Sanitary Facilities and Equipment
11-1
Apply Your Knowledge: Test Your Food Safety Knowledge
1. True or False: A hose attached to a utility-sink faucet and
left sitting in a bucket of dirty water could contaminate the
water supply.
2. True or False: There must be a minimum of twenty footcandles of light (215 lux) in a food preparation area.
3. True or False: Handwashing stations are required in
dishwashing and service areas.
4. True or False: When mounted on legs, stationary
equipment must be at least two inches (five centimeters)
off the floor.
5. True or False: Grease on an establishment’s ceiling can
be a sign of inadequate ventilation.
11-2
Designing or Remodeling a Facility: Kitchen Layout
A well-designed kitchen will
address:

Workflow

It must minimize the amount of
time food spends in the temperature
danger zone

It must minimize the number of
times food is handled
11-3
Designing or Remodeling a Facility: Kitchen Layout
A well-designed kitchen will
address: continued


Contamination

The risk of cross-contamination
must be minimized

Dirty equipment should not be
placed where it will touch clean
equipment or food
Equipment accessibility

All equipment must be easily
accessible for cleaning
11-4
Designing or Remodeling a Facility: The Plan Review
Design plans may require
approval by:

The local regulatory agency

The zoning or building department
The plan should include:

A proposed layout and mechanical plans

Type of construction materials to be
used

Types or models of proposed equipment

Specifications for utilities, plumbing, and
ventilation
11-5
Materials for Interior Construction: Flooring
When selecting flooring, consider
the porosity of the material:

Porosity is the extent to which a material
will absorb liquids

Flooring that is highly porous (absorbent)
should be avoided since it:

Creates an ideal environment for
microorganisms

Can cause slips and falls

Can become easily damaged
11-6
Materials for Interior Construction: Flooring
Nonporous flooring should
be used in:

Walk-in refrigerators

Food-preparation areas

Dishwashing areas

Restrooms

Other areas subject to moisture,
flushing, or spray-cleaning
11-7
Nonporous Resilient Flooring
Includes:

Rubber tile

Vinyl tile
Advantages:

Relatively inexpensive

Can withstand shock

Easy to clean and maintain

Capable of handling heavy traffic

Resistant to grease and alkalis

Easy to repair or replace
11-8
Hard Surface Flooring
Includes:

Quarry and ceramic tile

Brick

Terrazzo and marble

Hardwood
Advantages:

Nonabsorbant

Very durable

Excellent choice for restrooms
and high-soil areas
11-9
Special Flooring Needs
Coving:

A curved, sealed edge placed
between the floor and wall

It eliminates sharp corners or gaps
that would be impossible to clean

It must adhere tightly to the wall to:

Eliminate hiding places for pests

Prevent moisture from deteriorating
the wall
11-10
Handwashing Stations
Handwashing stations must be
conveniently located and are
required in:

Restrooms

Food-preparation areas

Service areas

Dishwashing areas
11-11
Handwashing Stations
Handwashing stations
must be equipped with:

Hot and cold
running water

Liquid, bar, or
powdered soap

A means to dry hands

A waste container

Signage indicating
employees must
wash hands
Handwashing
Signage
Handwashing
Disposable Towels
Signage
Soap
Warm-Air
Dryer
Hot &
Cold
Water
Waste Container
11-12
Apply Your Knowledge: What’s Missing?
What’s missing from this
handwashing station?
11-13
Sanitation Standards for Equipment: Surfaces
Purchase equipment with foodcontact surfaces that are:

Safe and durable

Corrosion resistant

Nonabsorbent

Sufficient in weight and thickness
to withstand repeated cleaning

Smooth and easy to clean

Resistant to pitting, chipping,
scratching, and decomposition
11-14
Sanitation Standards for Equipment: NSF and UL
Look for the following marks
when purchasing equipment:


NSF International mark:
Equipment has been evaluated,
tested, and certified as meeting
international commercial food
equipment standards
Underwriters Laboratory
(UL) marks:
Equipment is in compliance with
NSF standards or UL’s own
environmental and public health
(EPH) standards
11-15
Selecting and Installing Dishwashing Machines
When selecting and installing
dishwashing machines:

Water pipes to the machine should be
as short as possible to prevent heat loss

Install the machine at least 6 inches
(15 centimeters) off the floor to permit
easy cleaning underneath

Post information regarding water
temperature, conveyor speed, and
chemical concentration on or near
the machine

Position the machine so its thermometer
is readable
11-16
Installing Stationary Equipment
Stationary equipment should be:

Mounted on legs at least 6 inches
(15 centimeters) off the floor
OR

Sealed to a masonry base
Legs
6” Min.
Floor
Masonry
Base
Sealant
11-17
Installing Stationary Tabletop Equipment
Stationary tabletop equipment
should be:

Mounted on legs with a minimum
4-inch (10 centimeter) clearance
between the equipment base and
tabletop
OR

The equipment should be tiltable or
sealed to the countertop with a foodgrade sealant
11-18
Cantilever-Mounted Equipment
Cantilever-mounted equipment is:

Attached to the wall or to a mount
with a bracket

Easier to clean underneath
and behind
11-19
Maintaining Equipment
Once equipment has been properly
installed:

It must receive regular maintenance

It must be maintained by qualified
personnel

Follow the manufacturers’ recommended
maintenance schedule
11-20
Water Supply
Acceptable sources of
potable water include:

Approved public water mains

Regularly tested private sources

Bottled drinking water

Closed, portable water containers filled with
potable water

Water in on-premise water-storage tanks

Water transport vehicles
that are properly maintained
11-21
Water Supply: Interruption
If the water supply is interrupted:

Use bottled water

Boil water (if allowed)

Purchase ice

Use boiled water for handwashing and
essential cleaning

Consider using single-use items to
minimize dishwashing
11-22
Plumbing
Only licensed plumbers should:

Install plumbing systems

Install grease traps

Repair leaks from overhead pipes
11-23
Plumbing: Cross-Connections and Backflow
Cross Connection

Physical link through which
contaminants from drains, sewers,
and other wastewater sources can
enter the potable water supply
Backflow
Backflow

Reverse flow of contaminants
through a cross-connection
into the potable water supply
11-24
Plumbing: Backflow Prevention
Backflow Prevention Methods
Vacuum breaker
Air gap
Air Gap
Flood Rim
Air Gap
11-25
Sewage
A backup of raw sewage
is cause for:

Immediate closure

Correction of the problem

Thorough cleaning
11-26
Lighting
To prevent lighting from
contaminating food, use:

Shatter-resistant light bulbs

Protective covers made of metal
mesh or plastic

Shields for heat lamps
11-27
Ventilation
Ventilation Systems:

If adequate, there will be little buildup
of grease and condensation
on walls and ceilings

Hoods, fans, guards, and ductwork
must not drip onto food or equipment

Hood filters and grease extractors
must be cleaned regularly

Hoods and ductwork must be cleaned
periodically by professionals
11-28
Garbage Disposal
Garbage:

Should be removed from foodpreparation areas as quickly as possible
to prevent pests and contamination

Should not be carried above or across
food-preparation areas.
11-29
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