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For Instructor’s Online Learning Center
Traditions and Encounters
A Global Perspective on the Past
5th Edition
Jerry H. Bentley
Herbert F. Ziegler
PowerPoint Presentations Prepared by Henry Abramson
©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
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Chapter 1
Before History
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Forming the Complex Society
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Basic development:
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Hunting and foraging
Agriculture
Complex society
Key issue: surplus capital
Major development of first complex societies
3500 B.C.E. – 500 B.C.E.
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Prehistory
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What is “history”?
Documentation
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Written records
Archaeological discovery
Requisite human presence (or “natural” history)
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Development of Hominids
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Animals adapt themselves to environment
Hominids adapt environment to themselves
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Use of tools
Language
Complex cooperative social structures
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Australopithecus
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“The southern ape” – despite name, a hominid
Discovery of skeleton AL-288-1, north of Addis Ababa,
Ethiopia
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Nicknamed “Lucy”
3’5”, 55lb., bipedal, brain 500 cc (modern human:
1400 cc), limited speech but opposable digit
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Later Hominids
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Homo erectus, “upright walking human”
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Homo sapiens, “consciously thinking human”
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Larger brain capacity (1000 cc), improved tool use, control of
fire, ability to communicate complex ideas
Largest brain, esp. frontal regions
Most sophisticated tools and social organization; flexible
language
Migrations of Homo erectus and Homo sapiens
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Global Migrations of Homo erectus and
Homo sapiens
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The Natural Environment
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By 13,000 B.C.E., Homo sapiens in every
inhabitable part of the world
Archaeological finds:
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Sophisticated tools
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Choppers, scrapers, axes, knives, bows, arrows
Cave and hut-like dwellings
Use of fire, animal skins
Hunted several mammal species to extinction
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Climatic change may have accelerated process
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Paleolithic Era (“Old Stone Age”)
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Evidence:
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Archaeological finds
Extrapolation from modern hunter-gatherer societies
Nomadic existence precludes advanced
civilization
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Division of labor along gender lines
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10
Relative Social Equality
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Nomadic culture precludes accumulation of
land-based wealth
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Relatively egalitarian existence
More likely determinants of status: age, hunting skill,
fertility, personality
Possible gender equality related to food production
Men: protein from hunting
Women: plant gathering
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Big-Game Hunting
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Evidence of intelligent coordination of hunting
expeditions
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Development of weaponry
Animal-skin disguises
Stampeding tactics
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Lighting of fires, etc., to drive game into kill zones
Required planning, communication
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12
Paleolithic Settlements
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Natufian society
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Jomon society
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Japan
Wild buckwheat, fishing
Chinook society
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Modern Israel and Jordan
Wild wheat, herding
Pacific northwest
Berries, acorns, salmon runs
Groups of 1000 or more
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13
Neandertal Peoples
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Neander valley, western Germany
Flourished in Europe and southwest Asia,
200,000 to 35,000 years ago
Also found in Africa, east Asia
Evidence of spirituality: ritual burial
Inhabited some of the same areas as Homo
sapiens
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Creativity of Homo sapiens
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Constructed flexible languages for communication of
complex ideas
Increased variety of tools – stone blades, spear throwers,
sewing needles, barbed harpoons
Fabricated ornamental beads, necklaces and bracelets
The bow and arrow – a dramatic improvement in humans’
power over nature
“Venus” figurines
Cave paintings
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15
Neolithic Era (“New Stone Age”)
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Distinction in tool production
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Relied on cultivation for subsistence
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Chipped vs. polished
Men: herding animals rather than hunting
Women: nurturing vegetation rather than foraging
Spread of agriculture
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Slash-and-burn techniques
Exhaustion of soil promotes migration
Transport of crops from one region to another
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Origins and Early Spread of Agriculture
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Agriculture and Population Growth
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Early Agricultural Society
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Emergence of villages and towns
Discoveries at Çatal Hüyük – a prominent village
located in Turkey, occupied 7250-5400 B.C.E.
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Pots, baskets, textiles, leather, stone, metal tools, wood
carvings, carpets, beads, and jewelry
Development of crafts – pottery, metallurgy, and
textile production
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19
Social Distinctions
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Accumulation of landed wealth initiates
development of social classes
Individuals could trade surplus food for valuable
items
Archaeological evidence in variety of household
decorations, goods buried with deceased members
of society at Çatal Hüyük
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20
Neolithic Culture
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Farmers closely observed the natural world – an
early kind of applied science
Elements of natural environment essential for
functioning
Archaeological evidence of religious worship:
thousands of clay figurines, drawings on pots, tool
decorations, other ritual objects
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Fertility: Venus figurines
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The Origins of Urban Life
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Craft specialization
Social stratification
Governance
Cultural workers
Development of the city – a gradual process
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