Air Quality
Climate Change Training Module
Air Quality,
Climate Change
and Public Health
Minnesota Climate and Health Program
Minnesota Department of Health
Environmental Impacts Analysis Unit
October 2012
625 Robert Street North
PO Box 64975
St. Paul, MN 55164-0975
Notice
MDH developed this presentation based on scientific
research published in peer-reviewed journals.
References for information can be found in the
relevant slides and/or at the end of the presentation.
2
Outline
 Introduction to Air Quality and Public Health
 Climate Changes in MN
 Climate Change and Air Quality
 Particulate matter
 Ground-level ozone
 Allergens
 Public Health/Government Strategies
3
Air Quality and Public Health
History
 In the twelfth century, air pollution
was already associated with urban
environments and their higher
population densities
 1948, Donora, PA smog event:
 20 dead, 4,000 hospitalized
 1952, “Great Smog” in London,
England
 4,000+ excess deaths during 5 day
event (Dec 5 – 9, 1952)
 12,000+ excess deaths estimated
due to persisting effects between
Dec 1952 – Feb 1953
Donora, Oct 26-29, 1948
London, Dec 5-9, 1952
4
Air Quality and Public Health
Air quality has been improving
From 2001 to 2012:
 Ground-level ozone is 13% lower
 Year-round particle pollution is 24% lower
 Short-term particle pollution is 28% lower
However, we still have a ways to go
 Health impacts occur at lower levels of air pollutants than
previously thought
 41% of U.S. population lives in counties that have unhealthful levels
of either ground-level ozone or particle pollution
 Ramsey County received an “F” in the American Lung Association
2012 State of the Air report for short-term particle pollution
5
Air Quality and Public Health
People can be affected by poor air quality
because of exposure and/or sensitivity
 Persons affected due to exposure:
 Certain occupations, such as professional drivers (trucks, taxis), parking lot
attendants, construction workers and others living and working near pollution
sources
 Athletes and outdoor workers on high pollution days
 Persons affected due to sensitivity:
 Have existing health conditions:
 Asthma
 Chronic Obstructive
Pulmonary Disease (COPD)
 Heart disease
 Allergies
 Young children
 Elderly
6
 Introduction to Air Quality and Public Health
 Climate Changes in Minnesota
 Climate Changes and Air Quality
 Particulate matter
 Ground-level ozone
 Allergens
 Public Health/Government Strategies
7
Weather versus Climate
 Weather: conditions of
the atmosphere over a
short period of time
 Climate: conditions of the
atmosphere over long
periods of time (30-year
standard averaging
period)
8
Climate Changes
There have been three recent significant
observed climate trends in Minnesota:
 The average temperature is increasing
 The average number of days with a high
dew point may be increasing
 The character of precipitation is changing
9
Climate Changes: Temperature
Temperature has been rising in Minnesota.
Minnesota Average Temperature
12 month period ending December
Source: Western Regional Climate Center
49
Temperature (°F)
47
45
43
41
39
37
35
Ending Year of Period
Annual Average Temperature
10-Year Running Average
10
Climate Changes: Temperature
Three significant observations in this overall
warming:
 Winter temperatures have been rising about twice
as fast as annual average temperatures
 Minimum or 'overnight low' temperatures have
been rising faster than the maximum
temperature, or ‘daytime high’
 Since the early 1980s, the temperature has risen
slightly over 1°F in southern Minnesota to a little
over 2°F in much of the northern part of the state
11
Climate Changes: Dew Point
 Dew point definition: Dew point is a measure
of water vapor in the air
 The higher the dew point, the more difficult it
is for people's sweat to evaporate, which is
how we cool ourselves
 The number of days with high dew point
temperatures (≥ 70°F) may be increasing in
Minnesota
12
Climate Changes: Dew Point
Source: Dr. Mark Seeley, Climatologist, University of Minnesota
13
Climate Changes: Precipitation
On average, the total precipitation in the state has increased
since the Dust Bowl era of the 1930s.
Minnesota Total Annual Precipitation
12 month period ending in December
Source: Western Regional Climate Center
40
Precipitation (inches)
35
30
25
20
15
10
Ending Year of Period
Total Annual Precipitation
10-year Running Average
14
Climate Changes: Precipitation
 The character of
precipitation in
Minnesota is changing
 More localized, heavy
precipitation events
 Potential to cause both
increased flooding and
drought
15
Climate Changes
What do the trends mean?
Extreme Weather:
 Increased extreme heat events and reduced cooling
overnight
 Increased intense, localized storms and flooding
 Increased localized drought and fires
Changing ecosystems:
 Earlier ice out
 Earlier flowering and longer growing season
16
Climate Change
Climate changes have not only brought Minnesota an
earlier growing season but changes in the types of plants
that will thrive here
17
Outline
 Introduction to Air Quality and Public Health
 Climate Change in Minnesota
 Climate Change and Air Quality
 Particulate matter
 Ground-level ozone
 Allergens
 Public Health/Government Strategies
18
Climate Change and Air Quality
One study estimates that each one
degree Celsius (1.8°F) increase in
temperature would cause about
1,000 additional deaths in the US
associated with air pollution.
(Jacobson, 2008)
19
Climate Change and Air Quality
Climate change may affect exposures to air
pollutants by:

Creating both more windiness and more air
stagnation events

Increasing temperatures which . . .


Increase pollution from fossil fuel
combustion to meet electricity demand for
increased air conditioner use

Increase production of natural sources of air
pollutant emissions

Increase formation of ground-level ozone
Lengthening the allergy season, creating more
potent allergens
20
Outline
 Introduction to Air Quality and Public Health
 Climate Change in Minnesota
 Climate Change and Air Quality
 Particulate matter
 Ground-level ozone
 Allergens
 Public Health/Government Strategies
21
Particulate Matter
Particulate matter is a major pollutant for which concentrations are anticipated to be
affected by climate change, and is therefore emphasized for public health impacts.
Particulate matter comes in different sizes (coarse and fine) from a number of sources
including:
 Dust and other small particles from construction, mining and agriculture
 Pollen
 Fine particles from burning fossil fuels in factories, power plants, and diesel- and
gasoline-powered motor vehicles
22
Particulate Matter
Particulate matter (PM) can have
serious health impacts
 Effects of acute exposure :
 Short-term decrease in lung
function
 Exacerbation of respiratory and
cardiovascular diseases
 Hospitalizations and deaths
 Effects of long term exposure:
 Respiratory and cardiovascular
diseases
 Cardiopulmonary and lung cancer
deaths
Potential health effects of PM
exposure, increased risk of:
impaired respiratory function
chronic cough
bronchitis
chest illness
chronic obstructive pulmonary
disease (COPD)
pneumonia
cardiovascular diseases
allergic disease and asthma
cardiopulmonary diseases
cancer
23
Particulate Matter
Populations at risk of health
effects from particulate matter
 At risk from exposure:
 Persons living or working in urban
areas, especially near high-traffic
corridors and/or stationary
sources of PM (such as factories
or power plants)
 At risk from sensitivity:
 Persons with respiratory and
cardiovascular diseases
 Elderly and children
 Persons with asthma and/or
allergies
24
Particulate Matter
Climate change may affect exposures to PM by:


Increasing emissions from fossil fuel-fired power
plants due to demand for electricity for cooling
Increasing natural sources of air pollutant emissions

Wildfire smoke induced
by drought and heat
25
Particulate Matter
2011 Boundary Waters Canoe
Area wildfire burned nearly
145 square miles and costs
reached $21 million. Smoke
and ash spread as far as
northeast Wisconsin and
Traverse City, Michigan.
(MPR News, 2011)
26
Outline
 Introduction to Air Quality and Public Health
 Climate Change in Minnesota
 Climate Change and Air Quality
 Particulate matter
 Ground-level ozone
 Allergens
 Public Health/Government Strategies
27
Ground-Level Ozone
 Ground-level ozone is a main pollutant for which concentrations are
anticipated to be affected by climate change, and is therefore emphasized
for public health impacts.
 Ground-level ozone is formed by the reaction of volatile organic compounds
(VOCs) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) in the presence of sunlight and heat.
Source: American Lung Association
28
Ground-Level Ozone
Ground-level ozone exposure is linked to harmful
respiratory conditions and cardiopulmonary impacts
 Short-term exposure to elevated ozone can lead
to hospitalizations or death
 Long-term exposure to lower levels of ozone can
decrease lung function, and may also cause newonset asthma
 Elevated ozone levels can exacerbate other
conditions, such as asthma and allergies
29
Ground-Level Ozone
Populations at risk of health effects from
ground-level ozone:
 At risk from exposure:
 Healthy people, especially athletes
and outdoor workers in landscape
and construction who may be
exposed to higher levels of ozone for
longer periods of time on high
pollution days
 At risk from sensitivity:
 Persons with respiratory and
cardiovascular diseases
 Older adults and children
30
Ground-Level Ozone
Climate change could significantly increase summertime
ground-level ozone by:
 Increasing temperatures
 Creating stagnant air conditions
 Affecting natural sources of air pollutant
emissions (biogenic VOCs)
 Overall, increase poor air quality index (AQI) days
 Effect is most likely during the summer months,
downwind of urban areas
Minnesota Pollution Control Agency
Air Quality Index
http://aqi.pca.state.mn.us/
31
Outline
 Introduction to Air Quality and Public Health
 Climate Change in Minnesota
 Climate Change and Air Quality
 Particulate matter
 Ground-level ozone
 Allergens
 Public Health/Government Strategies
32
Allergens
 An allergy is the body’s immune system
overreacting to certain substances
 Common allergens that may be affected
by climate changes include:
 Pollen
 Mold
 Approximately 25 million Americans
suffer from hay fever (allergic rhinitis)
 It costs approximately $11.2 billion per
year to treat allergic rhinitis in the U.S.
Giant Ragweed plant
Source: Mary Jelks, MD,
AAAAI
33
Allergens
 Allergens can affect persons with
allergies and asthma
 Allergens can interact with air
pollution to amplify their
individual effects:
 When ground-level ozone levels
are high, it takes much less
ragweed pollen to trigger an
asthmatic or allergic response
 Particulate matter also increases
allergic responses by extending
how long the allergens stay in the
body
34
Climate Change Impacts on Pollen
Climate change impacts on pollen:
Temperature
Carbon dioxide
Precipitation
 Increased pollen production,
longer pollen season,
increased potency airborne
allergens
 Proliferation of weedy plant
species that are known
producers of allergenic pollen
 Introduction of new allergenproducing plant species
35
Allergens: Pollen
 Allergenic pollen will be
worse in urban areas: up
to 7x higher than
surrounding rural areas
 Minneapolis has already
experienced a 16 day
increase in length of
ragweed pollen season
from 1995 to 2009
Check pollen report at
http://pollen.aaaai.org/
36
Allergens: Pollen
37
Source: National Wildlife Federation, 2010
Allergens: Mold
 Mold growth is enhanced by moisture




Increase in precipitation/floods
Increase in temperature and/or humidity
Increase in plant growth/plant biomass decay (leaf litter)
Improper installation or management of air conditioning systems can
create conditions ripe for mold
 Mold can cause coughing,
wheezing, nasal and throat
conditions, and adversely affect
persons with asthma or
weakened immune systems
Extensive mold contamination of ceiling and walls
(Source Terry Brennan, http://www.epa.gov/mold/moldcourse/imagegallery5.html)
38
Outline
 Introduction to Air Quality and Public Health
 Climate Change in Minnesota
 Climate Change and Air Quality
 Particulate matter
 Ground-level ozone
 Allergens
 Public Health/Government Strategies
39
Public Health/Gov’t Strategies
Mitigation
Effective policies to mitigate
health impacts from exposure
to air pollutants focus on the
reduction of air pollutant
emissions


Reduce production of harmful air pollutants
 Improve energy efficiency
 Use alternatives to fossil fuels
 Reduce combustion of fossil fuels
Reduce urban heat island effect
 Maintain green space
Example of urban heat
island mitigation:
Target Center Green Roof
Minneapolis, MN
40
Public Health/Gov’t Strategies
Adaptation
Policies/strategies to adapt to health impacts from
exposure to air pollutants include:
 Monitor AQI days
 Promote awareness
 Support public health tracking of diseases such as asthma
and allergic disease
 Utilize low allergenic pollen producing plants for landscaping
41
Summary
 Minnesota’s climate is changing:
 Increases in temperature
 Increases in high dew point temperatures
 Increases in extreme precipitation events
 Climate changes will likely increase:
 Particulate matter
 Formation of ozone
 Pollen and mold
 Certain populations are at greater risk from exposure to pollution and
allergens, especially those with existing respiratory and cardiovascular
conditions, the elderly, and children
 Public health awareness, education and coordinated mitigation
planning with other agencies can reduce the health impacts
42
Thank You
Questions?
Contact Minnesota Climate and Health Program:
651-201-4893
[email protected]
http://www.health.state.mn.us/divs/climatechange/index.html
October 3, 2012
43
Acknowledgements
This work was supported by cooperative
agreement 5UE1EH000738 from the Centers for
Disease Control and Prevention
Special thanks to the following people for their
contributions to the creation of this training module:
Wendy Brunner, Minnesota Department of Health
Hillary Carpenter, Minnesota Department of Health
Anne Claflin, Minnesota Pollution Control Agency
Gregory Pratt, Minnesota Pollution Control Agency
Naomi Shinoda, Minnesota Department of Health
44
References
Amann, Swart, Raes, Tuinstra. 2004. A good climate for clean air: linkages between climate change and air pollution. Climatic Change 66: 263–
269.
American Lung Association. 2012a. Asthma fact sheets. Accessed online May 7, 2012: http://www.lung.org/lung-disease/asthma/resources/
American Lung Association. 2012b. COPD. Accessed online May 7, 2012:
http://www.lung.org/lung-disease/copd/about-copd/understanding-copd.html
American Lung Association. 2012c. Particle Pollution: State of the Air 2011. Accessed online May 7, 2012:
http://www.stateoftheair.org/2012/health-risks/health-risks-particle.html
Bell ML, Dominici F, and Samet JM. 2005. A Meta-Analysis of Time-Series Studies of Ozone and Mortality with Comparison to the National
Morbidity, Mortality, and Air Pollution Study. Epidemiology 2005; 16:436-445.
Bernard SM, Samet JM, Grambsch A, Ebi KL, Romieu I. 2001. The potential impacts of climate variability and change on air pollution-related
health effects in the United States. Environmental Health Perspectives Vol 109, Supplement 2, pp 199-209.
California Department of Public Health. 2008. Public Health Climate Change Adaptation Strategy for California. Available online:
http://www.cdph.ca.gov/programs/CCDPHP/Documents/CA_Public_Health_Adaptation_Strategies_final.pdf
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 2012. Climate and Health, Aero-allergens (website). Accessed May 8, 2012:
http://www.cdc.gov/climatechange/effects/allergens.htm
Chan C-C, Wu T-H. 2005. Effects of Ambient Ozone Exposure on Mail Carriers’ Peak Expiratory Flow Rates.Environ Health Perspec 2005;
113:735-738.
Clean Air Taskforce. 2010. The Toll from Coal: An Updated Assessment of Death and Disease from America’s Dirtiest Energy Source.
Available online: http://www.catf.us/resources/publications/files/The_Toll_from_Coal.pdf
Gaffney JS, Marley NA. 2009. The impacts of combustion emissions on air quality and climate – From coal to biofuels and beyond.
Atmospheric Environment Vol. 43, 23-36.
Horstmeyer, SL. 2008. Relative humidity . . . Relative to what? The dew point temperature . . . a better approach. Available online:
http://www.shorstmeyer.com/wxfaqs/humidity/humidity.html
Jacob DJ, Winner DA. 2009. Effect of climate change on air quality. Atmospheric Environment ,Vol 34, pp. 51-63.
Jacobson M. 2008. On the causal link between carbon dioxide and air pollution mortality. Geophysical Research Letters Vol 35, L03809,
doi:10.1029/2007GL031101
Leung LR, Gustafson Jr WI. 2005. Potential regional climate change and implications to US air quality.
Levy et al. 2010. Evaluation of the public health impacts of traffic congestion: a health risk assessment. Environmental Health 2010 9:65.
Available online: http://www.ehjournal.net/content/9/1/65
45
References
Minnesota Public Radio News. 2011.
Pagami fire smoke visible deep into Wis., Mich. September 13, 2011. Available online:
http://minnesota.publicradio.org/display/web/2011/09/13/pagami-fire-smoke-visible-deep-into-wisconsin/
Costs of fighting BWCA forest fire reach $21M. October 17, 2011. Available online:
http://minnesota.publicradio.org/display/web/2011/10/17/pagami-creek-fire-costs/
National Academy on an Aging Society. 1999. Chronic Conditions: A Challenge for the 21st Century. Number 1, November 1999. Available
online: http://www.agingsociety.org/agingsociety/pdf/chronic.pdf
National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). 2005. What’s the Difference Between Weather and Climate? Available online:
http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/noaa/climate/climate_weather.html
National Wildlife Federation. 2010. Extreme Allergies and Global Warming. Available online: www.nwf.org/extremeweather
Parker JD, Akinbami LJ, Woodruff TJ. 2009. Air Pollution and Childhood Respiratory Allergies in the United States. Environ Health Perspect 2009;
117: 140-147.
Patz JA. 2000. Climate change and health: new research challenges. Ecosyst Health 6:52–58.
Pope CA, Thun MJ, Namboodiri MM, Dockery DW, Evans JS, Speizer FE, Heath CW. 1995. Particulate air pollution as a predictor of mortality in a
prospective study of U.S. adults. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. vol. 151 no. 3 669-674
Pope CA III. 2000. Epidemiology of fine particulate air pollution and human health: biologic mechanisms and who’s at risk? Environ Health
Perspect; 108:Supple 4:713-23.
Rogers, CA, PM Wayne, EA Macklin, et al. 2006. Interaction of the onset of spring and elevated atmospheric CO2 on ragweed pollen production.
Environmental Health Perspectives 114: 865-869.
Seeley M. 2012. Climate Trends and Climate Change in Minnesota: A Review. Minnesota State Climatology Office. Available online:
http://climate.umn.edu/seeley/
Shea K et al. 2008. Climate change and allergic disease. American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2008.06.032
State Climatology Office. Department of Natural Resources – Division of Ecological and Water Resources and the University of Minnesota –
Department of Soil, Water, and Climate. Available online: http://climate.umn.edu/
Dew Point (http://climate.umn.edu/doc/twin_cities/mspdewpoint.htm)
Dew Point July 19, 2011 Technical Analysis (http://climate.umn.edu/pdf/july_19_2011_ technical.pdf)
Tager IB, Balmes J, Lurmann F, Ngo L, Alcorn S, and Küenzli N. 2005. Chronic Exposure to Ambient Ozone and Lung Function in Young Adults.
Epidemiology 2005; 16:751-759.
Union of Concerned Scientists. 2011. Climate Change and Your Health: Rising Temperatures, Worsening Ozone Pollution. Available online:
www.ucsusa.org/climateandozonepollution.
46
References
U.S. EPA. 2003. Ozone: good up high, bad nearby. Office of Air and Radiation. EPA-451/K-03-001 . http://www.epa.gov/glo/pdfs/ozonegb.pdf
U.S. EPA. 2008. A Review of the Impact of Climate Variability and Change on Aeroallergens and Their Associated Effects (Final Report). U.S.
Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, EPA/600/R-06/164F, 2008. Available online:
http://www.epa.gov/research/gems/scinews_aeroallergens.htm
U.S. EPA. 2011. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Prevalence and Mortality. Accessed online May 8, 2012:
http://cfpub.epa.gov/eroe/index.cfm?fuseaction=detail.viewInd&lv=list.listByAlpha&r=235293&subtop=381
U.S. EPA. 2012. Ground-level ozone: Health effects. Accessed May 8, 2012: http://www.epa.gov/air/ozonepollution/health.html
Western Regional Climate Center. (WRCC) 2011a. Minnesota Temperature 1890 – 2010: 12 month period ending in December. Generated
online November 2011. Available online: http://www.wrcc.dri.edu/spi/divplot1map.html
Western Regional Climate Center. (WRCC) 2011b. Minnesota Precipitation 1890 – 2010: 12 month period ending in December. Generated online
November 2011. Available online: http://www.wrcc.dri.edu/spi/divplot1map.html
Zandlo, Jim 2008. Observing the climate. Minnesota State Climatology Office. Available online:
http://climate.umn.edu/climateChange/climateChangeObservedNu.htm
Ziska L, et al. 2011. Recent warming by latitude associated with increased length of ragweed pollen season in central North America. PNAS vol
108 no 10.
47
Photo Credits
 Slide 4: Top image of Donora, PA smog event of 1948 from Prints and Photographs Collection, History of Medicine Division, National Library
of Medicine, as cited in Helfand et al. 2001. “Donora , Pennsylvania: An Environmental Disaster of the 20th Century,” American Journal of
Public Health Vol 91, No 4, pp553. Bottom image of London, UK smog event of 1952 from Wikipedia “Great Smog”, available online:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Smog
 Slide 6: Image source – Microsoft Clip Art
 Slide 8: Image source – Microsoft Clip Art
 Slide 15: Image source – Microsoft Clip Art
 Slide 17: 2006 The National Arbor Day Foundation, taken from “Extreme Allergies and Global Warming: National Wildlife Federations 2010”
available online at: http://www.nwf.org/~/media/PDFs/Global-Warming/Reports/NWF_AllergiesFinal.ashx
 Slide 19: Image source – Microsoft Clip Art
 Slide 20: Top Image source – Microsoft Clip Art; Bottom Image source – Microsoft Clip Art
 Slide 22: Image source – U.S. EPA, available online: http://www.epa.gov/airscience/air-particulatematter.htm
 Slide 24: Image source – Microsoft Clip Art
 Slide 25: Image source – Microsoft Clip Art
 Slide 26: Image source – Microsoft Clip Art
 Slide 28: Image source – American Lung Association, available online: http://www.stateoftheair.org/2012/health-risks/health-risksozone.html
 Slide 29: Image source – Microsoft Clip Art
 Slide 30: Image source – Microsoft Clip Art
 Slide 31: AQI image source – Minnesota Pollution Control Agency, available online: http://aqi.pca.state.mn.us/
 Slide 33: Giant Ragweed plant image source – Mary Jelks, MD, AAAAI, available online: http://www.aaaai.org/about-theaaaai/newsroom/media-gallery/photos---graphics--plants.aspx
 Slide 34: Image source – Microsoft Clip Art
 Slide 36: Screen shot of AAAAI pollen report
 Slide 37: Image source - National Wildlife Federation, 2010
 Slide 38: Image source – Source Terry Brennan, http://www.epa.gov/mold/moldcourse/imagegallery5.html
 Slide 40: Image source – Pam Blixt, City of Minneapolis
48
Descargar

Document