PURPOSE & PRINCIPLES BEHIND PROCESS IMPROVEMENT A LOOK INSIDE By Carl W. Hall DCS Corp. CURRENT POSITION • DCS Process Improvement Lead at AWL PRESENTATION OUTLINE • • • • • • Fundamental Overview of A Process NAVAIR BPI Study 1998/1999 F/A-18 AWL Overview Overview of CMMi Overview of Airspeed Conclusion WHAT IS A PROCESS? PROCESS n., a logical organization of people, procedures, and technology into work activities designed to transform information, materials, and energy into a specified result. A high level view of how work is accomplished. Information, Materials, energy Specified Result 90 80 70 60 East West North 50 40 30 20 10 0 1st Qtr 2nd Qtr 3rd Qtr 4th Qtr WBS 1. Mgt establishes Mgt Oversight Team 1.1 Select Leader 1.2 Select Members 1.3 Charter 1.4 Review Policy 2.0 Mgt forms Working Grp. [i.e., Product or process or policy, etc.] PROJECT LEVERAGE AREAS There are three major determinants which affect the success or failure of a program. These are Product cost, schedule and Quality. The leverage areas are depicted in the triad. While each area is important, process is the unifying factor in the three. PEOPLE PROCESS TECHNOLOGY WHY IS A PROCESS IMPORTANT? • Process provides a methodology for intelligently and efficiently integrating people, tools, procedures and technology • People usually are only as capable as they are trained to be so • Working harder and longer hours are not the solution • But working smarter and more efficiently using processes is the Solution • Technology applied without a supporting infrastructure is disaster. It could bring the expected benefits if the people are trained and if a process is applied judiciously. PROCESS MANAGEMENT ASSUMPTIONS • The ultimate assumption verified by the military and commercial sectors is that the QUALITY of a system is highly influenced by the QUALITY of the process used to Design, Development and Maintain the system. • The cost, performance and delivery of systems will all be improved when processes are defined and used consistently across the project. NAVAIR BPI STUDY 1998 • Study initiated to improve our business practices under the leadership of NAVAIR head, Admiral Lockhard. • Darrell Maxwell and Carl Hall co-chairs on Best Practices Initiative (BPI) Software Development Strategy Core Processes Team CP5-1 with Admiral J. Dyer manager. • One year to visit commercial and military sectors and determine a solution to improve our SSA business practices. Briefing given to NAVAIR in Feb. 1999. • I will present a portion of our committee’s research and findings today. Site Visit Best Practices Utilize the Software Engineering Institute Capability Maturity Model (SEI- CMM). Process improvements defined by the SEI-CMM Levels (1 through 5) results in 30% productivity increase for each level improvement. Test costs shift from 50% of the total costs to 30% by improving from a Level 3 to a Level 5 organization. 30% reduction in defects for each Level improvement. People are motivated to improve by Senior Management commitment and vision. An initial investment and reinvestment up to 5% of the S/W product cost in process improvement initiatives. Improve by using corporate leadership teams (SEPG’s, PAT’s, and SEC’s) to motivate and encourage the development of processes and procedures. Integrate Systems and Software Engineering processes together. Organizations with similar maturity levels work better together. System Strategies for Tomorrow’s Success Process Focus TEAM will reduce the cost of software development and maintenance through the use of disciplined processes that are defined and implemented by both TEAM and contractor organizations. Organization/Capabilities Focus TEAM will optimize and maintain the best skills mix within government and industry, develop and maintain the core system software expertise within TEAM, and eliminate redundancies among the various system software entities. The system software organization will be flexible and responsive to the fluctuating marketplace. Workforce Focus TEAM will develop a corporate culture characterized by excellent communications, knowledgeable leadership, and commitment to employee professional and personal growth. Empowered employees use policy, documented guidance, and defined TEAM processes supported by training, in the fulfillment of their job responsibilities. Our TEAM places value on, and works to maintain, work force continuity in core capabilities. Guiding Principles • Committee used 4 principles: 1) Organized abandonment of: Products, Services, Processes, Markets, & distribution channels 2) Organize for systematic, continuing improvement 3) Organize a systematic and continuous exploitation, especially of its successes, the organization has to build a different tomorrow on a proven day 4) Organize a systematic innovation, that is, to create the different tomorrow that makes obsolete and, to a large extent replaces even the most successful products of today • These Disciplines are not just desirable, they are conditions for survival Probability of Success 120% Product Success 100% 80% 60% SEI 1 & 2 Success 40% SEI 3,4, & 5 Success 20% 0% 0 1 10 100 1000 10000 SW Size (Function Points) (1) Capers Jones, Becoming Best In Class, Software Productivity Research, 1995 briefing (2) 1 Function Point = 50 SLOC ADA, 40 SLOC C++, 320 SLOC Assembly 100000 STRATEGIC GOALS • • • • • • • • Goal 1.1 – Implement the SEI CMM across all team software organizations Goal 1.2 – Utilize Software Suppliers that are evaluated at Software CMM Level 3 or higher Goal 2.1 – Establish Team Software Development Center of Excellence. Team Software Development will be accomplished by these Centers Goal 2.2 – Develop and maintain core system software expertise within Team that provides flexibility and skills which enhance integrated government/industry software development Teams. Goal 2.3 – Provide Weapons Systems capability and readiness through affective use of integrated government and contractor facilities and personnel throughout the life cycle Goal 2.4 – Provide funding and align budgets with approved product life cycle financial management plans Goal 3.1 – Team is committed to the personal and professional growth of employees. In turn, employees accept responsibility to play an active role in their growth. Goal 3.2 – Improve Workforce Continuity in Software Expertise F/A-18 AWL OVERVIEW 75% of Naval Aviation 90% of Naval Aviation Now 2006 F/A-18s will be flying well into the second quarter of the 21st Century Over 1300 aircraft, and still in production F/A-18 IPT MISSION • • • • MISSION “…To improve the warfighting capability of U.S. Navy, U.S. Marine Corps and Foreign Military Sales F/A-18 & EA-18Gs.” CHARTER Transform an operational need into a description of system performance parameters Develop a system configuration through the use of an iterative process of definition, synthesis, analysis, design, test, and evaluation Integrate technical parameters and ensure compatibility of all physical, functional, and program interfaces in a manner that optimizes the total system definition and design Integrate reliability, maintainability, safety, survivability, and human engineering, into a total engineering effort to meet cost, schedule, and performance objectives SCS LIFE CYCLE PHASES AWL PRODUCTS • System Configuration Sets • Additions to, and modifications of, over 10 million lines of software code • Acquisition Products - stand alone RDT&E projects • • • • • New technology radars Improved infrared sensor for air-to-air and air-to-ground combat Reconnaissance system Improve existing radars for air-to-air and air-to-ground combat Plus additional, similar projects • Weapon Integrations • • • • • JDAM - All weather, GPS guided, precision bomb JSOW - Glider with bomblets Sidewinder (all-aspect, infrared guided, air-to-air missile) Stand-Off Land Attack Missile Enhanced Response (cruise missile) And many more • Fleet Response • System problems and new, unpredicted threats • 7 Foreign Military Sales customer requirements THE AWL IN DETAIL The Advanced Weapons Lab, China Lake -- where Sensor / Smart Plane / Smart Bomb combinations are developed, and wired together to test their real-world, realtime performance - including full-scale, in-lab mock-ups prior to flying. Now, let’s unpack that statement… Full-scale – because it takes a nanosecond (.000000001) for an electron to travel along 1 foot of computer cable. And, in digital warfare, nanosecond precision is essential. So, you must test with full-scale distances between sensors, plane, and bombs. In-Lab Mock-ups – because in-flight testing costs more than 25 times as expensive as in-lab, mock-up tests. Sensors – because these “eyes and ears” are our current technological edge. Smart Planes – because air power is the US’s preferred tool for power projection. Smart Bombs – because they’re more precise and limit collateral damage. Combinations – because there are nine sensors, seven airframes, and many kinds of weapons available to accomplish various missions. Wired together – because it takes integrated software to make the sensors, plane, and bombs talk to each other. Test real-world, real-time performance – because it’s all just theory until this happens, and it only happens at China Lake. WIRED TOGETHER i.e., an example of Weapons and Systems Integration Every eyeball , lightening bolt , and brain , represents a piece of software code written and tested in fullscale, in-lab mock-ups at China Lake. Interpret Threat Input Find Possible Targets Identify Target Lock-on Target Pass target to weapon Fire weapon Enroute weapon adjustments Assess Damage Non-Threats Mission Compute r THREATS Off Aircraft Sensors – Seals, Satellites, other aircraft IN LAB MOCK-UPS EW SUITE Network RADAR Pt Mugu Ranges FLIR Reconnaissance China Lake Ranges Actual F/A-18 avionics, computers, sensors, and controls Access to open air range Existing range target set Full scale Hi-fidelity simulation of aircraft Real, live targets Efficient Cost saving Effective Non-intrusive testing COMBINATIONS Sensors Infrared Targeting Infrared Search Radar Planes EA-18G F/A-18 E/F F/A-18 C/D New generation Radar Electronic Warfare Passive signal location & ID F/A-18 A/B F/A-18 A+ Weapons Laser guided GPS guided Inertial guided Radar guided Infrared guided Anti-radiation Electronic Warfare Jamming and deceiving Ballistic Laser designation & tracking Air-to-Air (In-close “dog fighting” & beyond visual range) Visual Anti-Ship Data link from otheraircraft, ground troops, ships, satellites, etc. Bunker & Cave Penetrators Software Typically 50 or more microprocessors in an aircraft requiring software Aircraft operational flight programs. Subsystem operational flight programs Data files of threat characteristics Weapon internal operational flight programs Anti-armor Anti-personnel Lots of possible combinations. But, each combination requires Weapons and Systems Integration; i.e., writing software code to make the sensors, plane, and bombs talk to one another. Over 10 million lines of software code, so far, in the F/A-18! SENSORS AND NETWORK CENTRIC WARFARE All targeting/sensor information is shared via high speed “data link” Gives battlefield commander excellent “picture” of battle Gives aircrew “situational awareness” of all threats Provides threat data that “own-ship” sensors can’t detect Improves survivability Provides many attack options Efficient target location, identification, tracking, attack, and damage assessment F/A-18 SOFTWARE SIZE 60000 50000 KWords 40000 30000 20000 10000 0 Early A/B * Estimated A/B Early C/D Late C/D Early E/F Late E/F* PROGRESSION & GROWTH OF F/A-18 WARFIGHTING CAPABILITY Upgrade to Radar 1993 Legacy New Computers 1995 New reconnaissance capacity New capability Radar & Infrared 1997 Upgrade to Stores Management Computers 2019 2001 2003 - 2004 Continued Foreign Military Sales Upgrades F/A-18E/F C++ Language Upgrade Electronic Warfare Suite Lots of technological advances & technology insertion. New Network Data Line Next Technology F/A-18 IPT MANPOWER AND SPACE MANPOWER Civil service 240 man years Local contractors 175 man years On-site prime contractors 25 man years Off-site contractors: 250 man years (Boeing A&MS, Raytheon, & other contractors) SPACE Office (including on-site contractors) Hangar 5 72,887 square feet 49,680 Software Bldg 8,692 Foreign Military Sales (FMS) building 4,000 FMS Trailers 5,068 Test Support 1,848 Boeing 3,599 Laboratories 19,720 square feet TESTED ON THE FINEST RANGES IN THE WORLD • 353 Days of Unlimited Visibility a Year • Full Spectrum Testing • Joint Testing WORLD CLASS • Winner of the CrossTalk 2001 Top 5 U.S. Government Quality Software Projects • • • From CrossTalk January 2002 “These top five projects were selected from 87 nominations in this first event. They demonstrate how competent software project teams go about building successful products” “This is a very large, real-time operational system that has made significant improvement in cost, schedule, and quality.” • • Awarded for 15C System Configuration Set. Dr. Jack Ferguson a Top 5 Judge April 2005 F/A-18 AWL Software Development Task Team achieved a level 5 Maturity rating. This is the very first in the Navy. AWL PROCESSES • F/A-18 SWDTT • March 2005 – Achieved highest Software Capability Maturity Rating possible which is a level 5 They are only organization in the Navy to have done so. • Better than commercial industry in Cost/SLOC, when normalized to DoD requirements, and continually improving • Defined 110 processes used at the F/A-18 & EA-18G AWL • Processes are documented in the “F/A-18 & EA-18G Advanced Weapons Laboratory Management and Systems Engineering Process Manual” OTHER PROCESS DOCUMENTS System Life Cycle Plan For F/A-18 Aircraft F/A-18 MGMT & Systems Engineering Process Manual Strategic Action Initiative (SAI) AWL Training Plan AWL PPQA Plan AWL CM Plan Projects Systems Eng. Mgt. Plan PROCESS TAILORING Project Information AWL’s Standard Process TAILOR PROCESS External Outputs FOR PROJECT Lessons Learned captured Project’s Defined Process (SEMP) Instantiate Forms FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTS DOCUMENT FRD Functional Requirements Tree Functional Requirements Sheets Operational Intent Statement of Requirements Statement of Functionality Statement of Limitations PROCESS MANAGEMENT • Methodology for defining, managing and improving the AWL Standard processes and templates ASSESS IMPROVE DEFINE SDR PROCESS Entry Criteria: Preliminary Agenda, CDRL items, Input (supplier): Preliminary FRD, Documentation, SCR held, Risks, Hazards, Traceability matrix, System Design SCR package, CDRL, Documents (informal, Design) Responsibility Process Signing Authority for SDR Block Manager Design Agent Task Team Enter Prepare SDR Materials And Package SOR Team Hold the System Design Review Prepare memo, minutes, action items Exit Present Info for each SOR FMS Case Manager Exit Criteria: SDR actions & closure, Memo, review minutes, risks ID, SDR key issues dispositioned Output (customer): Customer is satisfied and feels the design is complete CAPABILITY MATURITY MODEL integration (CMMi) v 1.1 • The model consists of best practices that address the development and maintenance of products and services covering the product life cycle from conception through delivery and maintenance. • Evolved from earlier Process Models • The Capability Maturity Model for Software (SW-CMM) version 2.0 draft C • The Systems Engineering Capability Model (SECM) • The Integrated Product Development Capability Maturity Model (IPD-CMM) version 0.98 • Information Technology - Software life cycle Processes (ISO/IEC 12207) • Information Technology – Software Process Assessment (ISO/IEC 15504) CMMi STRUCTURE CMMi Process Area Process Area Purpose Statement Process Area Process Area Introductory Notes * * * * * Related Process Area Specific Goals Generic Goals Typical Work Products Specific Practices Generic Practice Elaborations Subpractices Generic Practices WHY IS A MODEL IMPORTANT? • A model provides a template for processes • • • • • Structure in which to define a process Utilizes other organization’s successes Provides organizations a common language Framework for process improvement activities Allows an organization to adopt model’s goals • A model founded upon widely-accepted practices • It has a proven track record of benefits • Allows organizations to build on other’s successes WHY USE CMMi? • The purpose of CMMi: To provide guidance for improving your organization’s processes and your ability to manage the development, acquisition, and maintenance of products or services • CMMi is a Model by which, an organization can: • Examine the effectiveness of their processes • Establish priorities for improvement • Help guide an organization in the implementation of these improvements • The Over-arching Purpose: To help a business be successful avoiding pitfalls experienced by other businesses and building on their successes. How does Six Sigma relate to CMM/CMMI? • Not a replacement for CMM/CMMI – Six Sigma works with it • Six Sigma • Methodology to organize the tools of the trade • Addresses the root causes of the lack of needed change • CMMI emphasis on what should be done not how to do it • Six Sigma supplies a specific how – method for applying measurement and analysis to problem solving • DMAIC – process improvement context of CMMI MA • DFSS – tied to project execution view • Six Sigma puts emphasis on understanding/managing performance outcomes • CMMI puts emphasis on compliance activities WHAT IS SIX SIGMA? Lean Six Sigma Theory of Contraints Specify customer value Identify value stream Achieve Flow Define Measure Analyze Establish Pull System Seek Perfection Improve Control Identify the Constraint Exploit the constraint Subordinate everything else to the constraint Elevate the constraint Avoid inertia Mathematical Concept Control Variance and you control Quality of your processes & product 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 Sigma 5 6 Sigma Yi N Yi+1 Variance = SLOC Yi+2 Yi+3 Yi+4 1 2 3 4 5 6 Defects i=1 (Xi – M)2 (N – 1) Xi = Measurement N = Number of measurements M = Mean NAVAIR AIRSpeed PROJECTED WORKFORCE REQUIREMENT BEFORE PRODUCTIVITY IMPROVEMENTS CIV / MIL / CSS END-STRENGTH 40,000 AIRSpeed PRODUCTIVITY APPROACH 35,000 30,000 IMPLEMENT BEST COMMERCIAL PRACTICES TO MAXIMIZE RESOURCE INVESTMENTS: • LEAN • SIX SIGMA • THEORY OF CONSTRAINTS WORKFORCE REQUIREMENT WITH PRODUCTIVITY IMPROVEMENTS 25,000 DEPLOY TRAINING PLAN COMPETENCIES/PEOs SEMDP CIRRICULUM NEW HIRES 20,000 15,000 FY04 FY05 FY06 FY07 FY08 FY09 INTEGRATE WITH WORKFORCE SHAPING AND NCDPs TO MAXIMIZE ENABLING EFFECT INTERFACE WITH ERP, IMD & TPTK Everyone Understanding It and Using It Every Day NAVAIR AIRSpeed Six Sigma Deployment AIRSpeed is the application of Lean, Six Sigma, and Theory of Constraints tools to increase productivity and efficiency. NAVAL AVIATION ENTERPRISE AIRSpeed Depot AIRSpeed (Lean, Six Sigma, TOC) • Depot-Wide • Led by COs/AIR-6.0 • Depot processes only • Rollout to 3 sites • Processes as required Enterprise AIRSpeed (Lean, Six Sigma, TOC) • Fleet-Wide Repair Sites & Processes • Led by O-6 ESC • O-I-D + Supply Chain • Links to NAVRIIP • Rollout schedule • AIR-3.3 Coord. Office NAVAIR AIRSpeed (LeanSixSigma) • Corporate/Competency Processes • Led by AAG/EDB Guidance • Enabled by AIRSpeed Core Team • Links with Enterprise & Depot AIRSpeed • Pull by Competencies/PEOs LeanSixSigma George Group SIX SIGMA DEPLOYMENT Executives / BU Leadership • Owns vision, direct, integration, results • Leads change Project Team Members • Provide projectspecific support • Part time Master Black Belts • Trains and coaches Black Belts and Six Sigma Green Belts • Leads large/complex projects • Full time Deployment Champions • Leads business unit performance improvement • Full time All Employees • Understand vision • Apply concepts to their job and work area Green Belts • Participate on Black Belts teams and/or lead small projects • Part time on projects Project Sponsors Black Belts • Leads and Facilitates problem solving • Trains and coaches Project Teams • Full-time • • • • Project owner Implements solutions Owns financial results Part time as part of job THE PROCESS 3 Distinct & Separate & Independent Processes Responsible: MBB, DC, Level IIs, PS Top Down Value Streams 1 Proposed Project Ideas Rack & Stack Grade Projects Select Projects Assign Project Sponsor Identify Team Bottoms-Up Ideas Project Creation/Selection/Preparation(Continuous) Projects(maybe) Team members Depart Responsible: PS, Org Reassess Restudy Sustainment Continuously Measure Replicate Responsible: MB, BB, TMs, PS, DC Conduct Study DMAIC 2 Charter & Team Assign BlackBelt Active Study Blackbelt Departs BlackBelt Generation process 3 NAVAIR AIRSpeed BENEFIT Categories • Type 1: Hard savings can be readily identified to BLIs for return to Navy/DoD for recapitalization • Type 2: Resources are freed-up that may be reassigned to other value-added work • Type 3: Intangible benefits DMAIC Road Map Define Measure Analyze Improve Identify and Implement Quick Improvements with Kaizen Kaizen, 5S, NVA Analysis, Generic Pull Systems, Four Step Rapid Setup Method Control CONCLUSION • Judicious and intelligent use of processes can help to achieve business goals • Processes have a proven record in industry and the military sector • AIRSpeed and CMMi are not in conflict but are supplemental to each other • If we are to survive in the future as leaders, we must integrate processes into our business practices.