How about literacy classes for
literacy learners and ESOL
classes for ESOL learners?
Charles Hayward
acquiring vs. learning
Policy evolution in NZ
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1996, IALS Survey
2001, More than Words
2002, TEC (funding)
2003, Adult ESOL Strategy
2004, NZSS
2006, ALL
2007 – 2012 TES
2010 – 2015 TES
2010, Getting Results in
Literacy and Numeracy
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LN on the radar
Adult Literacy Strategy
Labour Govt. $$
50,000 / 250,000
Kiwi English
‘Literacy Crisis’
Maori, Pasifika
Priority Groups
‘literacy includes the
language needed to
communicate for SOL’
What’s happening in Auckland?
Similar ends different means
Literacy learners
• Fluent in English
• Implicit grammar
• Large vocabulary
• Social empowerment
ESOL learners
• Vocab development
• Grammar rules
• Prosody
• Linguistic approach
• Confident users of
(written / read) English
• Confident users of
English
The Great Divide
Can literacy be measured?
(Brian Street)
Autonomous model
• Set of de-contextualised,
unchangeable (fixed) skills
• Deficit measured
• ‘functional’ skills taught / gained
James Gee
• Skills for the job market,
• literacy quantified (bought and
sold)
The Literacy Myth
Literacy autonomously :
• Economic growth
• Reduce poverty
• Reduces crime
• Promote democracy
• Increase civic
engagement
• Prevent AIDS / other
diseases
(H.G. Graff, 1982)
• Increase cultural
diversity
• Lowers birth-rates
• Increase productivity
• Able to participate in ...
• Less waste / re-work
• Fewer accidents
• Higher morale
• Staff retention
Newly converted!!!
‘Unambiguously represents meaning’
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Not dependent on knowledge of context
‘Essay-text’ form of meaning
One cultural interpretation among many
Ideological basis for schools and unis
• Vygotsky, Scribner, Cole, - tests of explicitness
Explicitness continuum
Syntactic mode
Pragmatic mode
• Precisely encode
• Varied lexical items
• Explicit syntactic
structures
• Meaning from grammar
and lexis
• Social interaction
downplayed
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Loose strings of clauses
Prosodic devices
Hearer’s inferences
Shared knowledge
Social interaction /
participation of listener
syntactic mode = essay text
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Easy to measure the 4 skills
Bench mark tests: IELTS, TOEIC, TOEFL
4 or 5 paragraph essay
Deficit model
Stair-casing / scaffolding
Record incremental progress
Grammar, lexis, functions
A real English teacher!
Settlement in Glasgow
Kiwi English
pragmatic mode = context
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Community of practice
Workplace culture
Codes
Jargon
Relationships
Relations of power
Office politics
Shared history
Ideological model
• Literacy practices
community of practice
Can not ‘use multiplication and division
strategies to solve problems that involve
proportions, ratios and rates’
Dr. Stephen Black
• The ‘literacy crisis’ – crisis rhetoric
• Deficit-oriented, individualistic, education via
measurement and control
• a range of different literacy and numeracy ‘practices’
at work rather than a set of universal literacy and
numeracy ‘skills’
• This approach requires an ethnographic-type of
analysis involving close observations and dialogue
with those engaged with workplace practices – the
workers
Phil Cave, Manufacturing Manager,
Thames Timber
Training Goals:
• Improve the bottom line
• Understand business kpi’s
• Sustainable training culture for years to come
• Improve Literacy, Numeracy and Leadership
for (25) First Line Management leaders
• Foundation and motivation for future NZQA
quals
In-house Literacy, Language and Numeracy
(LLN) Initiatives in New Zealand Workplaces
• Department of labour 2009
• Employers who chose to set up (and meet the
costs of) their own LLN initiatives
• Business based outcomes vs education-based
outcomes (Government / Provider)
• ‘some companies will always prefer to fund
and deliver their own LLN initiatives’
(Department of Labour, 2009, p. 44).
TEC funded PD
NCALE
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MAdLitNumEd
Autonomous model
• Ideological model
Deficit model
• Access to
Communities of
Stigma
Practice
Fill up with essay-text /
• Social Practices /
school ‘skills’
NLS
• Valid for measuring
increased
productivity?
Traditional / emerging approaches
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Autonomous model
Syntactic mode
Essay-text literacy
Focus on the individual
Literacy classes
Standardised tests
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Ideological model
Pragmatic mode
Community of practice
Focus on social context
Embedded learning
Competence in context
How do we measure ‘pragmatic’ competence?
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Achieving competence in unit standards (pc’s)
Study skills unit standards added to quals
Induction training
Lean manufacturing
Assessment centres
Synergies for Numerate and Literate
New Zealanders
Language learners
• There needs to be a
‘language’ component
(53% of workers in Ak
were born outside NZ)
• Language learners have
specific needs, different
from literacy learners
Literacy learners NQF 1-3
• Social practices model
• Ethnographic workplace
understanding
• Taught in context
• Assessed in context
Any questions?
[email protected]
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TITLE TEXT - Literacy and Numeracy for Adults