Control Structures in C
Risanuri Hidayat, Ir., M.Sc.
Condition
Operator
Meaning
Example
==
Equal to
count == 10
!=
Not equal to
flag != DONE
<
Less than
a<b
<=
Less than or equal to
<= LIMIT
>
Greater than
pointer > end_of_list
>=
Greater than or equal to
lap >= start
Control Structures in C

These include
– ifelse,
– while,
– do-while,
– for, and a selection statement called
– switch.
if-else

The if-else statement can exist in two forms:
with or without the else. The two forms are:
if(expression)
statement

or
if(expression)
statement1
else
statement2
if-else

If
if (condition)
statement1;
else
statement2;
int a, b;
// ...
if(a < b) a = 0;
else b = 0;
Nested if

nested if adalah statement if yang
targetnya adalahjuga if atau else.
if (i == 10) {
if (j < 20) a = b;
if (k > 100) c = d; // this if is
else a = c; // associated with this else
}
else a = d; // this else refers to if(i == 10)
if-else-if Ladder

Bentuknya:
if(condition)
statement;
else if(condition)
statement;
else if(condition)
statement;
.
.
.
else
statement;
if-else-if Ladder
// Demonstrate if-else-if statements (IfElse.c).
#include <stdio.h>
main () {
int bulan = 4; // April
char season[10];
if(bulan == 12 || bulan == 1 || bulan == 2)
strcpy(season,"Salak");
else if(bulan == 3 || bulan == 4 || bulan == 5)
strcpy(season,"Durian");
else if(bulan == 6 || bulan == 7 || bulan == 8)
strcpy(season,"Mangga");
else if(bulan == 9 || bulan == 10 || bulan == 11)
strcpy(season,"Jeruk");
else
strcpy(season,"Mbuh");
printf("April adalah musim %s\n ",season);
}
switch

switch merupakan statement percabangan dengan banyak
cabang. Bentuknya seperti berikut:
switch (expression) {
case value1:
// statement sequence
break;
case value2:
// statement sequence
break;
.
.
.
case valueN:
// statement sequence
break;
default:
// default statement sequence
}
switch

expression harus bertype byte, short, int, or char;
// A simple example of the switch(switch.c)
#include <stdio.h>
main() {
int i;
for(i=0; i<6; i++)
switch(i) {
case 0:
printf("i is zero.\n");
break;
case 1:
printf("i is one.\n");
break;
case 2:
printf("i is two.\n");
break;
case 3:
printf("i is three.\n");
break;
default:
printf("i is greater than 3.\n");
} // switch
} // main
Nested switch

Kita dapat juga membuat statement switch di dalam switch yang
lain
switch(count) {
case 1:
switch(target) { // nested switch
case 0:
printf("target is zero");
break;
case 1: // no conflicts with outer switch
printf("target is one");
break;
} // switch(target)
break;
case 2: // ...
Iteration

while
 while loop merupakan dasar looping di C.
While akan mengulang statement jika
kondisi yang disyaratkan benar. Bentuk
statement while adalah:
while(condition) {
// body of loop
}
while
// Demonstrate the while loop (while.c).
#include <stdio.h>
main() {
int n = 10;
while(n > 0) {
printf("tick %d \n",n);
n--;
} // while
} // main
do-while

Sering kali dalam program kita membuat
instruksi terlebih dahulu baru kemudian
di-test hasilnya. Hal ini juga sering terjadi
dalam looping. C mm-fasilitasi hal ini
dengan do-while.
 Bentuknya sebagai berikut:
do {
// body of loop
} while (condition);
do-while
// Demonstrate the do-while loop (dowhile.c).
#include <stdio.h>
main() {
int n = 10;
do {
printf("tick %d \n",n);
n--;
} while(n > 0);
} // main
for
For merupakan statement loop yang
paling sering digunakan dalam
berbagai bahasa, termasuk C.
 Berikut ini bentuk umumnya:

for(initialization; condition; iteration) {
// body
}
for
// Demonstrate the for loop (loop.c).
#include <stdio.h>
main() {
int n;
for(n=10; n>0; n--)
printf("tick %d \n",n);
}
for
// Using the comma (comma.c)
#include <stdio.h>
main() {
int a, b;
for(a=1, b=4; a<b; a++, b--) {
printf("a = %d \n", a);
printf("b = %d \n", b);
}
}
Nested Loops

Like all other programming languages, C allows loops to be
nested. That is, one loop may be inside another. For
example, here is a program that nests for loops:
// Loops may be nested (nestedfor.c).
#include <stdio.h>
main() {
int i, j;
for(i=0; i<10; i++) {
for(j=i; j<10; j++)
printf(".");
printf("\n");
}
}
Jump

C supports four jump statements:
•
•
•
•

break,
continue,
return
goto.
These statements transfer control to
another part of your program.
break

In C, the break statement has two
uses.
– First, as you have seen, it terminates a
statement sequence in a switch
statement.
– Second, it can be used to exit a loop.
break
// Using break to exit a loop (break.c).
#include <stdio.h>
main() {
int i;
for(i=0; i<100; i++) {
if(i == 10) break; // terminate loop if i is 10
printf("i: %d \n", i);
}
printf("Loop complete.");
}
break
// Using break to exit a while loop (break2.c).
#include <stdio.h>
main() {
int i = 0;
while(i < 100) {
if(i == 10) break; // terminate loop if i is 10
printf("i: %d \n", i);
i++;
}
printf("Loop complete.");
}
continue

continue go immediately to next iteration of
loop
 In while and do-while loops, a continue
statement causes control to be transferred
directly to the conditional expression that
controls the loop.
 In a for loop, control goes first to the iteration
portion of the for statement and then to the
conditional expression.
continue
// Demonstrate continue (continue.c).
#include <stdio.h>
main() {
int i;
for(i=0; i<10; i++) {
printf("%d ", i);
if (i%2 == 0) continue;
printf("\n");
}
}
return

The return statement is used to explicitly
return from a method. That is, it causes
program control to transfer back to the
caller of the method.
 The following example illustrates this
point. Here, return causes execution to
return to the C, since it is the run-time
system that calls main( ).
return
// Demonstrate return (return.c).
#include <stdio.h>
main() {
int t = 1;
printf("Before the return.");
if(t==1) return; // return to caller
printf("This won't execute.");
}
goto
It is possible to jump to any statement
within the same function using goto.
 A label is used to mark the destination
of the jump.

goto label1;
:
:
label1:
goto
// Using continue with a label (goto.c).
#include <stdio.h>
main() {
int i,j;
for (i=0; i<10; i++) {
for(j=0; j<10; j++) {
if(j > i) {
printf("\n");
goto outer;
}
printf(" %d", (i * j));
}
outer: printf(".. outer ..\n");
}
}