The Stockholm Convention on POPs
Stockholm Convention on
Persistent Organic Pollutants
UNEP Chemicals, 11-13 chemin des Anémones,
CH-1219 Châtelaine (GE), Switzerland
The Stockholm Convention on POPs
Stockholm Convention on POPs
• International action on persistent organic pollutants
(= POPs) facilitated by UNEP Chemicals
• 3 years of negotiations between governments, environmental
NGOs, industrial NGOs
 the POPs Convention was adopted on May 22-23, 2001 in
Stockholm, Sweden
• Until today, 151 countries and the European Commission signed
the convention
• 21 countries ratified or acceded the convention
• Convention will enter into force when 50 ratifications/accessions
obtained (2004 ?)
The Stockholm Convention on POPs
What are POPs ?
• POPs are organic compounds (= contain carbon)
of natural or anthropogenic origin
• Characterized by physical and chemical properties:
- persistent = resist degradation in the environment
- semi-volatile = low, but significant vapor pressure
leads to distribution into all environmental media
- low water solubility and high fat solubility
•  regional and gloabl distribution via air, water, organisms
•  long-term exposure to humans and wildlife
•  bioaccumulation in fatty tissues of living organisms
•  chronic and acute toxic effects on humans and wildlife
The Stockholm Convention on POPs
The 12 UNEP POPs
Hexachlorobenzene (HCB)
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB)
Polychlorinated dibenzop-dioxins (PCDD)
Polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF)
Pesticide Industrial ByChemical product
The Stockholm Convention on POPs
Objective, Chemicals
• Objective:
... of this Convention is to protect human health and the environment
from persistent organic pollutants.
• Main provisions
Control measures
- on intentionally produced POPs
- on unintentionally produced POPs
- on stockpiles and wastes
• General obligations
• Addition of new chemicals
• Financial and technical assistance
• Implementation aspects
The Stockholm Convention on POPs
Intentionally Produced POPs
Goal = elimination of production and use of all
intentionally produced POPs
• Chemicals slated for elimination are listed in Annex A:
aldrin, chlordane, dieldrin, endrin, heptachlor,
hexachlorobenzene, mirex, PCB, toxaphene
• Chemicals slated for restriction are listed in Annex B:
- DDT ("acceptable purpose" = production for use in vector
control programs
- specific exemptions for some parties
- other types of exemptions exist – some have conditions,
accountability requirements, time limits (extensions)
The Stockholm Convention on POPs
PCB: Article 3 / Annex A - Elimination
• PCB Production: NONE
PCB Use:
Articles in use in accordance with the
provisions of Part II of this Annex
• Each Party shall:
a) Prohibit and/or take the legal and administrative
measures necessary to eliminate
Production and use, import or export
• b) shall take measures to ensure that a chemical is
imported only for the environmentally sound disposal
The Stockholm Convention on POPs
Intentionally Produced POPs - PCB
• PCB = 3 main goals
- cease production of new PCB immediately;
- eliminate use of PCB in in-use equipment by 2025;
- dispose of PCB as soon as possible but not later than
by 2028
• Parties must report to COP every 5 years on progress
• COP will review progress on 2025 and 2028 targets
every 5 years
The Stockholm Convention on POPs
PCB: Priority List
Each Party shall (Annex A - Part II)
Identify, label and remove from use equipment
(i) >10% PCB and volumes >5 litres;
(ii) >0.05 per cent PCB and volumes >5 litres;
(iii) >0.005 percent PCBs and volumes >0.05 litres.
0.05 %  500 ppm; 0.005 %  50 ppm
The Stockholm Convention on POPs
PCB Management (Annex A - Part II)
(b) Reduction of exposures and risk:
i) Intact and non-leaking equipment and only in areas
where the risk from environmental release can be
minimised and quickly remedied;
(ii) No use of equipment in areas associated with the
production or processing of food or feed;
(iii) When used in populated areas, including schools
and hospitals, all reasonable measures to protect from
electrical failure which could result in a fire, and
regular inspection of equipment for leaks;
The Stockholm Convention on POPs
Timetable for PCB
• Elimination of the use of PCB in equipment (e.g.,
transformers, capacitors or other receptacles
containing liquid stocks) by 2025;
• Environmentally sound waste management of
liquids containing PCB and equipment with PCB
content above 0.005 per cent as soon as possible
but no later than 2028;
• Report progress in elimination every 5 years.
The Stockholm Convention on POPs
DDT - Annex B
• All Parties shall
- eliminate production and use except for disease vector
control programs:
* special DDT register
* reporting and other obligations
- promote research and development for alternatives to
• The COP will review at its 1st meeting and every 3 years
thereafter to see when DDT is no longer needed for
disease vector control use
The Stockholm Convention on POPs
Intentional POPs - Trade
• Imports/exports of all POPs in Annexes A and B
between Parties are limited to shipments:
- intended for environmentally sound disposal, or
- to Parties with:
* "specific exemptions" under Annexes A or B, or
* "acceptable purposes" under Annex B
• Exports to non-Parties may take place subject to:
- conditions on both Non-Party and Party, and
- accountability requirements for the use and disposal
of POPs.
The Stockholm Convention on POPs
54 Countries Asked for 108 Exemptions:
36 Vector control, contaminant (Korea)
intermediate for dicofol (China, India)
34 In electrical equipment (Poland)
Chlordane 14 Termiticide, plywood (Japan, Korea)
13 Intermediate, solvent for pesticides, contaminant chlorthalonil, Cl5Bz (Poland, Korea)
Heptachlor 7 Termiticide, articles in use (Japan, Korea)
2 Termiticide (Australia, China)
1 Ectoparasiticide, insecticide (Comores)
1 Agricultural stocks - 2 years (India)
The Stockholm Convention on POPs
Unintentionally Produced POPs
Compounds included (Annex C):
PCDD/PCDF (incl. 12 dioxin-like PCB; WHO-TEFs)
Article 5
Each Party shall at a minimum take the following
measures to reduce the total releases … of each of
the chemicals listed in Annex C, with the goal of
their continuing minimization and, where feasible,
ultimate elimination.
The Stockholm Convention on POPs
PCDD/PCDF: Article 5 (a-e)
(a) establish action plan (source identification, release
(b) promote measures to achieve realistic release
reduction or source elimination
(c) Promote/require the use of substitute or modified
materials, products and processes to prevent the
formation and release of the chemicals in Annex C
(d) Promote/require the use of BAT for new sources
and promote use of BEP for identified source
(e) Promote the use of BEP for existing sources and
for sources not covered under (d)
The Stockholm Convention on POPs
PCDD/PCDF: Article 5 (a) (i)
(a) Develop an action plan … within two years of
the date of entry into force of this Convention
…. Designed to identify, characterize and
address the releases of the chemicals listed in
Annex C …
(i) An evaluation of current and projected releases,
including the development and maintenance of
source inventories and release estimates, taking
into consideration the source categories
identified in Annex C
The Stockholm Convention on POPs
Annex C - Part II Source Categories
(a) Waste incinerators, including co-incineration of
municipal, hazardous or medical waste or sewage
(b) Cement kilns firing hazardous waste
(c) Production of pulp using elemental chlorine or
chemicals generating elemental chlorine for bleaching
(d)The following thermal processes in the metallurgical
(i) Secondary copper production;
(ii) Sinter plants in the iron and steel industry;
(iii) Secondary aluminum production;
(iv) Secondary zinc production.
The Stockholm Convention on POPs
Annex C - Part III Source Categories
open burning of wastes (including landfill sites)
thermal processes in metallurgical industry not specified in Part II
residential combustion sources
fossil-fuel fired utility and industrial boilers
firing installations for wood and other biomass fuels
chemical production processes releasing unintentionally produced
POPs (e.g., production of chlorophenols and chloranil)
motor vehicles, especially those burning leaded gasoline
textile and leather dying and finishing
shredder plants for the treatment of end-of life vehicles
destruction of animal carcasses
smouldering of copper cables
waste oils refineries
The Stockholm Convention on POPs
BAT: Prevention Methods (Annex C)
a) The use of low-waste technology;
(b) The use of less hazardous substances;
(c) The promotion of recovery/recycling of waste and of substances;
(d) Replacement of POPs feed materials or where there is a direct
link between the materials and releases of POPs from the source;
(e) Good housekeeping and preventive maintenance programmes;
(f) Improvements in waste management with the aim of cessation of
open and other uncontrolled burning of wastes, landfill sites.
Before constructing new waste disposal facilities, consideration
should be given to minimize the generation of municipal and
medical waste, including resource recovery, reuse, recycling,
waste separation and promoting products that generate less
waste. Public health concerns should be carefully considered;
(g) Minimization of these chemicals as contaminants in products;
(h) Avoiding elemental chlorine or chemicals generating elemental
chlorine for bleaching.
The Stockholm Convention on POPs
General Considerations of BAT
(i) Nature, effects and mass of the releases concerned: techniques
may vary depending on source size
(ii) Commissioning dates for new or existing installations;
(iii) Time needed to introduce the best available technique;
(iv) Consumption/nature of raw materials and energy efficiency;
(v) Need to prevent or reduce to a minimum the overall impact of the
releases to the environment and the risks to it;
(vi) Need to prevent accidents and to minimize their consequences
for the environment;
(vii) Need to ensure occupational health and safety at workplaces;
(viii) Comparable processes, facilities or methods of operation
which have been tried with success on an industrial scale;
(ix) Technological advances, changes in scientific knowledge and
The Stockholm Convention on POPs
General Release Reduction Measures
(b) For new facilities or significantly modifying existing facilities that
release POPs, priority consideration should be given to alternative
processes, techniques or practices that have similar usefulness but
which avoid the formation and release of POPs. ... Reduction
measures to be considered in determining best available techniques:
Use of improved methods for flue-gas cleaning such as
thermal or catalytic oxidation, dust precipitation, or adsorption;
(ii) Treatment of residuals, wastewater, wastes and sewage sludge
by, for example, thermal treatment or rendering them inert or
chemical processes that detoxify them;
(iii) Process changes that lead to the reduction or elimination of
releases, such as moving to closed systems;
(iv) Modification of process designs to improve combustion and
prevent formation of POPs, through the control of parameters such
as incineration temperature or residence time.
The Stockholm Convention on POPs
Definition of Goals and BAT
NOTE: The Stockholm Convention does not set
any numeric emission limits nor reduction
requirements (in percent).
Release limit values
performance standards
may be used by a Party to fulfil its commitments
for best available techniques under this paragraph.
The Stockholm Convention on POPs
Timetable for Dioxins/Furans
• Establish an action plan within 2 years after entry into
force of the Convention for the Party;
• A review of the strategies in the action plan to achieve
the goals every 5 years;
• Phase in the requirements of BAT identified for new
sources as soon as possible but not later than 4 years
after entry into force
• These dates are part of the Convention and not
• Linkage to Article 7 on National Implementation Plans
The Stockholm Convention on POPs
Article 6 - Stockpiles and Wastes
• Develop appropriate strategies for identifying stockpiles,
products/articles in use and wastes consisting of,
containing or contaminated with a POP;
• Manage stockpiles in a safe, efficient and
environmentally sound manner;
• Take appropriate measures to handle, transport, store in
ESM, dispose of that the POP content is destroyed or
irreversible transformed or otherwise disposed of in an
ESM; not permit disposal operations that may lead to
recovery, recycling, reclamation, direct reuse or
alternative use of POPs, develop strategies to identify
POPs contaminated sites.
The Stockholm Convention on POPs
POPs Wastes (Snapshot)
12,988 tons
Pesticide data from:
FAO (Rome)
Obsolete/Unwanted Pesticide
15 countries: Basel 1998
The Stockholm Convention on POPs
New POPs
Goal = to identify possible POPs as early as possible in
assessment programs and take action to reduce or
eliminate generation and/or releases
• Parties with regulatory and assessment schemes shall:
- New substances = take measures to regulate them with
the aim to prevent production and use of new POPs
- in-use substances = consider the screening criteria for
POPs candidates for addition to the Convention
• Convention does not require the establishment of such
The Stockholm Convention on POPs
Criteria for New POPs (Annex D)
• Chemical identity: Name (trade, commercial, synonyms,
CAS, IUPAC, CAS RN); structure, isomers;
• Persistence: t1/2 water > 2 months, t1/2 soil / sediment > 6 months;
• Bioaccumulation: BCF or BAF > 5 000 or log KOW > 5;
• Potential for Long-Range Environmental Transport:
Measured or modelled data, pathways = air, water, migratory
species; t1/2 air > 2 d;
• Adverse effect: Evidence or (eco)toxicity data show
adverse effect to human health or environment.
The Stockholm Convention on POPs
General Obligations
• Designate a National Focal Point;
• Develop, implement and update an implementation plan;
• Promote and facilitate a wide range of public information,
awareness and education measures for policy makers and all
• Encourage and, as resources permit, undertake research,
development, monitoring and cooperation on all aspects of
POPs and their alternatives;
• Report to the COP on:
measures taken by Party to implement the Convention
- effectiveness of the measures taken;
- data concerning trade in intentionally produced POPs 29
The Stockholm Convention on POPs
Financial & Technical Assistance
• Developing countries and countries with economies in
transition will need technical assistance;
• Regional and sub-regional centers will be established for
capacity building and transfer of technology to assist
countries in need;
• Developed countries will provide technical assistance
and new and additional financial resources to meet full
incremental implementation cost;
• Global Environment Facility (GEF) is named as the
principal entity of the interim financial mechanism to
handle funding of capacity building and other related
The Stockholm Convention on POPs
Implementation Aspects
• Convention will enter into force 90 days after 50th
• COP will be established to oversee implementation:
- must meet within 1 year of entry-into-force thereafter at
regular intervals;
- must review effectiveness of Convention commencing
4 years after entry-into-force, and periodically thereafter:
* COP1 will arrange for comparable monitoring data on
presence of POPs and regional/global environmental
transport, and for reports on monitoring on regional
and global basis;
- COP1 to establish POPs Review Committee;
• UNEP will provide the Secretariat.
The Stockholm Convention on POPs
Convention Status
• Opened for signature on May 23, 2001 (Stockholm)
until May 22, 2002 (New York at UN headquarters)
- 151 Countries have signed
- 21 Parties to the convention
• INC-6 - June 17-21, 2002 in Geneva
- Preparations for COP1
- Implement the Stockholm resolutions
• INC-7 – June 2003 in Geneva
•Convention text available in six languages
The Stockholm Convention on POPs
Web Sites
UNEP homepage:
Stockholm Convention homepage:

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