Unit 1-The Ancient World Tell me about the people; their values and abilities Chapter 1 • • • • • • • • • • • • p. 10 Where did the Homo Erectus migrate to? p. 10 Homo Sapiens -Communities developed where? -Why to cold climates? p. 10 How were the ice ages important?(5) p. 11 Control of their environment, how? p. 12 What did humans use their intelligence to do? p. 14 How do hunters and gathers survive during the Paleolithic era? p. 14 How were social distinctions? p. 14 Who did the hunting and who gathered? p. 15 Ways hunters showed higher thought? p. 16 What did the Neanderthal do to the dead? • p. 17 In what ways did the Cro-Magnon improve the way they lived? • p. 17 How was fertility viewed? • p. 18 What is significant with cave paintings? • p. 19 Neolithic people began to do what? • p. 20 What revolution began to develop? • p. 21 Why was slash/burn techniques developed and what did it spread? • p. 23 What happened to the world population? • p. 24 What were the developments to population growth? • Example: Jericho • p. 24 What were early industries? • p. 25 How did the notion of land develop? • p. 26 What did Neolithic religion reflect? • p. 27 How were Neolithic cities different from villages? Chapter 2 • p. 32 How was water moved from place to place? • p. 33 What were the languages of Sumer? • p. 34 What was established and why? • p. 34 What was built? • p. 35 What was established for protection? • p. 36 How did leaders raise funds? • p. 37 Why was the code of Hammurabi developed? • p. 37 What happened if a crime was committed? • “If in a lawsuit a man gives damning evidence, and his word that he has spoken is not justified, then, if the suit be a capital one, that man shall be slain….” • • “If a judge has heard a case, and given a decision, and delivered a written verdict, and if afterward his case disproved, and that judge is convinced as the cause of the misjudgment, then he shall pay twelve times the penalty awarded in that case. In public assembly he shall be thrown from the seat of judgment; he shall not return; and he shall not sit with the judges upon a case….” • • “If a man has decided to divorce… a wife who presented him with children, then he shall give back to that woman her dowry, and he shall give her the use of field, garden, and property, and he she shall bring up the children, she shall take a son’s portion of all that is given to her children, and she may marry the husband of her heart.” • • -Code of Hammurabi Code of Hammurabi Cont. • “If he has destroyed the bone of a free man, his bone shall be broken.” • • “If he has destroyed the eye of a man’s slave, or broke a bone of a man’s slave, he shall pay half his value.” • • “If a man strikes the body of a man who superior in status, he shall publicly receive sixty lashes with a cowhide whip…” • -Code of Hammurabi • “You shall not make for yourself a graven image, or any likeness of anything that is in Heaven above, or that is on the Earth beneath, or that is in the water under the Earth; you shall not bow down to them or serve them…” • “You shall not kill.” • “Neither shall you commit adultery.” • “Neither shall you covet your neighbor’s wife, and you shall not desire your neighbor’s house, his field, or his manservant, or his maidservant, his ox, or his ass, or anything that is your neighbor’s” • • 10 Commandments(Exodus) • p. 38 Why were the Assyrians militarily successful?(2) • p. 38 What laws were followed? • p. 40 What metal began to be used? • p. 40 Long distance trade developed • p. 41 What kind of society developed? • p. 41 Role of priests? • p. 42 What were slaves? • • • • • • p. 42 Examples of patriarchal society: p. 42 What happened to women over time? p. 43-44 What developed because of trade? p. 44 What was formed to educate? p. 44 How was astronomy important? p. 45 Similarities between Hebrews and Sumerians:(2) • When Rachel saw that she had borne Jacob no children, she became envious of her sister; and Rachel said to Jacob, “Give me children, or I shall die.” Jacob was incensed at Rachel, and said, “Can I take the place of God, who has denied you fruit of the womb?” She said, “Here is my maid Bilhah. Consort with her, that she may bear on my knees and that through her I too may have children.” So she gave him her Bilhah as a concubine, and Jacob cohabited with her. Bilhah conceived and bore Jacob a son. And Rachel said, “God has vindicated me; indeed, He has heeded my plea and given me a son.” • • Genesis 30:1-6 • “’The uproar of mankind is intolerable and sleep is no longer possible by reason of the babel.’ So the gods agreed to exterminate mankind. Enlil did this, but Ea because of his oath warned me in a dream. He whispered their words to my house of reeds… “Tear down your house, I say, and build a boat. These are the measurements of the barque as you shall build her: let her beam equal her length, let her deck be roofed like the vault that covers the abyss: then take up into the boat the seed of all living creatures.” • • … “For six days and six nights the winds blew, torrent and tempest and flood overwhelmed the world, tempest and flood raged together like warring hosts. When the seventh day dawned the storm from the south subsided, the sea grew calm, the flood was stilled; I looked at the face of the world of the sea stretched as flat as a roof-top; I opened a hatch and tears streamed down my face, for on every side was the waste of water.” • • Epic of Gilgamesh, He was an ancient king of Sumer, who lived about 2,700 B.C.E. • “The lord saw that the wickedness of man was great in the Earth, and that every imagination of the thoughts of his heart was only evil continually. And the Lord was sorry that he had made man on the Earth, and it grieved him to his heart. So the Lord said, “I will blot out man whom I have created from the face of the ground, man and beast and creeping things and birds of the air, for I am sorry that I have made them.” But Noah found favor in the eyes of the Lord…” • • At the end of forty days Noah opened the window of the ark which he had made, and sent forth a raven; and it went to and fro until the waters were dried up from the Earth.” • • Genesis Describing the flood found in Genesis. • • • • • • • • • p. 46 What did Israelites do? p. 46 What was accepted religiously? p. 47 How did Israel feel pressure? p. 48 What was warned by the prophets? p. 49 How was trade important to Phoenicians? p. 50 Developments of the Alphabet: p. 51 Language similarities and why? p. 52 What were Indo-Europeans? p. 53 What animal was important to IndoEuropeans? • p. 53 What group spread through Europe and Asia? • p. 54 What was refined by the Hittites? Chapter 3 • p. 61 What did people of Sudan do overtime? • p. 61 What happened to the climate of North Africa? • p. 61-62 How were the mountains of Africa important to the Nile? • p. 62 What were built? • p. 63 Where did kingdoms come from? • p. 64 What form of government was established? • p. 64 What was built? • p. 66 Nubia(Kush) vs Egytians: • p. 66 Hyksos vs. Egyptians: • p. 66 What did Egyptians copy? • p. 66-67 Old and New Kingdom(similarities)? • p. 69 Who invaded Egypt? • p. 70 Importance of Kerma as a city? • • • • • • • • • • • • • “Take a wife while you’re young, That she make a son for you; She should be bear for you while you’re youthful, It is proper to make people.” The young man is suffering likewise: “Seven days since I saw my sister; And sickness invaded me… When the physicians come to me, My heart rejects their remedies; My sister is better than all prescriptions… The sight of her makes me well!” Ancient Egyptian Text • “If you are a farmer, gather the crops in the field which the great Ptah has given you, do not boast in the house of your neighbors; it is better to make oneself dreaded by one’s deeds. As for him who, master of his own way of acting, being all-powerful, seizes the goods of others like a crocodile in the midst even of watchmen, his children are an object of malediction, of scorn, and of hatred on account of it, while his father is grievously distressed, and as for the mother who has borne him, happy is another rather than herself. But a man becomes a god when his is chief of a tribe which has confidence in following him… • If you are wise, look after your house; love your wife without alloy. Fill her stomach, clothe her back; these are the cares to be bestowed on her person. Caress her, fulfill her desires during the time of her existence; it is a kindness which does honor to its possessor. Be not brutal; tact will influence her better than violence; her…behold to what she aspires, at what she aims, what she regards…” • • Ancient Egyptian Text • p. 70-71 How were peasants and slaves crucial? • p. 71 Tombs of dead and society? • p. 71 Similarities and differences for women in society with Mesopotamia: • p. 72 How was the spread of metal different from Mesopotamia? • p. 73 Forms of trade by Egyptians: • p. 73 Differences by Nubia: • p. 73-74 Prized Egyptian exports and needs: • p. 75 First forms of writing: • p. 77 What were the gods linked to? • p. 78 Importance of death to Egyptians? • • • • • • p. 80 Nubian gods or importance: p. 81 Where were Bantu originally formed? p. 81 How was the Bantu economy set up? p. 82 Two importance of the Bantu? p. 82 Importance of metal to Bantu? p. 82 what form of worship developed? Chapter 4 • p. 88 How was Harappan society similar to Egypt and Mesopotamia? • p. 89 Importance of agriculture surplus: • p. 89-90 Patterns in the cities meant what? • p. 91 What were the dwellings like in Mohenjodaro? • p. 91 What would the seals represent on texts? • p. 92 How were the statues similar to other cultures? • p. 92 Why did Harappan decline? • p. 93 What continued even after the decline of the Harappan? • For the first marriage of a twice-born man, a woman of the same caste is approved; but for those who through lust marry again the following females are to be preferred. A Sudra woman only must be the wife of a Sudra, she and a Vaishya, of a Vaishya; these two and a Kshatriya of a Kshatriya; those two and a Brahmani, of a Brahman. Twice-born men, marrying, through folly, low caste women, soon degrade their families and children to the state of Sudras. A Brahman who takes a Sudra woman to his bed, goes to the lower course; if he beget a child by her, he loses his Brahmanhood… • -Women are to be honoured and adorned by their fathers, brothers, husbands, and brothers-in-law, who desire much properity…When women are miserable, that family quickly perishes; but when they do not grieve, that family ever prospers. Houses, cursed by women not honoured, perish utterly as if destroyed by magic. • • The Lawbook of Manu: Marriage and Sexual Activity, written by the sage Manu, 200 C.E. • • • • • • • • • • p. 94 What animal did Aryans prize?(2) p. 94 What was the importance of the Vedas? p. 95 What was the relationship with the Dravidians? p. 95 Where did the Aryans migrate to? p. 96 Why did Caste systems develop? p. 97 Achieving mobility status required what? p. 98-99 In what ways were the Aryans patriarchal? p. 100 How were the gods viewed? p. 101-03 What religious beliefs developed? p. 103 How was the caste system reinforced? • …Their dress shall be the garments of the dead, they shall eat their food from broken dishes, black iron shall be their ornaments, and they must always wander from place to place. • A ma who fulfills a religious duty, shall not see intercourse with them; their transactions shall be among themselves, and their marriages with their equals… • At night they shall not walk about in villages and in towns • By day they may go about for the purpose of their work, distinguished by marks at the king’s command, and they shall carry out the corpses of persons who have no relatives; that is a settled rule. • By the king’s order they shall always execute the criminals, in accordance with the law, and they shall take for themselves the clothes, the beds, and the ornaments of such criminals… • Lawbook of Manu • • • • • • • • • • • • The Nature of Women …It is the nature of women to seduce men in this world; for that reason the wise are never unguarded in the company of females… For women no rite is performed with sacred texts, thus the law is settled; women who are destitute of strength and destitute of the knowledge of Vedic texts as impure as falsehood itself, that is a fixed rule. Female Property Rights A wife, a son, and a slave, these three are declared to have no property; the wealth which they earn is acquired for him to whom they belong… What is given before the nuptial fire, what was given on the bridal procession, what was given in token of love, and what was received from her brother, mother, or father, that is called the six-fold property of a woman. Such property, as well as a gift subsequent and what was given to her by her affectionate husband, shall go to her offspring, even if she dies in the lifetime of her husband… A Woman’s Dependence In childhood a female must be subject to her father, in youth to her husband, when her lord is dead to her sons; a woman must never be independent She must not seek to separate herself from her father, husband , or sons; by leaving them she would make both her own and her husband’s families contemptible… Laws of Manu, Written between 1st B.C.E. -3rd Century C.E. • Chinese Empires • Done to song • • Xia, Shang, Zhou, Qin, Han • Xia, Shang, Zhou, Qin, Han • • Sui, Tang, Song • Sui, Tang, Song • • Yuan, Ming, Qing • Yuan, Ming, Qing • • Mao Tse Tung, Mao Tse Tung Chapter 5 • • • • • • • • • • • • • p. 110 What is the river which flows through China? p. 111 What needed to be built? p. 111 Growth of populations brought what? p. 111-12 What did Xia attempt to do? p. 112 Who did the Chinese get ideas from? p. 113 How were the Shang able to impose their rule? p. 113 How were the capitals important?(3-4 reasons) p. 114 Shang built walls for protection(importance): p. 114 What did the Shang do to their dead? p. 115 What was Zhou theory of politics? p. 117 what were conquered territories able to do politically? p. 117-18 What will eventually happen to Zhou political control? p. 118 What metal was used by controlled people? • p. 119 Who became the elites in China? • p. 120 What other groups of hierarchy existed? • p. 121 How was the invention of sails important? • p. 121 What was the peasant woman’s duty?(no mention of upper class?) • p. 121 What were the multiple roles of slaves? • p. 122 How did the Chinese view the dead? • p. 123 What society was China? • p. 123 At first women held some power, what happened in time? • • • • At ten, like a flowering branch in the rain, She is slender, delicate, and full of grace. Her parents are themselves as young as the rising moon And do not allow her past the red curtain without a reason • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • At twenty, receiving the hairpin, she is a spring bud. Her parents arrange her betrothal; the matter’s well done. A fragrant carriage comes at evening to carry her to her lord. Like Hsiao-shih and his wife, at dawn they depart with the clouds. At thirty, perfect as a pearl, full of the beauty of youth, At her window, by the gauze curtain, she makes up in front of the mirror. With her singing companions, in the waterlily season, She rows a boat and plucks the blue flowers. At forty, she is mistress of a prosperous house and makes plans. Three sons and fiver daughters give her some trouble. With her ch’in not far away, she toils always at her loom, Her only fear that the sun will set too soon. Buddhist Song: The stages of a woman’s life, ancient Buddhist writings found in the caves at Cunhuang, Second Century C.E. • p. 124-25 How were oracle bones important in Chinese society? • p. 126 What did Zhou writing focus on? • p. 128 What society formed in Northwest China? • p. 128 How were the nomadic people important to China? • p. 129 What led to city growth in China? Chapter 6 • • • • • • • • • • • • • p. 135 How did the earliest people in America live? p. 135 Were Mesoamericans able to domesticate large animals? p. 135 What was built outside villages and importance? p. 136 How was the rain important? p. 136-37 What was built which required labor? p. 138 What was built by the Mayans to increase farm production? p. 138 How were the Mayans organized politically? p. 139 How were captives viewed? p. 139 What happened to the Mayans overtime? p. 141 What was the importance of the Mayan calendar? p. 141 What characteristics did the Mayan writing have? p. 142 Why was sacrificing important? p. 142 How was Mayan sports important? • • • • • • • • • • • • • p. 144 How did Teotihuacan become important? p. 145 What made up its society? p. 145 What happened to much of its writings? p. 146 What prevented communication in South America? p. 146 Where did farming take place? p. 146-47 How was the Chaven cult important? p. 147 What’s the possible reason for city growth? p. 147 What kind of art is found in Mochica? p. 149 What kind of communities existed in Australia? p. 149 What technology was developed by the Austronesian? p. 150 What kind of living were the seafarers introduced to? p. 150 What did sea travel allow people to do? p. 153 What kind of framework did the Lapita society establish?