Building the Resilience of Landlocked Developing Countries to the Impacts of Climate Change, Desertification, Land Degradation and Drought September 18, 2013 Gokarna Mani Duwadee Joint Secretary and UNCCD Focal Point Jay Ram Adhikari, PhD Under-Secretary (Technical) Ministry of Science, Technology and Environment (MoSTE), Nepal Outline of Presentation • Introduction • Global Environmental significance of the Himalayas • Climate Change Situation in Nepal • Impact of Climate Change in Nepal • Institutional, Policy and Legal Framework on Climate Change • Climate Change Initiatives • Major Issues of CC in Nepal • Conclusion and Recommendation Introduction • Nepal is landlocked country having total area of 147,181 sq. km. • Forest covers approximately 39% of the total area. • 23.23% of the country has been delineated as national park and conservation areas (DoFRS 1999a). • Nepal ranks twenty-fifth globally in biodiversity, with 118 ecosystems, 75 vegetation types and 35 forest types, 5,100 flowering plants, 1,600 species of fungi, and over 460 species of lichen. • Although Nepal occupies only 0.1 % of the earth’s surface, it possesses over 2% of the world’s flowering plants, about 9% of the world’s birds species and 4% of the world’s mammalian species (FAO 1999). Physiographic Zone Landscape of Nepal Landscape Landscape Cold Deserts in Mustang Physiographic Zones Physiographic Elevation zones Area(10 Area in 00 ha) % Terai Less than 500 meter 2,111 14 Siwaliks 500-1000 meter 1,886 13 Middle Hills 1000-3000 meter 4,443 30 High Mountain 3000-5000 meter 2,959 20 High Himal Above 5000 meter 3,350 23 Socio-economic Status • Per capita GDP estimated at about US$562, is one of the poorest countries in South Asia. • Total population 26.4 Millions and the population density is 180 persons/square km (CBS, 2011) • Poverty is widespread with about 25% of the population living below the prescribed poverty line. • Global Environmental Significance of Himalayas • The Himalayas known as water tower of Asia are the lifelines of close to 1.3 billion people; • In terms of supporting biodiversity it houses 4 global biodiversity hotpots, 60 eco-regions, 27 Ramsar wetland sites, 488 protected areas and 13 UNESCO heritage sites; • This regional is also equally rich in cultural diversity; the region has over 1,000 living languages. However, natural resources of the Himalayas are at an imminent risk of degradation from climate change impacts. Climate Change Situation in Nepal • Nepal is one of the most vulnerable (4th) countries in terms of climate change; • Globally Nepal emits only 0.025 percent of total GHG emissions ; • CC impacts both on upland and lowland ecosystem systems, especially threatening the vital biodiversity, water, energy and food security. • Rapid melting of glaciers, formation of new supraglacial lakes, expansion of existing lakes, and disappearing of some small lakes have been noticed. 11 Climate Change Situation • The accelerating melting rate of snow and glacier will have an impact, on water flows in rivers, health of the people and food and biomass productivity which depend on water derived from the Himalayas. TSHO ROLPA GLACIER Climate Change Situation in Nepal • Study indicates an increase in temperature at an annual rate of 0.06c • Over the last 100 years, the warming in the Himalayas has been much greater than the global average of 0.74 0C (Du et al. 2004; IPCC 2007). • Glaciers in the Himalayas of Nepal are retreating at a faster rate than before( 30-60 meter between 1970-1989). Similarly, thinning of the glacier surface is by 12 meter between 19781989 (Nakawo et al., 1997; Ageta et al., 2001; Bajracharya et al. (2007). Climate Change Scenario in Nepal • OECD – mean annual temperature to increase by an average of 1.20C by 2030, 1.70C by 2050 and 30C by 2100 against the baseline using the GCMs run with SRES B2 scenario • Nepal Climate Vulnerability Study Team (NCVST) - mean annual temperature to increase by 1.40C by 2030, 2.80C by 2060 and 4.70C by 2090 using GCM and RCM • Both studies show higher temperature increment for winter compared to the monsoon season • NCVST - higher increment of temperatures in western and central Nepal compared to eastern Nepal for the year 2030, 2060, and 2090 Impacts of Climate Change in Nepal • IPCC 4th Assessment Report submitted estimates that by 2050 crop yields in South Asia can decrease by up to 30%. • Increase in pests, diseases and invasive species owing to temperature change affect agricultural productivity resulting in food insecurity and loss of livelihoods. • Atmospheric CO2 concentration will reduce Nepal’s forest types from 15 to 12, and habitats and ecosystem • The adverse impacts on the Himalayas are expected to affect both the upland and lowland systems, especially threatening the vital biodiversity, water, energy and food security; 16 Impacts of Climate Change in Nepal • • • In August 2008, the eastern embankments of the Koshi Barrage collapsed, resulting flood left nearly 100,000 people homeless in Nepal and millions in Bihar. About 60,000 inhabitants in Sunsari district have been evacuated, In May 2012 Seti river flood, killed 72 people, destroyed two villages due to GLOF in Annapurna region, On June 17 2013 there was massive rainfall in catchment of Mahakali river that swept away much of Darchula and killed at least three people had swept away dozens of houses, including major government offices, rendering over 100 families displaced. It is estimated that millions of dollar property and infrastructure were destroyed 17 Impacts of Climate Change in Nepal • Communities living in the Mountains are more vulnerable to climate change; • Poverty limits farmers' ability to cope with the extreme weather events as they have limited access to resources and access to information. Climate Change, Land Degradation and Food Security • Land degradation is one of the major environmental problems in Nepal. About 28.24% total land area in the process of desertification that has severe implication of food security; • Extreme climate events have exacerbated incidence of landslides, floods, soil erosion, and drought in Nepal which has negative impacts on food production (NARC, 2010). • Increase in atmospheric temperature caused increase in evapotranspiration, soil erosion, landslides, floods, and inundation of standing crops and reduction of soil fertility (Malla, 2008), Climate Change, Land Degradation and Food Security • Nepal experiencing food deficit in the Mountain districts for 4-5 months and the situation will be worsen by further warming; • In the year 2008, more than 300,000 people in nine hill districts of far western and mid-western Nepal face a precarious food situation after the crops failed due to drought ( UN WFP). • The districts also have the country's highest rates of child malnutrition, according to government health statistics. Institutional, Policy and Legal Framework on Climate Change Ministry of Population and Environment established in 1995; • Environmental Protection Act (EPA)- 1997 and Environmental Protecton Rules (EPR)1997 were enacted. • Environment Council under the Chairmanship of Rt. Honourable Prime minister; • Interim constitution of Nepal (2007); • Sustainable Development Agenda for Nepal (2003); 21 Institutional, Policy and Legal Framework on Climate Change • Interim constitution of Nepal (2007) • Sustainable Development Agenda for Nepal (2003) • National Conservation Strategy (1988), Master Plan for Forestry Sector (1989), Environmental Policy and Action Plan (1993), Agriculture Perspective Plan (1995), Water Resources Strategy (2002) , Forest Sector Policy (2002), Nepal Biodiversity Strategy 2002,. 22 Institutional Setup- Climate Change Nepal • The In July 2009, a 28-member Climate Change Council, including eight experts, was constituted under the Chairmanship of Right Honorable Prime Minister. • A 38 Member multi-stakeholder Climate Change Initiatives Coordination Committee (MCCICC), 2010 functional level coordination has been formed with representation from relevant ministries and institutions, NGOs and INGOs, academia, private sector, and donors. • Climate Change Management Division within the Ministry, 2010 • Knowledge Management Centre, 2011 • Climate Change Policy, 2011 23 Climate Change Initiatives • Before COP 15 Nepal organized a Cabinet Meeting at Kalapatthar, near the base camp of the Mount Everest, and issued the “Kalapatthar Declaration.” 24 Climate Change Initiatives • The South Asian Regional Climate Change Conference “from Kathmandu to Copenhagen” was held and a Memorandum of Understanding was signed by 14 donors and development partners to support Nepal on climate change activities. • In FY 2010-11 the National Planning Commission initiated climate-resilient planning tools to make the country’s economy and infrastructure climate-resilient. • In 5-7 September 2011 Nepal organized an international conference of mountain countries on climate change and cope up with “Kathmandu Declaration on Green Economy and Sustainable Mountain Development” 25 Climate Change Adaptation Programme Programme in Nepal 1. National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA) to climate Change (28 Sep. 2010) • NAPA identifies ways to address the urgent and immediate adaptation needs of Nepal • Assess the vulnerability and impacts of climate change on socio-economic conditions, built environment and ecosystems • Identifies and prioritizes priority adaptation option. • Develop project profiles for priority adaptation activities • Develop a multi-stakeholder framework of action on climate change • NAPA has envisaged nine different thematic projects areas. • Total cost for the implementation of NAPA has been estimated at about US$ 350 million. CC Adaptation Projects and Programmes • LAPA Approval – 22 November 2011 • About $ 20m Nepal Climate Change Support Programme to implement adaptation activities (LAPA) in 13 districts of MWDR and FWDR • Flood and GLOF project – $ 7m secured from LDC Fund • Hariyoban – adaptation component ($ 10.3m) • SREP – investment Plan ($ 40m) • PPCR - $50m grant/36m-concessional resources 27 Strategic Program for Climate Resilience (SPCR) Component 1: Building Climate Resilience of Watershed in Mountain Eco- Regions (US$ 41 Million) Component 2: Building Resilience to Climate Related Hazards (41 Million) Component 3: Mainstreaming Climate Risk Management in development ( US$ 10 Million) Component 4: Building Climate Resilient Communities through Private Sector Participation (US$ 13 Million) Component 5: Enhancing Climate Resilience of Endangered Species ( US$ 5 Million) Total Cost: US$ 50 million (grant), US$ 60 million (credit) Major Issues of CC in Nepal • • • • Snow/glaciers melting; Effect/Impact on agriculture; Impact on health; Impact on water resources – hydropower, irrigation, recreation etc.; • Impact on forest and biodiversity; • Impact on infrastructures and urban areas. Conclusion and Recommendation • Activities related to climate modelling and assessing the ongoing effects and likely impact of climate change in natural resources, including water resources and other economic sectors from the mountain to the plains in the south, have not been carried out; • lack of scientific data and information related to the science of climate change and its impacts of CC on different geographical and socio economic development sectors limit the use climatic modeling for proper planning and decision making; • Proper institutional set up, flow of financial resources and technology transfer is crucial for CC mitigation and adaptation. 30 Conclusion and Recommendation • The vital resources of Nepal like land, water, forests, biodiversity and rich ecosystems that are being degraded, threatened, and vulnerable due to climate change and are likely to undermine food, water, and energy security; • Predicted climate change is likely to create challenges not only to future poverty reduction measures but also might reverse many of the important socioeconomic gain achieved by the country; • In such scenario, we urge with developed country parties to support Nepal through the capacity building, technology transfer and needed resources to adapt to the adverse impacts of climate change Thank You !