Michael Cheang, DrPH, CFLE
Family and Consumer Sciences Department
University of Hawaii at Manoa
Acknowledgement and thank you
Rebecca Goodman
Director
Osher Lifelong Learning Institute
University of Hawai’i at Manoa
Content Analysis
• A data collection technique used in social
science
• Going back and systematically looking over
existing data or records for themes and patterns
• Data may provide insights that usual evaluation
questions sometimes do not ask
Possible Sources of Data
for Content Analysis
• Speeches made by past presidents
• Reviewing journal entries or diaries
• Examining accounting records
• Reviewing newspaper articles
• Surveying collection of old photographs in archives
• University course offerings
Content Analysis – Selected References
Hodder, I. (1994). The interpretation of documents and material
culture. Thousand Oaks, CA.: Sage Publications.
Krippendorff, K. (2004). Content Analysis: An introduction to its
Methodology. (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage
Publications
Holsti, O. R. (1969). Content Analysis for the Social Sciences and
Humanities. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
Stemler, S. (2001). An Overview of Content Analysis. Practical
Assessment, Research & Evaluation 7 (17).
Besides usual variables for program evaluation,
other variables from a content analysis may also
be useful:
•
•
•
•
•
Types and frequency of courses offered
Methods of course delivery
Accessibility (Where, distance, time offered)
Costs (Course, membership, entrance fees)
Appropriate use and ambience of space used
for classes
Surveyed course offerings
From 1996 - 2014
Types and frequency of courses
Modes of delivery
OLLI – University of Hawaii at Manoa
2012 - 2013 participants: 1,017
Comparing Hawaii to national survey
ElderLearning Survey (ES):
Lamdin, L.S. (1997). Elderlearning: New Frontier in An Aging
Society. American Council on Education. Oryx Press, Phoenix, AZ.
• 1995-1996, all 50 states
• 3,600 mailed (AARP, Elderhostel, Institutes for Learning in
Retirement)
• 860 used for analysis
ES
OLLI Hawaii
Females – 67.2%, Females – 68%
Males – 32.8%
Males – 32%
Film studies instructor’s comment on so few men….
The program director jokingly told her to offer more
“cowboy films.”
Her Summer 2014 course, “Westerns: The American
Monomyth”,
attracted 31 people, 23 (or 77%) are men.
Age Distribution by Gender (2012 – 2013)
n = 1,017 (68% females, 32% males)
50
43
45
40
P
e
r
c
e
n
t
Female
Male
35
35
30
25
18
20
19
17 17
15
12 12
10
5
7
1 1
3
1
7
4
3
0
50 - 55
56 - 60
61 - 65
66 - 70
Age range
71 - 75
76 - 80
81 - 85
86+
35
30
Age distribution of
Elder Learning
Survey, 1996
25
20
15
10
5
0
55 - 59 60 - 64 65 - 69 70 - 74 75 - 79 80 - 84 85 - 89 90 - 95
96+
70
60
50
Age distribution of
OLLI Hawai’i, 2013
40
30
20
10
0
50 - 55 56 - 60 61 - 65 66 - 70 71 - 75 76 - 80 81 - 85
86+
Distribution by Ethnicity (percent)
8
Other
2
Latino/Hispanic American
9
Korean-American
10
Chinese-American
30
Japanese-American
41
Caucasian
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
100
94.1
90
ES
80
Distribution
by Ethnicity:
Comparing
ES and
Hawaii
Hawaii
70
60
49
50
41
40
30
20
10
0
2 0.01
0.8
0.4 2
1.4 0
1.2
8
Getting to Classes
Mode of Transportation (Percent)
2
Other
3
Handi-Van
4
Walk
16
Campus Shuttle
18
Car Pool
25
City Bus
32
Drive
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
Course Offerings (1996 – 2014)
• Total offered: 968
• Average each year: 69
• Average class size (limited by space): 35
• Courses typically have between two – six sessions or
meetings
• Course evaluation administered at end of each course
• Course offerings and design guided by feedback and
suggestions by participants
Lecture with
AV
lab, physical
presentation
activity Other & Field trip
3%
2%
2%
Seminar,
workshop
8%
Field Trip
9%
Audiovisual
presentation
& discussion
12%
Community
events
12%
Lecture
29%
Small group
discussion
23%
Mode of
Delivery
Diversity of Interests in Course Offerings
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Wayang Kulit: Shadow Theater of Java
The Illuminated Life
What’s So Funny? A Study in Humor
Living Your Dying
Psychology and Shakespeare: Reciprocal Insights
Freudian and Hawaiian Concepts of Personality
Japanese Career Women
Brain Attack: A Stroke Survivor's Perspective
Diversity of Interests in Course Offerings
•
•
•
•
•
•
In the Company of Trees
Hawaiian Landslides: Large and Small
Astronomy: Stairways to the Universe
Ride to the Bottom of the Sea
Architect's View of Honolulu: Downtown Walking Tour
Neurorealism: Bridging Brain, Mind, Science, Religion
Diversity of Interests in Course Offerings
Feminism and American Clubwomen
Fundamentals of Health and Nutrition
Seeds of Belief
Ethnobotany: Hawaiian Plants
Nightingales and Magpies: Voices Out of Contemporary
China
• Elizabethan Playwrights
• Astronomy: Galaxy Formation and Evolution
•
•
•
•
•
Diversity of Interests in Course Offerings
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
My Father's Life in India
Peru Series: History, Mummies, Arts, Cuisine
Tour of Peru
Politics of Food Production: Our Daily Bread
Almodovar: Brown Bag Cinema Series I
Energy Saving Architecture
Antony and Cleopatra: Shakespeare Discussion
Great Sea Battles: Turning Points in History
Diversity of Interests in Course Offerings
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Travelogues: Galapagos, Bhutan, Spain
Physics Theories of Space and Time
The Art of Rice: Spirit and Sustenance in Asia
Arman Manookian's Modernism: HAA Tour
Marc Chagall: Arabian Nights HAA Tour
What Does Intuition Look Like
Glimpse the Future of Telecommunications
Memory Improvement Strategies
Data Analysis
Compiling list of
courses from
course catalogs
into Microsoft
Excel
Reviewer 1:
1st round of
coding
Reviewer 2:
1st round of
coding
Reviewers 1 + 2:
Agreement of codings,
refinement of category
names
Data Analysis
968 courses
1st round of
coding – 21
and 17
categories
2nd round of
coding – 12
categories
12 Categories of Course Offerings
Art, Literature, Music
Writing and journaling, life review
Health, Wellness and Gerontology
Philosophy, Religion and Spirituality
Travel, international topics
History and Social Science
Math and Science
Skills building
Politics, Current Affairs
Community Service, volunteerism, leadership (active
engagement)
Local, regional, cultural issues
Languages
Percent
29.9
12.1
9.3
9.2
9.2
8.1
6.5
5.7
4.2
2.9
2.0
1.0
What Elders Choose to Learn
ES
Hawaii
%
Music, art, dance, arts-related
1 Art, Literature, Music
29.9
Travel or travel related
2 Writing and journaling, life review
12.1
Literature, drama, humanities
3 Health, Wellness and Gerontology
9.3
Politics, foreign affairs, current events
4 Philosophy, Religion and Spirituality
9.2
History, family history, genealogy
5 Travel, international topics
9.2
Health and Nutrition
6 History and Social Science
8.1
Philosophy
7 Math and Science
6.5
Computers, new technologies
8 Skills building
5.7
Finances, financial planning, investing
9 Politics, Current Affairs
4.2
Sports, leisure, recreation
10
Community Service, volunteerism,
leadership (active engagement)
2.9
Discussion
Course offerings driven by:
1. Feedback from participants
2. A new instructor or peer instructor from our
volunteer corps steps forward to offer a
class or workshop on a topic of particular
interest to her or him.
Evaluation variables besides
satisfaction measures?
• Goodness of fit: expressed interests vs. offerings
• Taking advantage of known strengths and local
resources – astronomy, geology and volcanology,
marine science, Asian Studies, etc.
• Accessibility and affordability? Scholarships and
waivers
• Frequency of offerings?
• Human scale
Excerpts from evaluation data
“I never figured that Dante’s Divine
Comedy could be so much fun!
Every class we stared right into the depths
of hell and laughed so much that my
cheeks ached. I appreciate Dave’s
instructional style and I love OLLI…”
From: Dante’s Divine Comedy, Spring 2012
Excerpts from evaluation data
“After a late-life divorce, I was seeking new friends and
meaningful work to keep me grounded and focused.
This OLLI workshop was exactly what I needed. It’s
given me real hope for the future. There’s joy, too; I even
break out in song now.
Thanks to this OLLI class, I see myself a bit more clearly
than I used to. I have found good connections and
intellectual companionship here…”
From: Turning Leaves: Seasons Workshop, Summer
2012
Excerpts from evaluation data
“As I grow older and friends and
relatives disappear from my life, it
is so good to come to OLLI – a
place where the talk is stimulating,
the people are full of good cheer,
and we celebrate learning and
life. I love OLLI. It is a treasure to
me.”
From: English Queens, Summer 2012
Excerpts from evaluation data
“I’m always enchanted by the
astronomy classes at OLLI. The
group discussions are great and
the instructor’s Socratic methods
encourage us to think, reflect,
and conduct our own research.”
From: Stars, Stones and Time,
Spring 2012
Excerpts from evaluation data
“This program is valuable to
me for social and mental
stimulation. Please continue it
forever (or at least as long as
I’m alive)….”
From: Culinary Cinema, Spring 2012
Excerpts from evaluation data
“This class has been terrific. I learned
that with U.S. presidential elections,
there’s been turmoil, name-calling and
dirty tricks from the beginning of the
country. It’s good to be reminded that
we’ve survived some awful and
destructive times and politics. I love the
classes at OLLI. Keep up the good
work.”
From: Key Presidential Elections, Fall 2012
Discussion
• While quantitative data are important for program
reporting, funding, etc.,
• Qualitative data suggest the significance of other
important roles the OLLI program can play in
lives of older adults
Provide safe venue for social interaction,
friendship, play, laughter, belonging, healing,
etc.
Reflections
•
•
•
•
•
•
Process, content, outcome from gerontology
perspective – Awareness of age related changes, and
being mindful
Physical environment conducive to changes of aging
process - vision and hearing
Small classes (lectures, workshops, book club, etc.)
Participant, peer driven (evaluation)
Mode of delivery consistent over time
All of above make it possible for interaction and
socialization
Reflections
•
•
•
New cohorts of younger members
Not all elders can afford high costs of fees (diversity of
income levels)
The role of OLLI? Lifelong learning as it relates of
quality of life
Selected References
Aday, R. H.; Kehoe, G. C. & Farney, L. A. (2006). Impact of senior center
friendships on aging women who live alone. Journal of Women and Aging,
18(1), 57-73.
Creswell, J. W. (2013). Qualitative Inquiry and research design. Choosing among
five approaches. 3rd Ed. Sage Publications
Fernandez, R.; Caprara, M.; Schettini, R.; Bustillos, A.; Mendoza Nunez, V.; Orosa,
T.; Kornfield, R.; Macarena, R.; Lopez, M.; Santacreu, L. Molina, M.; &
Zamora, M. (2013). Effects of university programs for older adults: Changes
in cultural and group stereotype, self-perception of aging, and emotional
balance. Educational Gerontology, 39(2), 119-131.
Lamdin, L.S. (1997). Elderlearning: New Frontier in An Aging Society. American
Council on Education. Oryx Press, Phoenix, AZ.
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