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Classification is the grouping of objects based on similarities.
Examine the evolutionary basis of
modern classification systems.
(six kingdoms)
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Classification
 Classification is an important
process in understanding how
organisms are related and how they
are different.
 Taxonomy is the branch of biology
that studies the grouping and
naming of organisms.
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Aristotle
His classification system was
based on structural
differences that were seen.
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Carolus Linnaeus (1707-1778)
Swedish Botantist
based his
classification on characteristics of
organisms that were similar.
Developed the two word system used to identify species: binomial nomenclature.
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Binomial nomenclature
 Because scientists speak many different
languages and common names for organisms
may vary from place to place, a universal
system for naming organisms is used.
 The scientific name of an organism is based
on a two-word system called binomial
nomenclature.
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Quercus alba: is the name for white
oak (alba is Latin for “white”)
Quercus rubra: is the name for the
red oak (rubra is Latin for “red”)
Micropterus salmoides is the name
for a largemouth bass
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Binomial nomenclature
•The two words, genus and species, are
always italicized (or underlined).
•The first word in a scientific name,
genus, is always capitalized and the
second word, species, is never capitalized.
•For example the scientific name of the
largemouth bass would be Micropterus
salmoides (or Micropterus salmoides).
9 In addition to (1) appearance and
(2)behavior, (3) molecular structure
(e.g., DNA) and(4) evolutionary
relationships are also considered when
classifying organisms.

Organisms that
share more
similarities are
more closely
related and
are grouped
together.
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Eight levels of classification
Domain
Least alike
Most alike
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GROUP
NAME
ORGANISM
HUMAN
CHIMPANZ
EE
HOUSE
CAT
LION
HOUSEFLY
KINGDOM
Animalia
Animalia
Animalia
Animalia
Animalia
PHYLUM
Chordate
Chordate
Chordate
Chordate
Arthropoda
CLASS
Mammal
Mammal
Mammal
Mammal
Insect
ORDER
Primates
Primates
Carnivora
Carnivora
Diptera
FAMILY
Hominidae
Pongidae
Felidae
Felidae
Muscidae
GENUS
Homo
Pan
Felis
Felis
Musca
SPECIES
sapiens
troglodytes
domestica
leo
domestica
Scientific
Name
Homo
sapiens
Pan
troglodyt
Felis
domestica
Felis leo
Musca
domestica
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Example: Human Classification
How would you write
the scientific name?
a. homo Sapiens
b. Homo sapiens
c. Homo Sapiens
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CLASSIFICATION OF THE
LARGEMOUTH BASS
Domain Eukarya
Kingdom Animalia (multicellular organisms that eat food)
Phylum Chordata (animals with a backbone)
Class Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes)
Order Perciformes (perch-like fishes)
Family Centrarchida (sunfishes)
Genus Micropterus (types of bass)
Species salmoides (largemouth bass)
Largemouth Bass:
Micropterus salmoides
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KINGDOMS
OF LIFE
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Six Kingdoms of Life
EuBacteria
Plantae
Protista
Archaebacteria
Fungi
Animalia
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Three Domains and Six Kingdoms:
Three Domains:
Bacteria- Unicellular and prokaryotic.
Autotrophic and Heterotrophic. Cell
walls have peptidoglycan.
Kingdoms: Eubacteria
Archaea- Unicellular and prokaryotic.
Cell walls do not have peptidoglycan.
Kingdoms: Archaebacteria
Eukarya- Eukaryotic.
Kingdoms: Protista, Plantae,
Fungi, Animalia.
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Bacteria
•Eubacteria (true
bacteria) and
Archaebacteria contain
prokaryotes, cells
without membranebound organelles.
•Microscopic &
unicellular.
•Archaebacteria are
mainly found in
extreme environments
like the deep oceans,
hot springs, and
swamps.
•Heterotropic and
autotrophic
Protista
•unicellular and
multicellular
organisms with
a variety of
characteristics
•eukaryotic
organisms that
lack complex
organ systems
and live in
moist
environments.
•Heterotropic
and autotrophic
Fungi
•consumers that
stay put.
•unicellular or
multicellular
heterotrophic
eukaryotes that
absorb nutrients
from dead and
decaying matter
by decomposing
dead organisms
and wastes in the
environment.
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Plantae
Animalia
Multicellular
eukaryotes that
photosynthesize.
Most have
cellulose cell walls
and tissues that
have been
organized into
organs and organ
systems.
Autotrophicsome parasitic.
Multicellular
consumersheterotrophic
Cells do not have cell
walls.
Their tissues have
been organized into
complex organ
systems; the nervous
system, muscle system
and digestive system,
as well as others.
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6 Kingdoms of Life
Kingdoms
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Evolutionary
relationship
between the
kingdoms.
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EOCT ALERT!!!!
 A multicellular organism that
obtains its food by absorbing
nutrients from the soil
belongs to the kingdom




A Animalia
B Fungi
C Plantae
D Protista
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The study of animals
is known as
A
B
C
D
botany
ecology
taxonomy
zoology
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In 1988, the tiger swallowtail,
Papilio glaucus, was proclaimed
Georgia’s state butterfly. The
tiger swallowtail shares the most
characteristics with members of
which taxonomic level?
 A class
 B family
 C order
 D phylum
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One main difference between
members of the Kingdoms Plantae
and Animalia is the ability to
A obtain energy
B reproduce
C move
D exchange gases
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Slide 1