PURPOSE & PRINCIPLES
BEHIND PROCESS IMPROVEMENT
A LOOK INSIDE
By
Carl W. Hall
DCS Corp.
CURRENT POSITION
• DCS Process Improvement Lead at AWL
PRESENTATION OUTLINE
•
•
•
•
•
•
Fundamental Overview of A Process
NAVAIR BPI Study 1998/1999
F/A-18 AWL Overview
Overview of CMMi
Overview of Airspeed
Conclusion
WHAT IS A PROCESS?
PROCESS n., a logical organization of people, procedures, and technology
into work activities designed to transform information, materials, and
energy into a specified result. A high level view of how work is
accomplished.
Information,
Materials,
energy
Specified Result
90
80
70
60
East
West
North
50
40
30
20
10
0
1st Qtr 2nd Qtr 3rd Qtr 4th Qtr
WBS
1. Mgt establishes Mgt
Oversight Team
1.1 Select Leader
1.2 Select Members
1.3 Charter
1.4 Review Policy
2.0 Mgt forms Working Grp.
[i.e., Product or
process or
policy, etc.]
PROJECT LEVERAGE AREAS
There are three major determinants which affect the success or failure of a
program. These are Product cost, schedule and Quality. The leverage
areas are depicted in the triad. While each area is important, process
is the unifying factor in the three.
PEOPLE
PROCESS
TECHNOLOGY
WHY IS A PROCESS IMPORTANT?
• Process provides a methodology for intelligently and
efficiently integrating people, tools, procedures and
technology
• People usually are only as capable as they are trained
to be so
• Working harder and longer hours are not the solution
• But working smarter and more efficiently using processes is
the Solution
• Technology applied without a supporting
infrastructure is disaster. It could bring the expected
benefits if the people are trained and if a process is
applied judiciously.
PROCESS MANAGEMENT
ASSUMPTIONS
• The ultimate assumption verified by the military and
commercial sectors is that the QUALITY of a system
is highly influenced by the QUALITY of the process
used to Design, Development and Maintain the
system.
• The cost, performance and delivery of systems will all
be improved when processes are defined and used
consistently across the project.
NAVAIR BPI STUDY 1998
• Study initiated to improve our business practices under the
leadership of NAVAIR head, Admiral Lockhard.
• Darrell Maxwell and Carl Hall co-chairs on Best Practices
Initiative (BPI) Software Development Strategy Core Processes
Team CP5-1 with Admiral J. Dyer manager.
• One year to visit commercial and military sectors and determine
a solution to improve our SSA business practices. Briefing given
to NAVAIR in Feb. 1999.
• I will present a portion of our committee’s research and findings
today.
Site Visit Best Practices
 Utilize the Software Engineering Institute Capability Maturity Model (SEI-
CMM).
Process improvements defined by the SEI-CMM Levels (1 through 5)
results in 30% productivity increase for each level improvement.
Test costs shift from 50% of the total costs to 30% by improving from a
Level 3 to a Level 5 organization.
30% reduction in defects for each Level improvement.
 People are motivated to improve by Senior Management commitment and vision.
 An initial investment and reinvestment up to 5% of the S/W product cost in
process improvement initiatives.
 Improve by using corporate leadership teams (SEPG’s, PAT’s, and SEC’s) to
motivate and encourage the development of processes and procedures.
 Integrate Systems and Software Engineering processes together.
 Organizations with similar maturity levels work better together.
System Strategies for
Tomorrow’s Success
Process Focus
TEAM will reduce the cost of software development and maintenance through the
use of disciplined processes that are defined and implemented by both TEAM and
contractor organizations.
Organization/Capabilities Focus
TEAM will optimize and maintain the best skills mix within government and
industry, develop and maintain the core system software expertise within TEAM,
and eliminate redundancies among the various system software entities. The system
software organization will be flexible and responsive to the fluctuating marketplace.
Workforce Focus
TEAM will develop a corporate culture characterized by excellent communications,
knowledgeable leadership, and commitment to employee professional and personal
growth. Empowered employees use policy, documented guidance, and defined
TEAM processes supported by training, in the fulfillment of their job
responsibilities. Our TEAM places value on, and works to maintain, work force
continuity in core capabilities.
Guiding Principles
•
Committee used 4 principles:
1) Organized abandonment of: Products, Services, Processes,
Markets, & distribution channels
2) Organize for systematic, continuing improvement
3) Organize a systematic and continuous exploitation, especially
of its successes, the organization has to build a different
tomorrow on a proven day
4) Organize a systematic innovation, that is, to create the
different tomorrow that makes obsolete and, to a large extent
replaces even the most successful products of today
•
These Disciplines are not just desirable, they are
conditions for survival
Probability of Success
120%
Product Success
100%
80%
60%
SEI 1 & 2 Success
40%
SEI 3,4, & 5 Success
20%
0%
0
1
10
100
1000
10000
SW Size (Function Points)
(1) Capers Jones, Becoming Best In Class, Software Productivity Research, 1995 briefing
(2) 1 Function Point = 50 SLOC ADA, 40 SLOC C++, 320 SLOC Assembly
100000
STRATEGIC GOALS
•
•
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•
•
Goal 1.1 – Implement the SEI CMM across all team software
organizations
Goal 1.2 – Utilize Software Suppliers that are evaluated at Software
CMM Level 3 or higher
Goal 2.1 – Establish Team Software Development Center of
Excellence. Team Software Development will be accomplished by
these Centers
Goal 2.2 – Develop and maintain core system software expertise
within Team that provides flexibility and skills which enhance
integrated government/industry software development Teams.
Goal 2.3 – Provide Weapons Systems capability and readiness through
affective use of integrated government and contractor facilities and
personnel throughout the life cycle
Goal 2.4 – Provide funding and align budgets with approved product
life cycle financial management plans
Goal 3.1 – Team is committed to the personal and professional growth
of employees. In turn, employees accept responsibility to play an
active role in their growth.
Goal 3.2 – Improve Workforce Continuity in Software Expertise
F/A-18 AWL OVERVIEW
75% of
Naval
Aviation
90% of
Naval
Aviation
Now
2006
F/A-18s will be flying well
into the second quarter of
the 21st Century
Over 1300 aircraft, and still in production
F/A-18 IPT MISSION
•
•
•
•
MISSION
“…To improve the warfighting capability of U.S. Navy, U.S.
Marine Corps and Foreign Military Sales F/A-18 & EA-18Gs.”
CHARTER
Transform an operational need into a description of system
performance parameters
Develop a system configuration through the use of an iterative
process of definition, synthesis, analysis, design, test, and
evaluation
Integrate technical parameters and ensure compatibility of all
physical, functional, and program interfaces in a manner that
optimizes the total system definition and design
Integrate reliability, maintainability, safety, survivability, and
human engineering, into a total engineering effort to meet
cost, schedule, and performance objectives
SCS LIFE CYCLE PHASES
AWL PRODUCTS
• System Configuration Sets
•
Additions to, and modifications of, over 10 million lines of software code
• Acquisition Products - stand alone RDT&E projects
•
•
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•
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New technology radars
Improved infrared sensor for air-to-air and air-to-ground combat
Reconnaissance system
Improve existing radars for air-to-air and air-to-ground combat
Plus additional, similar projects
• Weapon Integrations
•
•
•
•
•
JDAM - All weather, GPS guided, precision bomb
JSOW - Glider with bomblets
Sidewinder (all-aspect, infrared guided, air-to-air missile)
Stand-Off Land Attack Missile Enhanced Response (cruise missile)
And many more
• Fleet Response
•
System problems and new, unpredicted threats
• 7 Foreign Military Sales customer requirements
THE AWL IN DETAIL
The Advanced Weapons Lab, China Lake -- where Sensor / Smart Plane / Smart
Bomb combinations are developed, and wired together to test their real-world, realtime performance - including full-scale, in-lab mock-ups prior to flying.
Now, let’s unpack that statement…
Full-scale – because it takes a nanosecond (.000000001) for an electron to travel along
1 foot of computer cable. And, in digital warfare, nanosecond precision is essential.
So, you must test with full-scale distances between sensors, plane, and bombs.
In-Lab Mock-ups – because in-flight testing costs more than 25 times as expensive as
in-lab, mock-up tests.
Sensors – because these “eyes and ears” are our current technological edge.
Smart Planes – because air power is the US’s preferred tool for power projection.
Smart Bombs – because they’re more precise and limit collateral damage.
Combinations – because there are nine sensors, seven airframes, and many kinds of
weapons available to accomplish various missions.
Wired together – because it takes integrated software to make the sensors, plane, and
bombs talk to each other.
Test real-world, real-time performance – because it’s all just theory until this
happens, and it only happens at China Lake.
WIRED TOGETHER
i.e., an example of Weapons and Systems Integration
Every eyeball
, lightening
bolt
, and brain
,
represents a piece of software
code written and tested in fullscale, in-lab mock-ups at China
Lake.
Interpret Threat Input
Find Possible Targets
Identify Target
Lock-on Target
Pass target to weapon
Fire weapon
Enroute weapon adjustments
Assess Damage
Non-Threats
Mission
Compute
r
THREATS
Off Aircraft Sensors – Seals, Satellites, other aircraft
IN LAB MOCK-UPS
EW
SUITE
Network
RADAR
Pt Mugu Ranges
FLIR
Reconnaissance
China Lake Ranges
Actual F/A-18 avionics,
computers, sensors, and controls
Access to open air range
Existing range target set
Full scale
Hi-fidelity simulation of aircraft
Real, live targets
Efficient
Cost saving
Effective
Non-intrusive testing
COMBINATIONS
Sensors
Infrared Targeting
Infrared Search
Radar
Planes
EA-18G
F/A-18 E/F
F/A-18 C/D
New generation Radar
Electronic Warfare Passive
signal location & ID
F/A-18 A/B
F/A-18 A+
Weapons
Laser guided
GPS guided
Inertial guided
Radar guided
Infrared guided
Anti-radiation
Electronic Warfare
Jamming and deceiving
Ballistic
Laser designation &
tracking
Air-to-Air (In-close “dog
fighting” & beyond visual
range)
Visual
Anti-Ship
Data link from otheraircraft, ground troops,
ships, satellites, etc.
Bunker & Cave Penetrators
Software
Typically 50 or more
microprocessors in an
aircraft requiring
software
Aircraft operational
flight programs.
Subsystem
operational flight
programs
Data files of threat
characteristics
Weapon internal
operational flight
programs
Anti-armor
Anti-personnel
Lots of possible combinations. But, each combination requires Weapons and Systems
Integration; i.e., writing software code to make the sensors, plane, and bombs talk to one
another.
Over 10 million lines of software code, so far, in the F/A-18!
SENSORS AND
NETWORK CENTRIC WARFARE
All targeting/sensor information is shared via high speed “data link”
Gives battlefield commander excellent “picture” of battle
Gives aircrew “situational awareness” of all threats
Provides threat data that “own-ship” sensors can’t detect
Improves survivability
Provides many attack options
Efficient target location, identification, tracking, attack, and damage assessment
F/A-18
SOFTWARE SIZE
60000
50000
KWords
40000
30000
20000
10000
0
Early A/B
* Estimated
A/B
Early C/D
Late C/D
Early E/F
Late E/F*
PROGRESSION & GROWTH
OF F/A-18 WARFIGHTING CAPABILITY
Upgrade to Radar
1993
Legacy
New Computers
1995
New reconnaissance
capacity
New capability
Radar & Infrared
1997
Upgrade to
Stores Management
Computers
2019
2001
2003 - 2004
Continued
Foreign
Military
Sales
Upgrades
F/A-18E/F
C++ Language
Upgrade
Electronic Warfare
Suite
Lots of technological advances &
technology insertion.
New Network
Data Line
Next Technology
F/A-18 IPT
MANPOWER AND SPACE
MANPOWER
Civil service
240 man years
Local contractors
175 man years
On-site prime contractors
25 man years
Off-site contractors:
250 man years
(Boeing A&MS, Raytheon, & other contractors)
SPACE
Office (including on-site contractors)
Hangar 5
72,887 square feet
49,680
Software Bldg
8,692
Foreign Military Sales (FMS) building
4,000
FMS Trailers
5,068
Test Support
1,848
Boeing
3,599
Laboratories
19,720 square feet
TESTED ON THE FINEST
RANGES IN THE WORLD
• 353 Days of Unlimited Visibility a Year
• Full Spectrum Testing
• Joint Testing
WORLD CLASS
•
Winner of the CrossTalk 2001 Top 5 U.S. Government Quality Software
Projects
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•
•
From CrossTalk January 2002 “These top five projects were selected from 87
nominations in this first event. They demonstrate how competent software project
teams go about building successful products”
“This is a very large, real-time operational system that has made significant
improvement in cost, schedule, and quality.”
•
•
Awarded for 15C System Configuration Set.
Dr. Jack Ferguson a Top 5 Judge
April 2005 F/A-18 AWL Software Development Task Team achieved a level 5
Maturity rating. This is the very first in the Navy.
AWL PROCESSES
• F/A-18 SWDTT
• March 2005 – Achieved highest Software Capability Maturity
Rating possible which is a level 5 They are only
organization in the Navy to have done so.
• Better than commercial industry in Cost/SLOC, when
normalized to DoD requirements, and continually improving
• Defined 110 processes used at the F/A-18 & EA-18G
AWL
• Processes are documented in the “F/A-18 & EA-18G
Advanced Weapons Laboratory Management and
Systems Engineering Process Manual”
OTHER PROCESS DOCUMENTS
System Life Cycle Plan
For F/A-18 Aircraft
F/A-18 MGMT & Systems
Engineering Process
Manual
Strategic Action
Initiative (SAI)
AWL Training
Plan
AWL PPQA
Plan
AWL CM
Plan
Projects
Systems Eng.
Mgt. Plan
PROCESS TAILORING
Project Information
AWL’s Standard Process
TAILOR PROCESS
External Outputs
FOR PROJECT
Lessons Learned captured
Project’s Defined
Process (SEMP)
Instantiate Forms
FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTS DOCUMENT
FRD
Functional
Requirements
Tree
Functional
Requirements
Sheets
Operational
Intent
Statement of
Requirements
Statement of
Functionality
Statement of
Limitations
PROCESS MANAGEMENT
• Methodology for defining, managing and
improving the AWL Standard processes and
templates
ASSESS
IMPROVE
DEFINE
SDR PROCESS
Entry Criteria: Preliminary Agenda, CDRL items,
Input (supplier): Preliminary FRD,
Documentation, SCR held, Risks, Hazards,
Traceability matrix, System Design
SCR package, CDRL,
Documents (informal, Design)
Responsibility
Process
Signing
Authority for
SDR
Block Manager
Design Agent
Task Team
Enter
Prepare
SDR
Materials
And
Package
SOR Team
Hold the
System
Design
Review
Prepare
memo,
minutes,
action
items
Exit
Present
Info for
each SOR
FMS Case
Manager
Exit Criteria: SDR actions & closure, Memo,
review minutes, risks ID, SDR
key issues dispositioned
Output (customer): Customer is
satisfied and feels the
design is complete
CAPABILITY MATURITY MODEL
integration (CMMi) v 1.1
• The model consists of best practices that address the
development and maintenance of products and
services covering the product life cycle from
conception through delivery and maintenance.
• Evolved from earlier Process Models
• The Capability Maturity Model for Software (SW-CMM)
version 2.0 draft C
• The Systems Engineering Capability Model (SECM)
• The Integrated Product Development Capability Maturity
Model (IPD-CMM) version 0.98
• Information Technology - Software life cycle Processes
(ISO/IEC 12207)
• Information Technology – Software Process Assessment
(ISO/IEC 15504)
CMMi STRUCTURE
CMMi
Process Area
Process Area
Purpose
Statement
Process Area
Process Area
Introductory
Notes
* * * * *
Related
Process Area
Specific
Goals
Generic Goals
Typical Work
Products
Specific
Practices
Generic Practice
Elaborations
Subpractices
Generic
Practices
WHY IS A MODEL IMPORTANT?
• A model provides a template for processes
•
•
•
•
•
Structure in which to define a process
Utilizes other organization’s successes
Provides organizations a common language
Framework for process improvement activities
Allows an organization to adopt model’s goals
• A model founded upon widely-accepted practices
• It has a proven track record of benefits
• Allows organizations to build on other’s successes
WHY USE CMMi?
• The purpose of CMMi: To provide guidance for
improving your organization’s processes and your
ability to manage the development, acquisition, and
maintenance of products or services
• CMMi is a Model by which, an organization can:
• Examine the effectiveness of their processes
• Establish priorities for improvement
• Help guide an organization in the implementation of these
improvements
• The Over-arching Purpose: To help a business be
successful avoiding pitfalls experienced by other
businesses and building on their successes.
How does Six Sigma relate to
CMM/CMMI?
• Not a replacement for CMM/CMMI – Six Sigma works
with it
• Six Sigma
• Methodology to organize the tools of the trade
• Addresses the root causes of the lack of needed change
• CMMI emphasis on what should be done not how to do
it
• Six Sigma supplies a specific how – method for applying
measurement and analysis to problem solving
• DMAIC – process improvement context of CMMI MA
• DFSS – tied to project execution view
• Six Sigma puts emphasis on understanding/managing
performance outcomes
• CMMI puts emphasis on compliance activities
WHAT IS SIX SIGMA?
Lean
Six Sigma
Theory of Contraints
Specify customer value
Identify value stream
Achieve Flow
Define
Measure
Analyze
Establish Pull System
Seek Perfection
Improve
Control
Identify the Constraint
Exploit the constraint
Subordinate everything else
to the constraint
Elevate the constraint
Avoid inertia
Mathematical Concept
Control Variance and you control Quality of your processes & product
1 2 3 4 5 6
1
2
3
4
Sigma
5
6
Sigma
Yi
N
Yi+1
Variance =
SLOC Yi+2
Yi+3
Yi+4
1
2
3
4
5
6
Defects
i=1
(Xi – M)2
(N – 1)
Xi = Measurement
N = Number of measurements
M = Mean
NAVAIR AIRSpeed
PROJECTED WORKFORCE REQUIREMENT
BEFORE PRODUCTIVITY IMPROVEMENTS
CIV / MIL / CSS END-STRENGTH
40,000
AIRSpeed PRODUCTIVITY
APPROACH
35,000
30,000
 IMPLEMENT BEST COMMERCIAL
PRACTICES TO MAXIMIZE RESOURCE
INVESTMENTS:
• LEAN
• SIX SIGMA
• THEORY OF CONSTRAINTS
WORKFORCE REQUIREMENT
WITH PRODUCTIVITY IMPROVEMENTS
25,000
 DEPLOY TRAINING PLAN
 COMPETENCIES/PEOs
 SEMDP CIRRICULUM
 NEW HIRES
20,000
15,000
FY04
FY05
FY06
FY07
FY08
FY09
 INTEGRATE WITH WORKFORCE
SHAPING AND NCDPs TO MAXIMIZE
ENABLING EFFECT
 INTERFACE WITH ERP, IMD & TPTK
Everyone Understanding It and Using It Every Day
NAVAIR AIRSpeed Six Sigma Deployment
AIRSpeed is the application of Lean, Six Sigma, and Theory of Constraints tools to increase
productivity and efficiency.
NAVAL AVIATION ENTERPRISE
AIRSpeed
Depot AIRSpeed
(Lean, Six Sigma, TOC)
• Depot-Wide
• Led by COs/AIR-6.0
• Depot processes only
• Rollout to 3 sites
• Processes as required
Enterprise AIRSpeed
(Lean, Six Sigma, TOC)
• Fleet-Wide Repair Sites & Processes
• Led by O-6 ESC
• O-I-D + Supply Chain
• Links to NAVRIIP
• Rollout schedule
• AIR-3.3 Coord. Office
NAVAIR AIRSpeed
(LeanSixSigma)
• Corporate/Competency Processes
• Led by AAG/EDB Guidance
• Enabled by AIRSpeed Core Team
• Links with Enterprise & Depot
AIRSpeed
• Pull by Competencies/PEOs
LeanSixSigma
George Group
SIX SIGMA DEPLOYMENT
Executives /
BU Leadership
• Owns vision, direct,
integration, results
• Leads change
Project Team
Members
• Provide projectspecific support
• Part time
Master
Black Belts
• Trains and coaches
Black Belts and Six
Sigma Green Belts
• Leads large/complex
projects
• Full time
Deployment
Champions
• Leads business unit
performance improvement
• Full time
All Employees
• Understand vision
• Apply concepts to their
job and work area
Green Belts
• Participate on Black
Belts teams and/or lead
small projects
• Part time on projects
Project
Sponsors
Black Belts
• Leads and Facilitates
problem solving
• Trains and coaches
Project Teams
• Full-time
•
•
•
•
Project owner
Implements solutions
Owns financial results
Part time as part of job
THE PROCESS
3 Distinct & Separate & Independent Processes
Responsible: MBB, DC, Level IIs, PS
Top Down
Value Streams
1
Proposed Project
Ideas
Rack & Stack
Grade Projects
Select Projects
Assign
Project Sponsor
Identify Team
Bottoms-Up
Ideas
Project Creation/Selection/Preparation(Continuous)
Projects(maybe)
Team members Depart
Responsible: PS, Org
Reassess
Restudy
Sustainment
Continuously
Measure
Replicate
Responsible: MB, BB, TMs, PS, DC
Conduct Study
DMAIC
2
Charter
&
Team
Assign
BlackBelt
Active Study
Blackbelt Departs
BlackBelt
Generation
process
3
NAVAIR AIRSpeed BENEFIT
Categories
• Type 1: Hard savings can be readily identified to
BLIs for return to Navy/DoD for recapitalization
• Type 2: Resources are freed-up that may be reassigned to other value-added work
• Type 3: Intangible benefits
DMAIC Road Map
Define
Measure
Analyze
Improve
Identify and Implement Quick Improvements with Kaizen
Kaizen, 5S, NVA Analysis,
Generic Pull Systems,
Four Step Rapid Setup Method
Control
CONCLUSION
• Judicious and intelligent use of processes can help to
achieve business goals
• Processes have a proven record in industry and the
military sector
• AIRSpeed and CMMi are not in conflict but are
supplemental to each other
• If we are to survive in the future as leaders, we must
integrate processes into our business practices.
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Purpose_Principles Process Improvement