To have another
language is to possess a
second soul.
- Charlemagne
“BILINGUAL”
What does that mean?

Are you bilingual?
© 2015 CEC

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BILINGUALISM IS…
© 2015 CEC
“The ability to understand and use two (or more)
languages in certain contexts and for certain
purposes.”
- Carder (2007)
Now are you bilingual?
 How hard is it to “become bilingual”?

3
SORRY!
You’re in an important
meeting. You’ve just drunk
your colleague’s coffee by
mistake.
5.
You’re at the airport and
you want to get past some
people with your heavy
bags.
2.
You didn’t hear what
someone just said.
6.
You’ve just said something
you didn’t mean to –
nothing serious.
3.
Your boss, who you get on
with quite well has just
asked you to stay till 9pm
tonight.
7.
You’ve finally understood
what someone has been
trying to explain to you for
ages.
8.
You’ve forgotten – yet
again – to give your partner
an important message.
4.
You’re in a meeting and
someone has just started to
say something you
completely disagree with.
© 2015 CEC
1.
4
THE BIGGEST BILINGUALISM MYTH
© 2015 CEC
Children are little
sponges…. They just
soak up languages!
5
“JUST” LEARN THE
LANGUAGE…
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Language
Writing
Style
Vocab
Vocab
Grammar
Reading
Formality
Alphabet
Speaking
Idioms
Spelling
Word
order
Listening
6
SO, WHY BOTHER?
Advantages for
children
 Long-term advantages

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LINGUISTIC BENEFITS

Communication Skills

Linguistic sensitivity

Metalinguistic
development
Phonetic Sensitivity


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
Transfer to additional
L2
Accommodation
8
COGNITIVE BENEFITS


Language as label
© 2015 CEC
I’m
thinking…
Abstract thought
Rule discovery
 Creative thought


Meaning over form
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SOCIAL BENEFITS

Attitudes

Language and culture
Behaviour
Increased social
contact
 Improved
communicational
efficiency

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
10
© 2015 CEC
Bilingualism strengthens cognitive
development
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BILINGUALISM OPENS DOORS
Post-secondary study
 Job opportunities
 Better pay

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THE “BILINGUAL ADVANTAGE”
Concentration
 Multi-tasking
 Decision-making
 Focus
 Planning
 “Executive” skills
 Long-term brain
health

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MOVING FROM “WHY” TO “HOW”?
What is Bilingual
Education (BE)?
 Is there a “right” and
“wrong” way to do it?
 How can we best help
our pupils progress?

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WHAT IS “BILINGUAL EDUCATION”?
“Immersion”
 Dual language
 Two-way language
 Content-based
instruction (CBI)
 CLIL
 How are CBI and
CLIL different?

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CRITICAL ELEMENTS OF BE
(ABELLO CONTESSE & EHLERS,
2010)
i.
iii.
iv.
The implementation
of some kind of CBI
Students’ overall
academic
achievement and
cognitive
development is
considered in both
languages
© 2015 CEC
ii.
Use of two
languages (L1 and
L2) as a media of
instruction in
content areas of
curriculum
The progressive
development of both
languages within
the school setting
(additive
bilingualism)
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FACTORS INFLUENCING SUCCESS

Language status

“Language in
education” policy
© 2015 CEC

Maintenance of status
in-home and at school
Additive bilingualism
 Subtractive
bilingualism


Literacy
L1
 L2
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HOW LONG WILL IT TAKE TO “BE
BILINGUAL”?


© 2015 CEC

Conversational versus
academic proficiency
BICS (Basic
Interpersonal
Communicative Skills)
CALP (Cognitive
Academic Language
Proficiency)
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LANGUAGE DISTRIBUTION IN THE
CLASSROOM

Strict rules?

Planned integration
 Go with the flow…

© 2015 CEC
Time, place, subject,
person
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SO, HOW MUCH IS “ENOUGH”?
How much language
input is necessary?
 20%?
 30-35%?
 How much are they
getting at school?

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20
© 2015 CEC
N
Explain your morning
routine, without using
the letter “n”
 How did that feel?

21
AND NOW FOR SOMETHING COMPLETELY
DIFFERENT…
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22
TRANSLANGUAGING
(Lewis, Jones, Baker, 2013)




Integration of languages
across learning contexts
Builds knowledge in
stronger, transfers to
weaker
Promotes cognitive
development
Promotes deeper
learning
Promotes learning of L2
© 2015 CEC
“the planned and
systematic use of
two languages inside
the same lesson by
specifying and
varying languages of
input and output”
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ISN’T IT JUST…

Laziness?

© 2015 CEC

No, it’s the way a
brain with two or
more languages
functions best
Code-switching?

“pitloze” vs. “lekker”
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WHAT DOES IT LOOK LIKE IN THE
CLASSROOM?
Preview-View-Review
 Preview in English
with vocabulary
support
 View in Dutch
 Review in English
(discussing,
summarising etc.)

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TEACHING LANGUAGE; TEACHING
CULTURE?
Sociolinguistics norms
 Verbal patterns
 Pragmatics

How is English
different than Dutch?
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WHAT ARE THE LIMITATIONS OF BE?

Type of input
Formal vs. informal
 Instructional fluency

Type of fluency
© 2015 CEC

Academic
 Conversational

Level of fluency
 Where to go from
here?
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27
WHAT WE DON’T KNOW FOR
CERTAIN
What is the “best”
pattern of language
distribution?
 Exactly how much
time is needed?
 “Time on task”:
quality over quantity
effect

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WHAT WE DO KNOW
“Inductive” vs.
“deductive” language
learning
 Focus on Forms
 Corrective feedback


© 2015 CEC

“fossilisation”
“Native-like”
proficiency
29
DUAL LITERACY: BEST PRACTICE

L1 first

© 2015 CEC

Easier, more natural,
improves cognitive
functioning and
confidence
L2 second
Transfer of skills
 When are they “ready”
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THE CRITICAL ROLE OF PARENTS
What do parents need
to know about
bilingualism?
 What can they do to
support language
development at home?
 Additional input
strategies

© 2015 CEC
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TOP TIPS FOR TEACHER AND PARENTS
Use languages
dynamically to
promote deeper
learning
 Pay attention to
amount of input
 Pay attention to type
of input

© 2015 CEC
Consider cognitive
development when
planning activities
 Integrate language
learning across
subjects
 Plan carefully for
literacy (age/timing)

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© 2015 CEC
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