Building the Resilience of
Landlocked Developing Countries
to the Impacts of Climate Change,
Land Degradation and Drought
September 18, 2013
Gokarna Mani Duwadee
Joint Secretary and UNCCD Focal Point
Jay Ram Adhikari, PhD
Under-Secretary (Technical)
Ministry of Science, Technology and Environment (MoSTE), Nepal
Outline of Presentation
• Introduction
• Global Environmental significance of the
• Climate Change Situation in Nepal
• Impact of Climate Change in Nepal
• Institutional, Policy and Legal Framework on
Climate Change
• Climate Change Initiatives
• Major Issues of CC in Nepal
• Conclusion and Recommendation
• Nepal is landlocked country having
total area of 147,181 sq. km.
• Forest covers approximately 39% of
the total area.
• 23.23% of the country has been
delineated as national park and
conservation areas (DoFRS 1999a).
• Nepal ranks twenty-fifth globally in
biodiversity, with 118 ecosystems, 75
vegetation types and 35 forest types,
5,100 flowering plants, 1,600 species
of fungi, and over 460 species of
• Although Nepal occupies only 0.1 % of
the earth’s surface, it possesses over
2% of the world’s flowering plants,
about 9% of the world’s birds species
and 4% of the world’s mammalian
species (FAO 1999).
Physiographic Zone
Landscape of Nepal
Cold Deserts in Mustang
Physiographic Zones
Physiographic Elevation
Area(10 Area in
00 ha)
Less than 500 meter
500-1000 meter
Middle Hills
1000-3000 meter
High Mountain
3000-5000 meter
High Himal
Above 5000 meter
Socio-economic Status
• Per capita GDP estimated at about
US$562, is one of the poorest countries in
South Asia.
• Total population 26.4 Millions and the
population density is 180 persons/square
km (CBS, 2011)
• Poverty is widespread with about 25% of
the population living below the prescribed
poverty line.
Global Environmental Significance of
• The Himalayas known as water tower of Asia are the
lifelines of close to 1.3 billion people;
• In terms of supporting biodiversity it houses 4 global
biodiversity hotpots, 60 eco-regions, 27 Ramsar
wetland sites, 488 protected areas and 13 UNESCO
heritage sites;
• This regional is also equally rich in cultural diversity;
the region has over 1,000 living languages. However,
natural resources of the Himalayas are at an
imminent risk of degradation from climate change
Climate Change Situation in Nepal
• Nepal is one of the most
vulnerable (4th) countries in
terms of climate change;
• Globally Nepal emits only
0.025 percent of total GHG
emissions ;
• CC impacts both on upland
and lowland ecosystem
systems, especially
threatening the vital
biodiversity, water, energy
and food security.
• Rapid melting of glaciers,
formation of new supraglacial
lakes, expansion of existing
lakes, and disappearing of
some small lakes have been
Climate Change Situation
• The accelerating melting rate of snow and glacier will
have an impact, on water flows in rivers, health of the
people and food and biomass productivity which
depend on water derived from the Himalayas.
Climate Change Situation in Nepal
• Study indicates an increase in temperature at an
annual rate of 0.06c
• Over the last 100 years, the warming in the
Himalayas has been much greater than the global
average of 0.74 0C (Du et al. 2004; IPCC 2007).
• Glaciers in the Himalayas of Nepal are retreating
at a faster rate than before( 30-60 meter
between 1970-1989). Similarly, thinning of the
glacier surface is by 12 meter between 19781989 (Nakawo et al., 1997; Ageta et al., 2001;
Bajracharya et al. (2007).
Climate Change Scenario in Nepal
• OECD – mean annual temperature to increase by an
average of 1.20C by 2030, 1.70C by 2050 and 30C by
2100 against the baseline using the GCMs run with SRES
B2 scenario
• Nepal Climate Vulnerability Study Team (NCVST) - mean
annual temperature to increase by 1.40C by 2030, 2.80C
by 2060 and 4.70C by 2090 using GCM and RCM
• Both studies show higher temperature increment for
winter compared to the monsoon season
• NCVST - higher increment of temperatures in western
and central Nepal compared to eastern Nepal for the
year 2030, 2060, and 2090
Impacts of Climate Change in Nepal
• IPCC 4th Assessment Report submitted estimates that by
2050 crop yields in South Asia can decrease by up to 30%.
• Increase in pests, diseases and invasive species owing to
temperature change affect agricultural productivity resulting
in food insecurity and loss of livelihoods.
• Atmospheric CO2 concentration will reduce Nepal’s forest
types from 15 to 12, and habitats and ecosystem
• The adverse impacts on the Himalayas are expected to affect
both the upland and lowland systems, especially threatening
the vital biodiversity, water, energy and food security;
Impacts of Climate Change in Nepal
In August 2008, the eastern
embankments of the Koshi
Barrage collapsed, resulting flood
left nearly 100,000 people
homeless in Nepal and millions
in Bihar. About 60,000 inhabitants
in Sunsari district have been
In May 2012 Seti river flood, killed
72 people, destroyed two villages
due to GLOF in Annapurna region,
On June 17 2013 there was
massive rainfall in catchment of
Mahakali river that swept away
much of Darchula and killed at
least three people had swept away
dozens of houses, including major
government offices, rendering
over 100 families displaced. It is
estimated that millions of dollar
property and infrastructure were
Impacts of Climate Change in Nepal
• Communities living in the Mountains are more vulnerable to
climate change;
• Poverty limits farmers' ability to cope with the extreme
weather events as they have limited access to resources
and access to information.
Climate Change, Land Degradation and Food Security
• Land degradation is one of the major environmental
problems in Nepal. About 28.24% total land area in
the process of desertification that has severe
implication of food security;
• Extreme climate events have exacerbated incidence
of landslides, floods, soil erosion, and drought in
Nepal which has negative impacts on food production
(NARC, 2010).
• Increase in atmospheric temperature caused increase
in evapotranspiration, soil erosion, landslides, floods,
and inundation of standing crops and reduction of soil
fertility (Malla, 2008),
Climate Change, Land Degradation and Food Security
• Nepal experiencing food deficit in the Mountain
districts for 4-5 months and the situation will be
worsen by further warming;
• In the year 2008, more than 300,000 people in
nine hill districts of far western and mid-western
Nepal face a precarious food situation after the
crops failed due to drought ( UN WFP).
• The districts also have the country's highest rates
of child malnutrition, according to government
health statistics.
Institutional, Policy and Legal Framework
on Climate Change
 Ministry of Population and Environment
established in 1995;
• Environmental Protection Act (EPA)- 1997
and Environmental Protecton Rules (EPR)1997 were enacted.
• Environment Council under the Chairmanship
of Rt. Honourable Prime minister;
• Interim constitution of Nepal (2007);
• Sustainable Development Agenda for
Nepal (2003);
Institutional, Policy and Legal Framework on
Climate Change
• Interim constitution of Nepal (2007)
• Sustainable Development Agenda for Nepal
• National Conservation Strategy (1988), Master
Plan for Forestry Sector (1989), Environmental
Policy and Action Plan (1993), Agriculture
Perspective Plan (1995), Water Resources
Strategy (2002) , Forest Sector Policy (2002),
Nepal Biodiversity Strategy 2002,.
Institutional Setup- Climate Change Nepal
• The In July 2009, a 28-member Climate Change
Council, including eight experts, was constituted
under the Chairmanship of Right Honorable Prime
• A 38 Member multi-stakeholder Climate Change
Initiatives Coordination Committee (MCCICC), 2010 functional level coordination has been formed with
representation from relevant ministries and
institutions, NGOs and INGOs, academia, private
sector, and donors.
• Climate Change Management Division within the
Ministry, 2010
• Knowledge Management Centre, 2011
• Climate Change Policy, 2011
Climate Change Initiatives
• Before COP 15
Nepal organized
a Cabinet
Meeting at
Kalapatthar, near
the base camp of
the Mount
Everest, and
issued the
Climate Change Initiatives
• The South Asian Regional Climate Change Conference
“from Kathmandu to Copenhagen” was held and a
Memorandum of Understanding was signed by 14
donors and development partners to support Nepal on
climate change activities.
• In FY 2010-11 the National Planning Commission
initiated climate-resilient planning tools to make the
country’s economy and infrastructure climate-resilient.
• In 5-7 September 2011 Nepal organized an
international conference of mountain countries on
climate change and cope up with “Kathmandu
Declaration on Green Economy and Sustainable
Mountain Development”
Climate Change Adaptation Programme
Programme in Nepal
National Adaptation Programme of Action
(NAPA) to climate Change (28 Sep. 2010)
• NAPA identifies ways to address the urgent and
immediate adaptation needs of Nepal
• Assess the vulnerability and impacts of climate change
on socio-economic conditions, built environment and
• Identifies and prioritizes priority adaptation option.
• Develop project profiles for priority adaptation
• Develop a multi-stakeholder framework of action on climate
• NAPA has envisaged nine different thematic projects areas.
• Total cost for the implementation of NAPA has been
estimated at about US$ 350 million.
CC Adaptation Projects and Programmes
• LAPA Approval – 22 November 2011
• About $ 20m Nepal Climate Change Support
Programme to implement adaptation activities
(LAPA) in 13 districts of MWDR and FWDR
• Flood and GLOF project – $ 7m secured from LDC
• Hariyoban – adaptation component ($ 10.3m)
• SREP – investment Plan ($ 40m)
• PPCR - $50m grant/36m-concessional resources
Strategic Program for Climate Resilience (SPCR)
Component 1: Building Climate Resilience of
Watershed in Mountain Eco- Regions (US$ 41
Component 2: Building Resilience to Climate
Related Hazards (41 Million)
Component 3: Mainstreaming Climate Risk
Management in development ( US$ 10 Million)
Component 4: Building Climate Resilient Communities
through Private Sector Participation (US$ 13 Million)
Component 5: Enhancing Climate Resilience of
Endangered Species ( US$ 5 Million)
Total Cost: US$ 50 million (grant), US$ 60 million (credit)
Major Issues of CC in Nepal
Snow/glaciers melting;
Effect/Impact on agriculture;
Impact on health;
Impact on water resources – hydropower,
irrigation, recreation etc.;
• Impact on forest and biodiversity;
• Impact on infrastructures and urban areas.
Conclusion and Recommendation
• Activities related to climate modelling and assessing the
ongoing effects and likely impact of climate change in
natural resources, including water resources and other
economic sectors from the mountain to the plains in the
south, have not been carried out;
• lack of scientific data and information related to the science
of climate change and its impacts of CC on different
geographical and socio economic development sectors limit
the use climatic modeling for proper planning and decision
• Proper institutional set up, flow of financial resources and
technology transfer is crucial for CC mitigation and
Conclusion and Recommendation
• The vital resources of Nepal like land, water, forests,
biodiversity and rich ecosystems that are being degraded,
threatened, and vulnerable due to climate change and are
likely to undermine food, water, and energy security;
• Predicted climate change is likely to create challenges not
only to future poverty reduction measures but also might
reverse many of the important socioeconomic gain achieved
by the country;
• In such scenario, we urge with developed country parties to
support Nepal through the capacity building, technology
transfer and needed resources to adapt to the adverse
impacts of climate change
Thank You !

Clean Development Mechanism and Poverty Reduction