Building Social
Capital for Economic
Development
Cornelia Butler Flora
Charles F. Curtiss Distinguished Professor of Agriculture
Dept. of Sociology, Iowa State University
Director
North Central Regional Center for Rural Development
[email protected]
www.ncrcrd.iastate.edu
Collaboration
• Shares a vision developed by study, experience, and
work
• Identifies its resources to move toward the vision
• Identifies alternatives to achieve vision
• Implements alternatives
• Assesses progress and adjust alternatives
• Is a means to an end, not an end in itself
• The transaction costs of maintaining the
collaboration should not exceed the capitals
generated through acting together rather than
separately.
Monitoring and evaluation is only useful
when the long term goal is clear. We shift
from monitoring activities and outputs to
monitor progress toward multiple
outcomes. Increasing capitals (assets) is a
useful way of thinking about desired
outcomes. In looking at capitals, it is
important to understand that they are
both means and ends.
Capital
Resources invested to
create new resources
over a long time horizon
Financial/Built Capital
Natural Capital
Political Capital
•Healthy regional economy
•Social equity and
empowerment
•Self-sufficient families
Cultural Capital
Social Capital
Human Capital
Natural capital
•
•
•
•
Air
Water
Soil
Biodiversity (plants &
animals)
• Landscape
• The biophysical
setting that impacts
human endeavors and
is impacted by those
activities.
Natural Capital
Sustainable, healthy ecosystems with
multiple community benefits
• Human communities are mindful of natural
systems
• Ecosystems yield multiple community
benefits
• Those with conflicting uses of the
ecosystem seek common ground
Understands limitations &
opportunities of physical environment
and uses that in development work
40
35
30
25
20
Percent
15
10
5
0
All of the Some of Occatime
the time sionally
Very
Seldom
Never
Pride in community in neighborhood
programs and cleanup
80
70
60
50
40
Percent
30
20
10
0
All of the Some of Occatime
the time sionally
Very
Seldom
Never
Cultural CApital
•
•
•
•
•
Symbols
Ways of knowing
Language
Ways of acting
Definition of what is
problematic
• Cultural capital determines
how we see the world,
what we take for granted,
what we value, and what
things we think possible to
change. Hegemony allows
one social group to impose
its symbols and reward
system on other groups.
Cultural Capital
Different heritages are maintained
and valued
• Cultural differences are recognized and
valued.
• Mechanisms to maintain ancestral
languages and customs are in place
• Collaborations are willing to take the time
to understand and build on different ways of
knowing and doing.
We value strong multigenerational family traditions
40
35
30
25
20
Percent
15
10
5
0
All of the Some of Occatime
the time sionally
Very
Seldom
Never
Diverse kinds of people cooperate to
make the community a better place
40
35
30
25
20
Percent
15
10
5
0
All of the Some of Occatime
the time sionally
Very
Seldom
Never
Community development efforts
honor and respect the values and
cultures of community members
40
35
30
25
20
Percent
15
10
5
0
All of the Some of Occatime
the time sionally
Very
Seldom
Never
We have to do it ourselves
60
50
40
30
Percent
20
10
0
All of the Some of Occatime
the time sionally
Very
Seldom
Never
Human capital
Increased use of the knowledge,
skills, and abilities of local people
•
•
•
•
Identifying skills, knowledge and ability
Increasing skills, knowledge and ability
Using skills, knowledge and ability
Recombining skills, knowledge and ability
Community supports the
existence of diverse perspectives
40
35
30
25
20
Percent
15
10
5
0
All of the Some of Occa
time
the time sionally
Very
Seldom
Never
The community supports a
leadership development program
70
60
50
40
30
Percent
20
10
0
All of the
time
Some of
the time
Occa
sionally
Very
Seldom
Never
Human Capital
• Education
•
• Self-efficacy/self
esteem
• skills
• health
• values
• leadership
The characteristics and
potentials of individuals that
are determined by the
intersection of nature
(genetics) and nurture
(determined by interactions
and environment)
Leaders are Knowledgeable
60
50
40
30
Percent
20
10
0
All of the Some of Occatime
the time sionally
Very
Seldom
Never
Social Capital
•
•
•
•
•
•
• The interactions among
mutual trust
individuals that occur with
reciprocity
a degree of frequency and
groups
comfort. Bonding social
capital consists of
collective identity
interactions within specific
sense of shared future
groups and bridging social
working together
capital consists of
interactions among social
groups.
Strong belief in education and
life-long learning
50
45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
Percent
All of the Some of Occatime
the time sionally
Very
Seldom
Never
All groups in the community
have access to affordable
recreational opportunities
60
50
40
30
Percent
20
10
0
All of the Some of Occatime
the time sionally
Very
Seldom
Never
Social Capital
• Bonding
– Tight, exclusive
networks
– Strong distinction
between insiders and
outsiders
– Single answer focus
• Bridging
– Open and flexible
networks
– Permeable and open
boundaries
– Legitimization of
alternatives
Social Capital
Strengthened relationships,
communication, community initiative,
responsibility, & adaptability
•
•
•
•
•
•
Participation
Communication
Relationships
Initiative
Responsibility
Adaptability
Community
Social Capital Typology
B
O
N
D
I
N
G
S.
C.
BRIDGING SOCIAL CAPITAL
-
+
+
Conflict with
outside/internal
factionalism
Participatory
community
action
-
Apathy;
extreme
individualism
External control
via local elites/
or bosses
Leadership opportunities
for youth
60
50
40
30
Percent
20
10
0
All of the Some of Occatime
the time sionally
Very
Seldom
Never
Organizations work together to
better our community
80
70
60
50
40
Percent
30
20
10
0
All of the Some of Occatime
the time sionally
Very
Seldom
Never
Many opportunities for residents
to participate
80
70
60
50
40
Percent
30
20
10
0
All of the Some of Occatime
the time sionally
Very
Seldom
Never
Organizations work together to
better our community
80
70
60
50
40
Percent
30
20
10
0
All of the Some of Occatime
the time sionally
Very
Seldom
Never
Community recognizes and
supports community volunteers
80
70
60
50
40
Percent
30
20
10
0
All of the Some of Occatime
the time sionally
Very
Seldom
Never
We monitor who is accountable
for what and to whom
50
45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
Percent
All of the Some of Occatime
the time sionally
Very
Seldom
Never
Women accepted in all types of
leadership roles
70
60
50
40
30
Percent
20
10
0
All of the Some of Occatime
the time sionally
Very
Seldom
Never
We take a problem-solving approach
to address the needs of people from all
segments of the community
70
60
50
40
30
Percent
20
10
0
All of the Some of Occatime
the time sionally
Very
Seldom
Never
Traditional institutions are action
oriented and responsive to the
needs of the community
60
50
40
30
Percent
20
10
0
All of the Some of Occatime
the time sionally
Very
Seldom
Never
We assess outcomes and celebrate
success, while acknowledging there is
more work to do
60
50
40
30
Percent
20
10
0
All of the Some of Occatime
the time sionally
Very
Seldom
Never
Local institutions welcome new
residents and youth
50
45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
Percent
All of the Some of Occatime
the time sionally
Very
Seldom
Never
We provide opportunities for
group reflection
50
45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
Percent
All of the Some of Occatime
the time sionally
Very
Seldom
Never
The community welcomes
newcomers
80
70
60
50
40
Percent
30
20
10
0
All of the Some of Occatime
the time sionally
Very
Seldom
Never
Political capital
•
•
•
•
Organization
Connections
Voice
Power
• Political capital is the
ability of a group to
influence the
distribution of
resources within a
social unit, including
helping set the agenda
of what resources are
available.
Welcome group inquiry, negotiate
alternatives, and use researchbased evidence
50
45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
Percent
All of the Some of Occatime
the time sionally
Very
Seldom
Never
The community demonstrates a
willingness to seek help from the
outside
70
60
50
40
30
Percent
20
10
0
All of the Some of Occatime
the time sionally
Very
Seldom
Never
Local leadership is broad
and deep
60
50
40
30
Percent
20
10
0
All of the Some of Occatime
the time sionally
Very
Seldom
Never
Political Capital
Increased voice and influence
• Excluded people are organized and work
together
• Excluded people know and feel comfortable
around powerful people
• The issues of excluded people are part of
the political agenda
Community decisions are made
with input from all concerned
80
70
60
50
40
Percent
30
20
10
0
All of the Some of Occatime
the time sionally
Very
Seldom
Never
People from diverse religious,
ethnic, and minority backgrounds
in leadership roles
40
35
30
25
20
Percent
15
10
5
0
All of the Some of Occatime
the time sionally
Very
Seldom
Never
Community supports a community
foundation & local philanthropy
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
Percent
All of the Some of Occatime
the time sionally
Very
Seldom
Never
People are willing to run for public
office and do not risk personal and
family ties and reputation
60
50
40
30
Percent
20
10
0
All of the Some of Occatime
the time sionally
Very
Seldom
Never
Deliberate transition of power to
a younger generation of leaders
80
70
60
50
40
Percent
30
20
10
0
All of the Some of Occatime
the time sionally
Very
Seldom
Never
Financial capital
Appropriately diverse and
healthy economies
•
•
•
•
reduced poverty
increased business efficiency
increased business diversity
increased community residents’ assets
Built capital
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Housing
Sewers
Water systems
Business space
Day care centers
Roads
Electronic
communication
• Human-constructed
infrastructure used as
tools for production of
other capitals
Financial Capital
•
•
•
•
•
•
debt capital
investment capital
tax revenue
savings
tax abatement
endowments/community
foundations
• grants
• Forms of money used
to increase capacity of
the unit that accesses
it. Financial capital is
often privileged
because it is easy to
measure, and there is a
tendency to put other
capitals into financial
capital terms.
Local businesses support the
community through donations
50
45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
Percent
All of the Some of Occatime
the time sionally
Very
Seldom
Never
Community supports local
businesses that donate to the
community
50
45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
Percent
All of the Some of Occatime
the time sionally
Very
Seldom
Never
Community provides resources for
community and economic
development efforts
50
45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
Percent
All of the Some of Occatime
the time sionally
Very
Seldom
Never
Community sees itself as part of a
greater region & considers all
communities in the region when
planning
40
35
30
25
20
Percent
15
10
5
0
All of the Some of Occatime
the time sionally
Very
Seldom
Never
Local government & community
organizations carefully use fiscal
resources & understand fiduciary
responsibilities
35
30
25
20
15
Percent
10
5
0
All of the Some of Occatime
the time sionally
Very
Seldom
Never
Schools & youth groups provide
opportunities for youth
entrepreneurship
60
50
40
30
Percent
20
10
0
All of the Some of Occatime
the time sionally
Very
Seldom
Never
Community supportive of
entrepreneurship
50
45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
Percent
All of the Some of Occatime
the time sionally
Very
Seldom
Never
Economic development program
strategically targets resources
40
35
30
25
20
Percent
15
10
5
0
All of the Some of Occatime
the time sionally
Very
Seldom
Never
Community supports local businesses
in planning for generational succession
50
45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
Percent
All of the Some of Occatime
the time sionally
Very
Seldom
Never
Our community appreciates
quality in all aspects of business
and community life
60
50
40
30
Percent
20
10
0
All of the
time
Occasionally
Never
Community development efforts
are asset based
40
35
30
25
20
Percent
15
10
5
0
All of the Some of Occatime
the time sionally
Very
Seldom
Never
We realistic in appraising
future opportunities
60
50
40
30
Percent
20
10
0
All of the Some of Occatime
the time sionally
Very
Seldom
Never
Community and businesses ware
of competitive positioning
50
45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
Percent
All of the Some of Occatime
the time sionally
Very
Seldom
Never
Community supports an active
economic development program
60
50
40
30
Percent
20
10
0
All of the Some of Occatime
the time sionally
Very
Seldom
Never
Our community recognizes the
value of supporting local businesses
60
50
40
30
Percent
20
10
0
All of the Some of Occatime
the time sionally
Very
Seldom
Never
Donations to community
endeavors come from all
segments of the community
80
70
60
50
40
Percent
30
20
10
0
All of the Some of Occatime
the time sionally
Very
Seldom
Never
Donations include many small
gifts as well as large gifts
40
35
30
25
20
Percent
15
10
5
0
All of the Some of Occatime
the time sionally
Very
Seldom
Never
Financial/Built Capital
New facilities
New jobs in the community held by Alaska Natives
Natural Capital
Distance
Ecosystem potential
Basic primary community health services accessible
to all
Political Capital
Professionals in the community spending in the
community
Economic environment improved for other
enterprises
Weather/Climate change
Biodiversity
Cultural/traditional support
for ecosystem based activities
Cultural Capital
Village chooses student
Village members feel comfortable in
higher education settings
Tribal governments involved in health
service delivery
Ancestral health traditions
Healthy Individuals
Healthy communities
Employment is created by government
entity, creates on-going relationships to
increase village’s leverage
Services delivered are reimbursed by
third party players
Local decision-making and regional
plans inform each other
Human Capital
Social Capital
Individuals with the capacity
to deliver health services
Communities able to recognize and
deal with own problems
Individuals have the capacity
to act for community economic
improvement
Communities know how to access
outside resources
Healthier people
More Alaska Natives with
career ladders
Institutions change to be more
flexible in response to village
circumstance
Community empowerment
Individual and family
empowerment
Alaska Rural Community Health Economic Solution (ARCHES)
We invest in the future by
passing school bonds
80
70
60
50
40
Percent
30
20
10
0
All of the Some of Occatime
the time sionally
Very
Seldom
Never
Community supports and
maintains a sound infrastructure
40
35
30
25
20
Percent
15
10
5
0
All of the Some of Occatime
the time sionally
Very
Seldom
Never
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Cornelia Butler Flora Charles F. Curtiss Distinguished