“ „Osthofen community“ „Eich community“ „Gimbsheim community“ „Hamm community“ „Germersheim community“
„Wörth am Rhein community“ „Bellheim community“ „Berg (Pfalz) community“ „Hagenbach community“ „Neuburg am Rhein community“ „Jockgrim community“ „Neupotz
community“ „Lingenfeld community“ „Hördt community“ „Kuhardt community“ „Leimersheim community“ „Altrip community“ „Bobenheim-Roxheim community“ „Neuhofen
community“ „Römerberg community“ „Otterstadt community“ „Bingen am Rhein community“ „Budenheim community“ „Ingelheim am Rhein community“ „Bacharach community“
„Manubach community“ „Münster-Sarmsheim community“ „Niederheimbach community“ „Oberdiebach community“ „Oberheimbach community“ „Trechtingshausen
community“ „Weiler bei Bingen community“ „Bodenheim community“ „Lörzweiler community“ „Nackenheim community“ „Gau-Algesheim community“ „Guntersblum community“
„Ludwigshöhe community“ „Heidesheim am Rhein community“ „Dexheim community“ „Dienheim community“ „Nierstein community“ „Oppenheim community“ „Bodensee
community“ „Karlsruhe community“ „Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen community“ „Linkenheim-Hochstetten community“ „Rheinstetten community“ „Dettenheim community“
„Philippsburg community“ „Oberhausen-Rheinhausen community“ „Au am Rhein community“ „Elchesheim-Illingen community“ „Iffezheim community“ „Rastatt community“
„Steinmauern community“ „Lichtenau community“ „Rheinmünster community“ „Hügelsheim community“ „Mannheim community“ „Brühl community“ „Ketsch community“ ......
423 locations intersecting with river Rhine
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The Gazetteer Model
intersects
Names Morphology
GeoObject
Types / Layers
Coordinates
part of
addressed by Open GIS Consortium (OGC)
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What happened since Chernobyl?
Accident at the Chernobyl reactor
1986-04-26
???
Following a fire and minor explosion in one of the four
reactors in the Ukrainian atomic power station
Chernobyl, 10,000 km2 of the surrounding area is
contaminated radioactively, affecting 640
communities and 230,000 inhabitants. There are 35
immediate fatalities, and opinion is still divided as to
the extent of the long-term consequences.
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Chronology
sequence
Names Morphology
Event
Temporal Extent
related
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Types
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Integration in a Topic Map
topic type
topic
association
Topic
Thesaurus
Event
Descriptor
Accident
Nuclear Energy
broader
Location
Nation
Community
ex. USSR
Ukraine
Nuclear Accident
Chernobyl
radiation disaster
1986-04-26
Chernobyl
situated in
where
what
occurrence
www.chernobyl.com/
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Umweltbundesamt
What is a Topic Map?
scopes
subject
ID
names
“anything whatsoever ...”
<baseName>
<displayName>
<sortName>
<variant>
Identity
subject identifier
topic
topic
Topic Type
topic
topic
role
occurrences
“addressable
information objects
grouped around topics”
role
associations
Association Type
ISO/IEC FCD 13250:2000 - Topic Maps
Prepared by: ISO/IEC JTC1/SC34 - Document Description and Processing Languages
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“In the most generic sense, a subject is anything
whatsoever, regardless of whether it exists or has any other
specific characteristics, about which anything whatsoever
may be asserted by any means whatsoever.”
ISO/IEC FCD 13250:2000 - Topic Maps
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Inheritance: Extension (used by SNS)
Name
+ TimeSpan
<start>
<duration>
assoc.
assoc.
assoc.
assoc.
<baseName>
<displayName>
<sortName>
<variant>
Identity
event
topic
<subject>
<subjectIdentifier>
Occurrences
<title>
<role>
<URL>
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XTM (Appendix to 13250)
•
•
•
•
One of two interchange formats (“XTM is not the standard”)
DTD – but no normative XML Schema
Does not support extensions of topic characteristics
No support of constraints (f.e. association templates)
Announced:
• 13250 Part X: The Standard Application Model
• 13250 Part X: The Reference Model
• ISO 18048: Topic Maps Query Language (TMQL)
• ISO 19756: Topic Maps Constraint Language (TMCL)
My humble opinion: OWL can be used.
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The SNS Topic Typology
Thesaurus
related
intersects
Location
broader
Event
where?
Administrative, ...
Descriptor
what?
Synonym
Conference, ...
Component
related
preferred
composite
Stopword
Topic
abstract Topic
Association
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To be extended by persons, organizations,
environmental indicators, monitoring
methods, species taxonomies, .........
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Graphical View (topic-centered)
“climatic change” (center), 2 levels of associated topics
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A document-centered View
“topic space”
document
primary topic
cluster

topics
grouped around
addressable
information
objects
loner
secondary topic cluster
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Automatic Classification
read document
rank by frequency
separate stopwords
rank by position
recognize word position
find near-by topic clusters
find words in topic map
compare to similar documents
classification candidates
verified candidates
recognize composite terms
resolve ambiguities
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classification
quality
assurance
use!
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Associative Search
query text
1. topic
2. topic
3. topic
.....
1. topic
2. topic
3. topic
.....
resulting
documents
As your query text input is handled like any other document,
the query is matched to the searched content by a
one-and-only auto-classification method.
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Umweltbundesamt
System Architecture
Remote Applications
Web Services
Import/Export
Search &
Navigation
XTM, OWL
Java API
Topic Map
Databaseinterface
corporate IT
architecture
Autoclassification
Design
& Maintenance
HTML GUI
corporate
Knowledge
Experts
built on SchlumbergerSema XML Topic Map Engine
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Semantic Network Services
SNS Web Services
W3C Web Services Activity
SNS
Web Services
(Original picture by webservices.org)
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Web Services: Basic Architectural Roles
from http://www.w3.org/TR/ws-arch/
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sns-ws use case (1): retrieval
colloquial
language
indexed
documents
domain
knowledge
base
retrieval
post search phrases
?
domain
terminology
web
service
sns
find topics
present terms to user
return significant topics
select search terms

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present result set
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sns-ws use case (2): indexing
high
quality
metadata
indexed
documents
domain
terminology
domain
knowledge
base
indexing
post new document
web
service
sns
autoclassify
present terms to indexer
return significant topics
finalize metadata
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sns-ws use case (3):
explore/edit
what does
it mean?
indexed
documents
domain
knowledge
base
explore
query a keyword
?
domain
terminology
web
service
sns
get topic characteristics
definition, associations
return topic data
add or modify
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Semantic Network Services
sns:findTopics
search term
<findTopics>
<queryTerm>Mauersegler</queryTerm>
<searchType>contains</searchType>
search method
<lang>de</lang>
<path>/event</path>
<fields>names</fields>
</findTopics>
topic type path
fields to search
results in a list of matching topics
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sns:getPSI
*)
referenced topic ID
<getPSI>
<id>4711</id>
<distance>2</distance>
depth of tree to
be returned
</getPSI>
results in a tree of associated topics, with
<id> as root.
GET-request version: “http://sns.uba.de/getPSI?id=4711&distance=2”
*) Published Subject Identifier (PSI) is a topic map paradigma
about on-line accessible, published topic definitions.
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URI reference as
“Published Subject Identifier“
Reference to “Berlin, Germany” provided by SNS
http://sns.uba.de/getPSI?id=DE-BER
Domain of publisher
Name of
implemented
identifier
service.
Query as part
of the URI
reference.
This URL will return the DE-BER definition as a <topic> in XML.
This SNS Topic itself references UN/LOCODE “DE BER”, but not
US BRB Berlin; US BIK Berlin; US BML Berlin; US XBT Berlin; US BRI Berlin
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sns:autoClassify
<autoClassify>
<document>... any text to be classified ...
</document>
<url>http://..../doc.html</url>
<lang>de</lang>
</autoClassify>
text to be
classified may
be given by
value, or by
URI reference
results in a list of significant topics that
classify the document
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WS Versus Past EAI Technologies
• Global scale
– WS has a global architecture, infrastructure (e.g., DNS and the
Internet) and support organization in place.
• Simplicity
– Conceptually simple. Simple to ‘bolt-on’ to existing
infrastructures (e.g., EJB, CORBA, COM, …)
• Loose coupling
– WS is an interface/protocol:
• WS does not force an implementation model
• No need for administrators to establish connections between groups.
• Implementation encapsulation: Does not directly operate on objects.
Interfaces less brittle.
• The result is industry buy-in
• Backed by Microsoft, IBM, and the Java community, … as well as
middleware and packaged applications.
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WS for SNS
• Global scale
– SNS WS enables 80 environmental authorities to exploit and
provide the ontology, classification, and indexing services
using existing infrastructure
• Simplicity
– Local authorities can join when and to the degree desired
• Loose coupling
– Local authorities do not need to rewrite legacy systems
– Services approach means that they don’t have to expose
implementation details, use unfamiliar implementation
techniques
• The result is buy-in
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Conclusion
• SNS allows active usage of the ontology for any network
member;
• Avoids multiple platform support and physical distribution
of the ontology server application;
• Enables local database search methods to understand the
topics to search for (in the gein® context);
• Provides the shared ontology to local Intranets and
regional public information systems.
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For more information
Thomas Bandholtz [email protected], [email protected]
KM Solution Manager, SchlumbergerSema, Cologne (DE)
Member, OASIS TC Published Subjects & GeoLang (Topic Maps)
http://www.schlumbergersema.com/
Adam Farquhar [email protected]
KM Architect, Schlumberger, Austin, TX
Federal Environmental Agency, Germany: http://www.umweltbundesamt.de/index-e.htm
German Environmental Information Network: http://www.gein.de
Guide to the topic map standards. http://www.y12.doe.gov/sgml/sc34/document/0323.htm
ISO/IEC (JTC 1/SC34) 13250:1999 (Topic Maps)
http://www.y12.doe.gov/sgml/sc34/document/0129.pdf
OASIS Topic Maps Published Subjects TC
http://www.oasis-open.org/committees/tm-pubsubj/
OASIS Topic Maps Published Subjects for Geography and Languages (GeoLang) TC
http://www.oasis-open.org/committees/geolang/
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END
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