Hello, how are you? Fine thanks, and you? How are you? Peachy keen! Flying high Fair to middling Old enough to know better Even better than the real thing Not so dusty Fine and dandy Super Duper!! Just happy to be above ground. Pretty nifty Still among the living! Not so hot Wonderful Pretty decent Better than yesterday! Couldn’t be better A better question would be, "Why are you?" Hopefully not as good as I'll ever be Not my usual self Couldn't be better Absolutely knackered Can't complain I'm in tip top shape Rough I was OK until I saw you Still keeping up with the kids! From what I hear, I’m very good. Our obsession with method Why look at language? • Purpose • Language itself • Geography EFL and ESL EIC and ELF • English as a lingua franca (ELF) can be defined as “an additionally acquired language system which serves as a common means of communication for speakers of different first languages”. ELF is also “defined functionally by its use in intercultural communication rather than formally by its reference to native-speaker norms. • What makes ELF a novel phenomenon is the extent to which it is used – both functionally and geographically. A typical ELF conversation may involve an Italian and a Dane chatting at a coffee break of an international conference held in Brussels or a Spanish tourist asking a local for the way in Berlin. Whose English? • In a world in which more than three-quarters of all English speakers are non-native, ownership of the English language has clearly shifted from the UK the USA. • Most communication in English today is between non-native speakers, who usually accept non-standard grammar and pronunciation as long as communication remains clear. • Many nonnative English speakers report easier communication in English with other non-native speakers than with native speakers who are less tolerant of errors, differences in pronunciation, and non-standard grammar. They are also less skilled in achieving successful communication because of these obstacles. Which English? Language and culture 1 A Canadian manager has been posted to the Athens office of his organization. He is assigned a Greek secretary. On a daily basis, he assigns work to her. One day, she complains to a colleague, 'I wish he would just tell me what to do instead of asking me. After all, he's the boss and I'm here to do what he wants.' Sociopragmatic Competence allowing options (or giving the appearance of allowing options) is absolutely central to Western notions of politeness.... In the Canadian-Greek case, the two parties have not yet negotiated a shared set of norms. To her, the Canadian boss seems insincere - why pretend that she has a choice? Why not simply tell her to do the typing? In short, she does not interpret her boss’s requests as acts of politeness. Language and culture 2 On a visit to Seoul, I found that the telephone in my room wasn't working properly. Since I couldn't phone anyone for assistance, I went down to the hotel concierge to request her to ask housekeeping to send someone to collect a bag of laundry from my room and to arrange for a technician to come and fix the telephone. The concierge immediately acted upon my request, and having called housekeeping, she said to me: 'I think you had better wait in your room.' Pragmalinguistic competence • In the Korean example, when the concierge said 'I think you had better wait in your room', she was using a form of words which, as far as her guest was concerned, did not quite match her intentions. The speaker could have used a tentatively expressed suggestion, such as: ' If you'd like to wait in your room, someone will be along shortly.' 'Perhaps you could wait in your room until someone comes from housekeeping.' 'Someone will come to your room shortly.' • By using such conventionally polite suggestions, the speaker would not have given the impression of imposing on the hearer. In this way, the speaker's language would have matched her intentions. Anecdote - Martin Parrott New language • • • • • • • affluenza baggravation captcha daycation elancer flexitarian jumbrella Which do you already know? Which can you guess? It’s not what we say! • Where shall we meet? ___________ the cinema. • Is there any milk in the fridge? No, __________________ • I met John in the pub a couple of days ago, and he ______________ (tell) me about Dave and Mary. Rules? What rules? Estuary English • • • • • • • football becomes ["fU?bO:o] ('foo'baw') take i' off Happoi, valloi Choosday, choon Fink, muvver Should of innit Spoken Grammar The teaching of grammar is based on written examples and on a proscriptive approach to ‘correct’ English. Consideration by teachers of spoken English shows that learners need to be given choices between written and spoken grammar, that the interpersonal implications of spoken grammar are important, and that methodologically inductive learning is more appropriate than the Presentation-Practice-Production approaches adopted in books.