EUROPEAN HUMAN
GEOGRAPHY
Population and culture
World population by
continent
Asia
3,737,000,000
Africa
823,000,000
Europe
729,000,000
North America
486,000,000
South America
351,000,000
Oceania (incl.
Australia)
31,000,000
Antarctica
no permanent
population
Europe’s Population
• Europe is one of the most densely
populated areas in the world.
• Europe is highly urbanized → it has many
large cities that serve as centres of culture
and trade.
• Characteristics of Europeans:
 long life expectancy
 low infant mortality rate
 low population growth
Long Life Expectancy
• Men on average live 75-78 years
• Women on average live 80-83 years
Low infant mortality rate
• Defined as the number of infants per year
who do not survive more than twelve months
• The infant mortality rate is less than ten per
1000
European population
growth in history
• From the 18th century,
Europe’s population greatly
increases.
• Reasons:
 medical advances and
improved hygienic conditions
 introduction of new foods,
especially the potato
 Industrial Revolution
Low population growth
today
• Now, the European
population is
growing at a slow
rate.
• Some countries
have negative
growth.
Where people live
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Favourable climates
Plains
Fertile soil
Mineral resources
Inland waterways
 Most densely populated areas:
a. United Kingdom to France into the Czech
Republic and Poland
b. Southeastern France to Northern Italy
Most populated countries
in Europe
• The six European countries with the
highest number of inhabitants are:
Russia
Germany
France
United Kingdom
Italy
Spain
Culture
• Europe has many different ethnic groups,
languages, religions and customs.
• Most people in Europe are Christians:
Catholics are the largest Christian group,
followed by Orthodox and Protestant
Christians.
• Most languages in Europe belong to
the Indo-European family. This family is
divided into a number of branches.
Major
Religious
Groups in
Europe
Indo-European languages
• Most languages in Europe, the Middle-East,
and India appear to descend from a
common ancestral language.
• The term Indo-European is essentially
geographical, because these languages are
spoken from Western Europe to Northeast
India.
• The most important languages in the IndoEuropean family are Romance, German
and Slavic languages.
Languages
in Europe
Standard of living
• Europeans are healthy, wealthy and
wise:
- high life expectancy
- high income per person
- high literacy rate
High literacy rate
Over 95% of Europeans know how to read and
write
From emigration to immigration
• 1800’s and early 1900’s: many Europeans
emigrated to the Americas or to Australia for
economic opportunities.
• Now people are immigrating into Europe!
Immigration increased from 1980.
• There is also internal migration: people from
Eastern Europe move to the richer countries
in Western Europe
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Characteristics of Europe